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Coupling semiconductors with electrochemical processes can lead to unusual materials, and attractive, practical device configurations. This work examines the reaction mechanism for single-step electrodeposition approach that creates device quality copper-indium-selenide (CISe) films with either polycrystalline or nanocrystalline morphologies on Cu and steel foils, respectively. The polycrystalline CISe film grows from In3+/Se4+ solution on Cu foil as Cu→ CuxSe→ CuInSe2; it may be used in standard planar pn devices. The nanocrystalline CISe film grown from Cu+/In3+/Se4+ solution follows the CuSe(In)→ CuInSe2→ CuIn3Se5 sequence. The latter approach leads to naturally ordered, space-filling nanocrystals, comprising interconnected 3-dimensional network of sharp, abrupt, p-CISe/n-CISe bulk homojunctions with extraordinary electro-optical attributes. Sandwiching these films between band-aligned contact electrodes can lead to high performance third generation devices for solar cells, light emitting diodes or photoelectrodes for fuel cells. Both approaches produce self-stabilized CISe absorbers that avoid recrystallization steps and can be roll-to-roll processed in simple flexible thin-film form factor for easy scale-up.
Employing atomic-scale simulations, the response of a high-angle grain boundary (GB), the soft/hard GB, against external loading was systematically investigated. Under tensile loading close to the hard orientation, strain-induced dynamic recrystallization was observed to initiate through direct soft-to-hard grain reorientation, which was triggered by stress mismatch, inhibited by surface tension from the soft-hard GB, and proceeded by interface ledges. Such grain reorientation corresponds with expansion and contraction of the hard grain along and perpendicular to the loading direction, respectively, accompanied by local atomic shuffling, providing relatively large normal strain of 8.3% with activation energy of 0.04 eV per atom. Tensile strain and residual dislocations on the hard/soft GB facilitate the initiation of dynamic recrystallization by lowering the energy barrier and the critical stress for grain reorientation, respectively.
We illustrate the extraordinary potential of the (far-IR) Origins Survey Spectrometer (OSS) on board the Origins Space Telescope (OST) to address a variety of open issues on the co-evolution of galaxies and AGNs. We present predictions for blind surveys, each of 1000 h, with different mapped areas (a shallow survey covering an area of 10 deg2 and a deep survey of 1 deg2) and two different concepts of the OST/OSS: with a 5.9 m telescope (Concept 2, our reference configuration) and with a 9.1 m telescope (Concept 1, previous configuration). In 1 000 h, surveys with the reference concept will detect from ∼1.9×106 to ∼8.7×106 lines from ∼4.8×105 to 2.7×106 star-forming galaxies and from ∼1.4×104 to ∼3.8×104 lines from ∼1.3×104 to 3.5×104 AGNs. The shallow survey will detect substantially more sources than the deep one; the advantage of the latter in pushing detections to lower luminosities/higher redshifts turns out to be quite limited. The OST/OSS will reach, in the same observing time, line fluxes more than one order of magnitude fainter than the SPICA/SMI and will cover a much broader redshift range. In particular it will detect tens of thousands of galaxies at z ≥ 5, beyond the reach of that instrument. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons lines are potentially bright enough to allow the detection of hundreds of thousands of star-forming galaxies up to z ∼ 8.5, i.e. all the way through the reionisation epoch. The proposed surveys will allow us to explore the galaxy–AGN co-evolution up to z ∼ 5.5−6 with very good statistics. OST Concept 1 does not offer significant advantages for the scientific goals presented here.
The surface plasmon enhanced transmission of light though a plasmonic crystal provides a novel approach for fabricating an optical modulator. The extraordinary transmission passing though these patterned metallic films is very sensitive to the surface dielectric environment. In this study, hexagonal lattice plasmonic crystals were fabricated with a self-assembly technique. Arrays of gold nano-holes or bumps with 500/600 nm periodicity were used to test the sensitivity of plasmon resonance wavelength for liquids and polymers with different dielectric constants. A nonlinear optical polymer P3HT coated onto the plasmonic crystal and pumped with 475 nm laser was found to modulate the transmission of a normally incident red light at 670 nm.
