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Methane (CH4) is a greenhouse gas (GHG) produced and released by eructation to the atmosphere in large volumes by ruminants. Enteric CH4 contributes significantly to global GHG emissions arising from animal agriculture. It has been contended that tropical grasses produce higher emissions of enteric CH4 than temperate grasses, when they are fed to ruminants. A number of experiments have been performed in respiration chambers and head-boxes to assess the enteric CH4 mitigation potential of foliage and pods of tropical plants, as well as nitrates (NO3−) and vegetable oils in practical rations for cattle. On the basis of individual determinations of enteric CH4 carried out in respiration chambers, the average CH4 yield for cattle fed low-quality tropical grasses (>70% ration DM) was 17.0 g CH4/kg DM intake. Results showed that when foliage and ground pods of tropical trees and shrubs were incorporated in cattle rations, methane yield (g CH4/kg DM intake) was decreased by 10% to 25%, depending on plant species and level of intake of the ration. Incorporation of nitrates and vegetable oils in the ration decreased enteric CH4 yield by ∼6% to ∼20%, respectively. Condensed tannins, saponins and starch contained in foliages, pods and seeds of tropical trees and shrubs, as well as nitrates and vegetable oils, can be fed to cattle to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions under smallholder conditions. Strategies for enteric CH4 mitigation in cattle grazing low-quality tropical forages can effectively increase productivity while decreasing enteric CH4 emissions in absolute terms and per unit of product (e.g. meat, milk), thus reducing the contribution of ruminants to GHG emissions and therefore to climate change.
Ionization occurs in the upper atmospheres of hot Jupiters and in the interiors of gas giant planets, leading to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects that couple the momentum and the magnetic field, thereby significantly altering the dynamics. In regions of moderate temperatures, the gas is only partially ionized, which also leads to interactions with neutral molecules. To explore the turbulent dynamics of these regions, we utilize partially ionized magnetohydrodynamics (PIMHD), a two-fluid model – one neutral and one ionized – coupled by a collision term proportional to the difference in velocities. Motivated by planetary settings where rotation constrains the large-scale motions to be mostly two-dimensional, we perform a suite of simulations to examine the parameter space of two-dimensional PIMHD turbulence and pay particular attention to collisions and their role in the dynamics, dissipation and energy exchange between the two species. We arrive at, and numerically confirm, an expression for the energy loss due to collisions in both the weakly and strongly collisional limits, and show that, in the latter limit, the neutral fluid couples to the ions and behaves as an MHD fluid. Finally, we discuss some implications of our findings to current understanding of gas giant planet atmospheres.
The Paleolithic diet (PaleoDiet) is an allegedly healthy dietary pattern inspired by the consumption of wild foods and animals assumed to be consumed in the Paleolithic era. Despite gaining popularity in the media, different operational definitions of this Paleolithic nutritional intake have been used in research. Our hypothesis is that specific components used to define the PaleoDiet may modulate the association of this diet with several health outcomes. We comprehensively reviewed currently applied PaleoDiet scores and suggested a new score based on the food composition of current PaleoDiet definitions and the theoretical food content of a staple dietary pattern in the Paleolithic age. In a PubMed search up to December 2019, fourteen different PaleoDiet definitions were found. We observed some common components of the PaleoDiet among these definitions although we also found high heterogeneity in the list of specific foods that should be encouraged or banned within the PaleoDiet. Most studies suggest that the PaleoDiet may have beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases (type 2 diabetes, overweight/obesity, CVD and hyperlipidaemias) but the level of evidence is still weak because of the limited number of studies with a large sample size, hard outcomes instead of surrogate outcomes and long-term follow-up. Finally, we propose a new PaleoDiet score composed of eleven food items, based on a high consumption of fruits, nuts, vegetables, fish, eggs and unprocessed meats (lean meats); and a minimum content of dairy products, grains and cereals, and legumes and practical absence of processed (or ultra-processed) foods or culinary ingredients.
