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Narrative Science examines the use of narrative in scientific research over the last two centuries. It brings together an international group of scholars who have engaged in intense collaboration to find and develop crucial cases of narrative in science. Motivated and coordinated by the Narrative Science project, funded by the European Research Council, this volume offers integrated and insightful essays examining cases that run the gamut from geology to psychology, chemistry, physics, botany, mathematics, epidemiology, and biological engineering. Taking in shipwrecks, human evolution, military intelligence, and mass extinctions, this landmark study revises our understanding of what science is, and the roles of narrative in scientists' work. This title is also available as Open Access.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) can accompany emotional symptoms as well as physical reactions. The assessment and real-time measurement of SAD is difficult in real-world.
This study aims to predict the severity of specific anxiety states and virtual reality (VR) sickness in SAD patients by a machine learning model based on only quantitative measuring of autonomic physiologic signals during VR therapy sessions.
In total, 32 individuals with SAD symptoms were enrolled in VR participatory sessions. We assessed patients’ specific anxiety symptoms through Internalized Shame Scale (ISS) and Post-Event Rumination Scale (PERS), and VR sickness through Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ). Specific anxiety symptoms and VR sickness were divided into severe and non-severe states based on the total score of each scale by K-means clustering. Logistic regression, Random Forest, Naïve Bayes classifier, and Support Vector Machine were used based on the physiological signal data to predict the severity group in subdomains of ISS, PERS, and SSQ.
Prediction performance (F1 score) for the severity of the ISS mistake anxiety subdomain was higher than other scales with 0.8421. For VR sickness, prediction performance for the severity of the physical subdomain was higher than the non-physical subdomain with 0.7692.
The study findings present that mistake anxiety and physical sickness could be predicted more accurately by only autonomic physiological signals, suggesting these features are probably associated with autonomic responses. Based on the present study results, we could provide the evidence for predicting the severity of specific anxiety or VR adverse effects only based on in-situ physiological signals.
In this survey of 41 hospitals, 18 (72%) of 25 respondents reporting utilization of National Healthcare Safety Network resources demonstrated accurate central-line–associated bloodstream infection reporting compared to 6 (38%) of 16 without utilization (adjusted odds ratio, 5.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.16–24.8). Adherence to standard definitions is essential for consistent reporting across healthcare facilities.
Background: Gaze behavior differences between expert and novice surgeons have been established in general surgery literature. Limited information is available about surgeon’s visual attention during microsurgery procedures where surgical microscope is used. Methods: 4 experts and 3 novices performed 37 independent sutures under the surgical microscope. Eye movements of surgeons and scene video of the surgical performance were recorded. Total suturing time and subtask times were compared between level of expertise. We defined three discrete surgical actions and examined eye gaze (fixation) directly related to each of these actions. Fixation duration (total, pre-action,and post-action duration) were compared between expert and novice, over 3 subtasks (piercing, exiting and cutting) and between pre- and post-action phases. Results: Expert surgeons completed the suture with shorter total time and displayed longer fixation time than novices. Experts also maintained their visual engagement constantly over the 3 level of subtask in comparison to novices who required a longer fixation time for the challenging subtask (piercing). Experts use longer pre- than post-action fixation, and this pattern is distributed over all three subtasks. This gaze engagement strategy was not shown in novices. Conclusions: The action-related fixation can be used to evaluate microsurgeons’ level of expertise and in surgical education for gaze training.