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of supplementing different amounts of daidzein in a diet on the growth performance, blood biochemical parameters and meat quality of finishing beef cattle. Thirty finishing Xianan steers were distributed in three groups equilibrated by weight and fed three different dietary treatments (concentrate ratio = 80%): (1) control; (2) 500 mg/kg daidzein and (3) 1000 mg/kg daidzein, respectively. Steers were slaughtered after an 80-day feeding trial. Results showed that daidzein supplementation had no effect on the final body weight, average daily gain and feed conversion rate of steers. Steers fed with 1000 mg/kg daidzein had greater dry matter intake than those fed with control diets. Compared with the control group, the 1000 mg/kg daidzein group had a higher fat thickness, lower shear force and lightness. The pH, drip loss, cooking loss, redness (a*), yellowness (b*), moisture, ash, crude protein and intramuscular fat of the Longissimus dorsi muscle were unaffected by daidzein supplementation. Compared with the control group, the 1000 mg/kg daidzein group significantly increased the serum concentrations of insulin, free fatty acid and Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase. The 500 mg/kg daidzein group significantly increased the serum concentration of tetraiodothyronine compared with the control group. Supplemental daidzein did not affect the blood antioxidant ability and blood immune parameters in serum. In conclusion, daidzein supplementation above 500 mg/day modifies feed intake and metabolic and hormonal profile, with positive and negative effects on meat quality.
The present study deals with a theoretical investigation of a close-contact melting (CCM) process involving a vertical cylinder on a horizontal isothermal surface, where the liquid phase is a non-Newtonian viscoplastic fluid that behaves according to the Bingham model. Accordingly, a new approach is formulated based on the thin layer approximation and different quasi-steady process assumptions. By analytical derivation, an algebraic equation that relates the molten layer thickness and the solid bulk height is developed. The problem is then solved numerically, coupled with another equation for the melting rate. The new model shows that as the yield stress increases the melting rate decreases and the molten layer thickness increases. It is found that under certain conditions, the model can be reduced to a form that allows an analytical solution. The approximate model predicts an exponential dependence of both the melt fraction and the molten layer thickness. Comparison between the numerical and analytical solutions shows that the analytical approximation provides an excellent estimation for sufficiently large values of the yield stress. Dimensional analysis, which is supported by the analytical model results, reveals the dimensionless groups that govern the problem. For the general case, the melt fraction is a function of two dimensionless groups. For the analytical approximation, it is shown that the melt fraction is governed by a single dimensionless group and that the molten layer thickness is governed by two dimensionless groups.
Favourable body composition has been associated with higher dietary protein intake. However, little is known regarding this relationship in a population of Chinese Americans (CHA), who have lower BMI compared with other populations. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between dietary protein intake, fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) in CHA. Data were from the Chinese American Cardiovascular Health Assessment (CHA CHA) 2010–2011 (n 1707); dietary intake was assessed using an adapted and validated FFQ. Body composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. The associations between protein intake (% energy intake) and BMI, percentage FM (FM%), percentage FFM (FFM%), FM index (FMI) and FFM index (FFMI) were examined using multiple linear regression adjusted for age, sex, physical activity, acculturation, total energy intake, sedentary time, smoking status, education, employment and income. There was a significant positive association between dietary protein and BMI (B = 0·056, 95 % CI 0·017, 0·104; P = 0·005), FM (B = 0·106, 95 % CI 0·029, 0·184; P = 0·007), FM% (B = 0·112, 95 % CI 0·031, 0·194; P = 0·007) and FMI (B = 0·045, 95 % CI 0·016, 0·073; P = 0·002). There was a significant negative association between dietary protein and FFM% (B = −0·116, 95 % CI −0·196, −0·036; P = 0·004). In conclusion, higher dietary protein intake was associated with higher adiposity; however, absolute FFM and FFMI were not associated with dietary protein intake. Future work examining the relationship between protein source (i.e. animal) and body composition is warranted in this population of CHA.
There has been a lack of prevalence estimates of DSM-5 mental disorders in child populations at the national level worldwide. This study estimated the lifetime and 6-month prevalence of mental disorders according to the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria in Taiwanese children.