Adoption, twin and family studies suggest that suicide behavior is familial and heritable. Both completed and attempted suicide appear to be transmitted in a familial form. Genetics and environment influences had been detected in various studies. But suicidal behavior suggests to be inherited independently from the mental disorders usually associated with it. While traditional statistics emphasizes inference and estimations, data mining emphasizes the fulfillment of a task such as classification, estimation, or knowledge discovery.
The goal of this study was to determine in a large sample of suicide attempts which variables are associated with family history of attempted suicide.
In an emergency room, 539 adult suicide attempters were recruited. The two dichotomous dependent variables were family history of suicide attempt (10%) and of completed suicide (4%). Independent variables were 101 clinical variables explored with two data mining techniques: Random Forest and Forward Selection.
A model for family history of completed suicide could not be developed. A classificatory model for family history of attempted suicide included the use of alcohol in the intent and family history of completed suicide, provide a sensitivity of 78.4%, a specificity of 98.7% and accuracy of 96.6%.
A classificatory model for family history of completed suicide could not be developed using data mining techniques. But it suggested that the use of alcohol in the intent and family history of completed suicide may be associated with familial attempted suicide.
The quality of the educational system of a country is not only an indicator of the levels of development and well made, but also to come. Not surprisingly, providing universal schooling is also capable of stimulating the development of children and youth, is a strategic objective of the first magnitude in the more advanced nations.
Our country is no stranger to this concern. It is for this reason that, in a recurrent way, the training of our young people, in particular, the problem of school failure are the subject of public debate.
School failure is considered now a major problem, especially in Spain (20-28%), where rates are above the European average and the OECD countries. The importance of this issue has led, in recent times, the emergence of numerous analyzes and various studies trying to determine the causes and to establish the true extent of the failure and dropout rates in our country.
This paper will describe possible factors for future preventive activities, influencing the increase in the rate of absenteeism / dropout: the appearance of breaking the educational link. Link or union that is fragmented by its components: the institution and the student.
Because of the interest about the physical health in psychiatric patients was made this study, to analyze, in a sample of patients with schizophrenia, the possible occurrence of metabolic disorders, their relationship with treatment, and the interventions need in this regard.
Check if patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics have metabolic disorders
Check if the introduction of information about metabolic disorders influences the habits of life.
A 6 months prospective study with patients followed up in the Day Hospital with an atypical antipsychotic.
The results describe a young population with 59% of males, without adequate dietary habits and with a low activity level. Most patients showed overweight or obesity.
On the other hand the presence of metabolic syndrome was higher in patients with olanzapine and risperidone long-acting injectable, although it was not statistically significant.
In the sample has been found the influence of certain doses of these antipsychotics and their influence on weight. Of note is the decrease in weight with olanzapine, usually associated with antipsychotic drug weight gain and that this study gives an opposite result that may be related to psycho-educational interventions on healthy lifestyles and the consequent change in the behavior in this regard and that received the most study patients.
There are metabolic disorders and overweight problems that are need to investigate into the possible mechanisms of control and early detection. This problems also be likely to be influenced of a healthy lifestyle, which could be the subject of a psycho-educational treatment.
There are few reported cases relating visual acuity and psychosis. The Spanish psychiatrist Sanchís-Banús focused on two patients who became blind and who, due to stress developed paranoid and jealousy delusional ideas. He called it “Sanchís-Banús syndrome” (SBS) that is mentioned in the psychiatry literature.
A case report. We present a case of “paranoid delusion of the blind” (SBS), quite similar in its clinical characteristics to those of the original patients of the valencian psychiatrist Sanchís-Banús. In our case, we met a 46-years-old woman, who worked as a lottery seller because she had a visual problem: retinitis pigmentosa. She had had her first psychotic decompensation when the blindness started. In spite of having achieved good social and work performance with quetiapine 400 mg/daily, laboral conflicts and stress caused her delusional ideas again. She began to think that her mother was not her real mother (Capgras syndrome) and that she was being persecuted. She also did not eat the meal and did not drink water because she thought that they were contaminated.