Taiwan's National Epidemiological Study of Child Mental Disorders used the stratified cluster sampling to select 69 schools in Taiwan resulting in a nationally representative sample of 4816 children in grades 3 (n = 1352), 5 (n = 1297) and 7 (n = 2167). All the participants underwent face-to-face psychiatric interviews using the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Epidemiological version, modified for the DSM-5, and they and their parents completed questionnaires. The inverse probability censoring weighting (IPCW)-adjusted prevalence was reported to minimise non-response bias.
The IPCW-adjusted prevalence rates of mental disorders decreased by 0.1–0.5% than raw weighted prevalence. The IPCW-adjusted weighted lifetime and 6-month prevalence rates for overall mental disorders were 31.6 and 25.0%, respectively. The most prevalent mental disorders (lifetime, 6-month) were anxiety disorders (15.2, 12.0%) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (10.1, 8.7%), followed by sleep disorders, tic disorders, oppositional defiant disorder and autism spectrum disorder. The prevalence rates of new DSM-5 mental disorders, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder and disruptive mood dysregulation disorder were low (<1%).
Our findings, similar to the DSM-IV prevalence rates reported in Western countries, indicate that DSM-5 mental disorders are common in the Taiwanese child population and suggest the need for public awareness, early detection and prevention.
An electromechanical coupling model is established for the space-tethered combination (STC) under microgravity environment after target capture by the tethered robot system (TRS). A linearized dynamic model of the STC is put forward with its controllability and observability as a control system analyzed. A double closed-loop tension control strategy is proposed to mitigate the impact and suing longitudinal vibration caused by the velocity difference between the platform and target. Experiment setup is built on a ground-based flotation platform to investigate the impact of the STC. Results of simulation and experimental validation show that the proposed tension control strategy is responsive and rapid in tension tracking and effectively prevent impact.
The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) publish recommendations for cancer prevention. The present study aimed to estimate the association between adherence to these cancer-specific prevention recommendations and subsequent development of cancer in a prospective cohort.
A composite adherence score was constructed based on questionnaire data to reflect overall adherence to WCRF/AICR lifestyle-related recommendations on body fatness, physical activity, diet and alcoholic drinks. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to assess the association (hazard ratio; 95 % CI) between the adherence score and risk of developing cancer.
Alberta’s Tomorrow Project, a prospective cohort study.
Men and women (n 25 100, mean age at enrolment 50·5 years) recruited between 2001 and 2009 with no previous cancer diagnosis were included in analyses.
Cancer cases (n 2066) were identified during a mean follow-up of 11·7 years. Participants who were most adherent to the selected WCRF/AICR recommendations (composite score: 4–6) were 13 % (0·87; 0·78, 0·98) less likely to develop cancer compared with those who were least adherent (composite score: 0–2). Each additional recommendation met corresponded to a 5 % (0·95; 0·91, 0·99) reduction in risk of developing cancer. When stratified by sex, the associations remained significant for women, but not for men.
Adherence to lifestyle-related cancer prevention recommendations was associated with reduced risk of developing cancer over the follow-up term in this Canadian cohort.
High unemployment is a hallmark of psychotic illness. Individual placement and support (IPS) may be effective at assisting the vocational recoveries of young people with first-episode psychosis (FEP).
To examine the effectiveness of IPS at assisting young people with FEP to gain employment (Australian and Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000094370).
Young people with FEP (n = 146) who were interested in vocational recovery were randomised using computer-generated random permuted blocks on a 1:1 ratio to: (a) 6 months of IPS in addition to treatment as usual (TAU) or (b) TAU alone. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 6 months (end of intervention), 12 months and 18 months post-baseline by research assistants who were masked to the treatment allocations.
At the end of the intervention the IPS group had a significantly higher rate of having been employed (71.2%) than the TAU group (48.0%), odds ratio 3.40 (95% CI 1.17–9.91, z = 2.25, P = 0.025). However, this difference was not seen at 12- and 18-month follow-up points. There was no difference at any time point on educational outcomes.
This is the largest trial to our knowledge on the effectiveness of IPS in FEP. The IPS group achieved a very high employment rate during the 6 months of the intervention. However, the advantage of IPS was not maintained in the long term. This seems to be related more to an unusually high rate of employment being achieved in the control group rather than a gross reduction in employment among the IPS group.