We started treatment with clozapine at doses of 300 mg every day (50-50-200) combined with aripiprazole15 mg/day tolerating the medication without notable effects. After this adjustment of medication, remission and good criticism of hallucinatory and delusional clinical course. The nosological, clinical, and prognostic features of SBS are discussed in light of the current literature.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Little is known about who would benefit from Internet-based personalised nutrition (PN) interventions. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of participants who achieved greatest improvements (i.e. benefit) in diet, adiposity and biomarkers following an Internet-based PN intervention. Adults (n 1607) from seven European countries were recruited into a 6-month, randomised controlled trial (Food4Me) and randomised to receive conventional dietary advice (control) or PN advice. Information on dietary intake, adiposity, physical activity (PA), blood biomarkers and participant characteristics was collected at baseline and month 6. Benefit from the intervention was defined as ≥5 % change in the primary outcome (Healthy Eating Index) and secondary outcomes (waist circumference and BMI, PA, sedentary time and plasma concentrations of cholesterol, carotenoids and omega-3 index) at month 6. For our primary outcome, benefit from the intervention was greater in older participants, women and participants with lower HEI scores at baseline. Benefit was greater for individuals reporting greater self-efficacy for ‘sticking to healthful foods’ and who ‘felt weird if [they] didn’t eat healthily’. Participants benefited more if they reported wanting to improve their health and well-being. The characteristics of individuals benefiting did not differ by other demographic, health-related, anthropometric or genotypic characteristics. Findings were similar for secondary outcomes. These findings have implications for the design of more effective future PN intervention studies and for tailored nutritional advice in public health and clinical settings.
Barton Peninsula is an ice-free area located in the southwest corner of King George Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). Following the Last Glacial Maximum, several geomorphological features developed in newly exposed ice-free terrain and their distribution provide insights about past environmental evolution of the area. Three moraine systems are indicative of three main glacial phases within the long-term glacial retreat, which also favoured the development of numerous lakes. Five of these lakes were cored to understand in greater detail the pattern of deglaciation through the study of lacustrine records. Radiocarbon dates from basal lacustrine sediments enabled the reconstruction of the chronology of Holocene glacial retreat. Tephra layers present in lake sediments provided additional independent age constraints on environmental changes based on geochemical and geochronological correlation with Deception Island-derived tephra. Shrinking of the Collins Glacier exposed the southern coastal fringe of Barton Peninsula at 8 cal ky BP. After a period of relative stability during the mid-Holocene, the ice cap started retreating northwards after 3.7 cal ky BP, confining some glaciers within valleys as shown by moraine systems. Lake sediments confirm a period of relative glacial stability during the last 2.4 cal ky BP.
We study C1-robustly transitive and nonhyperbolic diffeomorphisms having a partially hyperbolic splitting with one-dimensional central bundle whose strong un-/stable foliations are both minimal. In dimension 3, an important class of examples of such systems is given by those with a simple closed periodic curve tangent to the central bundle. We prove that there is a C1-open and dense subset of such diffeomorphisms such that every nonhyperbolic ergodic measure (i.e. with zero central exponent) can be approximated in the weak* topology and in entropy by measures supported in basic sets with positive (negative) central Lyapunov exponent. Our method also allows to show how entropy changes across measures with central Lyapunov exponent close to zero. We also prove that any nonhyperbolic ergodic measure is in the intersection of the convex hulls of the measures with positive central exponent and with negative central exponent.
The new species Lenonchium zanjanense sp. n. is described from a natural habitat of Zanjan province, Iran, including line, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy illustrations and a molecular (18S, 28S) study. It is characterized by its 3.50–4.51 mm long body, rounded lip region, continuous and 13.5–15.5 µm broad, odontostyle 21–24 µm long, neck 362–490 µm long, double guiding ring, pharyngeal expansion 190–285 µm long, female genital system didelphic–amphidelphic, uterus simple and 185–320 µm long or 3.4–5.9 times the corresponding body diameter, vulva nearly equatorial (V = 45–53), tail conical-elongated to filiform (90–165 µm, c = 23–43, c′ = 2.4–5.3) with three or four mucro-like projections at the tip, spicules 58–64 µm long and 16–21 contiguous ventromedian supplements ending at the level of the anterior end of the spicules. The taxonomy of the genus is updated, with an emended diagnosis, list of species, key to their identification and a compendium of their main morphometrics. Lenonchium asterocaudatum is regarded as identical and a junior synonym of L. denticaudatum. New insights into the phylogeny of the group are also provided, and the classification of Lenonchium within Nordiidae is seriously questioned.
Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury is common. In order to improve our understanding of acute kidney injury, we formed the multi-centre Neonatal and Pediatric Heart and Renal Outcomes Network. Our main goals are to describe neonatal kidney injury epidemiology, evaluate variability in diagnosis and management, identify risk factors, investigate the impact of fluid overload, and explore associations with outcomes.
The Neonatal and Pediatric Heart and Renal Outcomes Network collaborative includes representatives from paediatric cardiac critical care, cardiology, nephrology, and cardiac surgery. The collaborative sites and infrastructure are part of the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium. An acute kidney injury module was developed and merged into the existing infrastructure. A total of twenty-two participating centres provided data on 100–150 consecutive neonates who underwent cardiac surgery within the first 30 post-natal days. Additional acute kidney injury variables were abstracted by chart review and merged with the corresponding record in the quality improvement database. Exclusion criteria included >1 operation in the 7-day study period, pre-operative renal replacement therapy, pre-operative serum creatinine >1.5 mg/dl, and need for extracorporeal support in the operating room or within 24 hours after the index operation.
A total of 2240 neonatal patients were enrolled across 22 centres. The incidence of acute kidney injury was 54% (stage 1 = 31%, stage 2 = 13%, and stage 3 = 9%).
Neonatal and Pediatric Heart and Renal Outcomes Network represents the largest multi-centre study of neonatal kidney injury. This new network will enhance our understanding of kidney injury and its complications.
At a global level, dairy cow production systems (DCPS) are important sources of nourishment and profits, but they generate environmental impacts such as overexploitation of different resources including water, lands and fossil energy. Quantification of water and carbon footprint to define mitigation strategies and a more rational use of natural resources, is a reiterated claim. The aim of this study was to perform an economic evaluation of the environmental impact of the DCPS from the Comarca Lagunera, Mexico (24°N, 102°W, 220 mm, hot-semiarid climate) We contrasted the economic value (EV) generated by the DCPS with respect to the economic costs (EC) due to the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) and the water footprint (WFP) of this DCPS. While quantifications of GHGE considered those proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the WFP involved the use of blue, gray and green water by the DCPS and related activities. Quantification of the EC of WFP considered an international average price of water. In the year 2017, the Comarca Lagunera registered a dairy cow inventory of 493 144 heads, with 227 142 lactating cows, which produced 2386 million liters of milk per year with an annual average EV of €525.3 million. The EC (€, millions) generated by the GHGE and WFP were €311.8 and €11 980.7, respectively, with a total EC of € 12 292.5 million. When the EV of milk production and the total environmental EC are compared, the contrast demonstrates not only the noteworthy environmental impact but also the significant and senseless biological and EC. In addition, having a large dairy cow concentration creates pollution concerns and the DCPS transfers both nutrients and water resources from an ecologically vulnerable arid region. Therefore, some mitigation strategies such as, better cow genotype, feed and manure management combined with the production of forages and grains in a different geographical region are suggested to promote an optimum use of water in order to uphold the social, economic and biologic sustainability of the Comarca Lagunera, Mexico.
Introduction: Over 2.6 million Hispanic/Latino construction workers (CWs) live in the US; 91% of South Florida CWs are Hispanic/Latino. CWs have higher smoking and lower cessation rates than other workers. Limited access to cessation services, worksite turnover, and lack of interventions tailored to culture/occupation hinder cessation. Partnering with worksite food trucks to deliver unique cessation interventions may improve these efforts.
Aims: To explore a novel cessation approach, assess worker/worksite acceptability, and seek input into intervention development.