This article investigates the use of payments for environmental services to support a wildlife corridor between two Priority Tiger Conservation Landscapes in central Sumatra, Indonesia. Several hundred smallholders operate within a Protection Forest linking the Tiger Conservation Landscapes. This study explores the willingness of these smallholders to accept a payment requiring them to forgo access to their land for five years. In addition to asking households directly what they would be willing to accept (WTA), we also ask them to infer what their neighbour would accept. The study finds evidence of hypothetical bias in the conventional WTA values, with a statistically significant difference between what people say they would be willing to accept when surveyed, compared to what they say would actually be willing to accept in a ‘real life’ situation. We show how inferred valuation techniques can mitigate against this.
Cardiomyopathy develops in >90% of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients by the second decade of life. We assessed the associations between DMD gene mutations, as well as Latent transforming growth factor-beta-binding protein 4 (LTBP4) haplotypes, and age at onset of myocardial dysfunction in DMD. DMD patients with baseline normal left ventricular systolic function and genotyping between 2004 and 2013 were included. Patients were grouped in multiple ways: specific DMD mutation domains, true loss-of-function mutations (group A) versus possible residual gene expression (group B), and LTBP4 haplotype. Age at onset of myocardial dysfunction was the first echocardiogram with an ejection fraction <55% and/or shortening fraction <28%. Of 101 DMD patients, 40 developed cardiomyopathy. There was no difference in age at onset of myocardial dysfunction among DMD genotype mutation domains (13.7±4.8 versus 14.3±1.0 versus 14.3±2.9 versus 13.8±2.5, p=0.97), groups A and B (14.4±2.8 versus 12.1±4.4, p=0.09), or LTBP4 haplotypes (14.5±3.2 versus 13.1±3.2 versus 11.0±2.8, p=0.18). DMD gene mutations involving the hinge 3 region, actin-binding domain, and exons 45–49, as well as the LTBP4 IAAM haplotype, were not associated with age of left ventricular dysfunction onset in DMD.
While studies suggest that nutritional supplementation may reduce aggressive behavior in children, few have examined their effects on specific forms of aggression. This study tests the primary hypothesis that omega-3 (ω-3), both alone and in conjunction with social skills training, will have particular post-treatment efficacy for reducing childhood reactive aggression relative to baseline.
In this randomized, double-blind, stratified, placebo-controlled, factorial trial, a clinical sample of 282 children with externalizing behavior aged 7–16 years was randomized into ω-3 only, social skills only, ω-3 + social skills, and placebo control groups. Treatment duration was 6 months. The primary outcome measure was reactive aggression collected at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, with antisocial behavior as a secondary outcome.
Children in the ω-3-only group showed a short-term reduction (at 3 and 6 months) in self-report reactive aggression, and also a short-term reduction in overall antisocial behavior. Sensitivity analyses and a robustness check replicated significant interaction effects. Effect sizes (d) were small, ranging from 0.17 to 0.31.
Findings provide some initial support for the efficacy of ω-3 in reducing reactive aggression over and above standard care (medication and parent training), but yield only preliminary and limited support for the efficacy of ω-3 in reducing overall externalizing behavior in children. Future studies could test further whether ω-3 shows promise in reducing more reactive, impulsive forms of aggression.
Two new species of egg parasitoids, Oobius saimaensis Yao and Mottern new species and Oobius fleischeri Yao and Duan new species (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), are described from eggs of Agrilus fleischeri Obenberger, 1925 (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Agrilus fleischeri is a phloem-feeding woodborer of poplar (Populus Linnaeus; Salicaceae) in northeastern China. These two species can be distinguished morphologically as O. fleischeri has five tarsomeres and O. saimaensis has four tarsomeres. Although O. saimaensis is morphologically similar to its sympatric congener O. agrili Zhang and Hang, 2005, an important natural enemy of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888, molecular phylogenetics and morphological data indicate that they are distinct species. Phylogenetic relationships among the new species and other closely related species are also inferred by using DNA sequence data from several ribosomal and mitochondrial genes. In addition, we expand the known distribution of Oobius primorskyensis Yao and Duan, 2016 to include South Korea.