Methods: In 2016, we conducted five semi-structured focus groups with 37 smoking Hispanic/Latino CWs. Constant comparative analysis was used to examine a priori themes regarding smoking behaviours, cessation treatments, intervention delivery, cultural adaptation, and quit interest.
Results: CWs reported tremendous job stress. Most smoking occurred during the workday and most CWs did not use nicotine replacement therapy with past quit attempts. Most CWs were open to a worksite face-to-face group cessation intervention before work (many underutilize breaks and feel pressure to keep working). CWs felt it unnecessary to tailor the intervention to Hispanics/Latinos indicating smokers are the same regardless of race/ethnicity.
Conclusions: Findings demonstrate the need to consider work environments, job demands/stress, and worker preferences when developing accessible and acceptable cessation interventions.
Isotopic composition of leaf carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) is determined by biotic and abiotic factors. In order to determine the influence of leaf habit and site on leaf δ13C and δ15N in the understorey of two Atlantic forests in Brazil that differ in annual precipitation (1200 and 1900 mm), we measured these isotopes in the shaded understorey of 38 tropical tree species (20 in the 1200-mm site and 18 in the 1900-mm site). Mean site values for δ15N were significantly lower at the 1200-mm site (−1.4‰) compared with the 1900-mm site (+3.0‰), and δ13C was significantly greater in the 1200-mm site (−30.4‰) than in the 1900-mm site (−31.6‰). Leaf C concentration was greater and leaf N concentration was lower at 1200-mm than at 1900-mm. Leaf δ15N was negatively correlated with δ13C across the two sites. Leaf δ13C and δ15N of evergreen and deciduous species were not significantly different within a site. No significant phylogenetic signal for any traits among the study species was found. Overall, site differences were the main factor distinguishing traits among species, suggesting strong functional convergence to local climate and soils within each site for individuals in the shaded understorey.
Traditionally, personalised nutrition was delivered at an individual level. However, the concept of delivering tailored dietary advice at a group level through the identification of metabotypes or groups of metabolically similar individuals has emerged. Although this approach to personalised nutrition looks promising, further work is needed to examine this concept across a wider population group. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to: (1) identify metabotypes in a European population and (2) develop targeted dietary advice solutions for these metabotypes. Using data from the Food4Me study (n 1607), k-means cluster analysis revealed the presence of three metabolically distinct clusters based on twenty-seven metabolic markers including cholesterol, individual fatty acids and carotenoids. Cluster 2 was identified as a metabolically healthy metabotype as these individuals had the highest Omega-3 Index (6·56 (sd 1·29) %), carotenoids (2·15 (sd 0·71) µm) and lowest total saturated fat levels. On the basis of its fatty acid profile, cluster 1 was characterised as a metabolically unhealthy cluster. Targeted dietary advice solutions were developed per cluster using a decision tree approach. Testing of the approach was performed by comparison with the personalised dietary advice, delivered by nutritionists to Food4Me study participants (n 180). Excellent agreement was observed between the targeted and individualised approaches with an average match of 82 % at the level of delivery of the same dietary message. Future work should ascertain whether this proposed method could be utilised in a healthcare setting, for the rapid and efficient delivery of tailored dietary advice solutions.
A new species belonging to the genus Belondira is described from natural areas in Iran. Belondira coomansi n. sp. is characterized by its general size, the dimensions and appearance of its lip region, presence of distinct labial and post-labial sclerotization, the length of the odontostyle and its inconspicuous lumen and aperture, the length of the neck and its pharyngeal expansion, the reduction of the female anterior genital branch to a simple uterine sac, a very short posterior uterus, the anterior position of the vulva, the length and shape of the caudal region with distinctly thick cuticle at its tip, the length of the spicules, and the presence of only one pair of ventromedian supplements. The new species is close to Belondira brevibulba, B. sacchari, B. tenuidens and B. thornei, and it is compared to them. Molecular characterization (D2–D3 expansion segments of the rRNA large subunit) of the new species is also provided, representing only the second species of this genus for which any DNA sequence data are available.