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Ongoing challenges in maintaining optimum manual cleaning and disinfection of hospital rooms have created increased interest in “no-touch” decontamination technologies including the use of ultraviolet light (UV). Trials have shown that some UV devices can decrease surface contamination and reduce healthcare-associated infections. Despite substantial marketing of these devices for use in healthcare settings, few data are available regarding the doses of UV-C necessary to yield desired reductions in healthcare pathogens and the ability of mobile devices to deliver adequate doses to various surfaces in patient rooms. This review summarizes the physical aspects of UV that affect the doses delivered to surfaces, the UV-C doses needed to yield 3 log10 reductions of several important healthcare-associated pathogens, the doses of UV-C that can be achieved in various locations in patient rooms using mobile UV-C devices, and methods for measuring UV doses delivered to surfaces.
The Kabwe Zn-Pb deposit (central Zambia) consists of a cluster of mixed sulfide and non-sulfide orebodies. The sulfide ores comprise sphalerite, galena, pyrite, chalcopyrite and accessory Ge-sulfides (±Ga and In). The non-sulfide ores comprise: (1) willemite-dominated zones encasing massive sulfide orebodies and (2) oxide-dominated alteration bands, overlying both the sulfide and Zn-silicate orebodies. This study focuses on the Ge, In and Ga distribution in the non-sulfide mineralization, and was carried out on a suite of Kabwe specimens, housed in the Natural History Museum Ore Collection (London). Petrography confirmed that the original sulfides were overprinted by at least two contrasting oxidation stages dominated by the formation of willemite (W1 and W2), and a further event characterized by weathering-related processes. Oxygen isotopic analyses have shown that W1 and W2 are unrelated genetically and furthermore not related to supergene Zn-Pb-carbonates in the oxide-dominated assemblage. The δ18O composition of 13.9–15.7‰ V-SMOW strongly supports a hydrothermal origin for W1. The δ18O composition of W2 (−3.5‰ to 0‰ V-SMOW) indicates that it precipitated from groundwaters of meteoric origin in either a supergene or a low-T hydrothermal environment. Gallium and Ge show a diversity of distribution among the range of Zn-bearing minerals. Gallium has been detected at the ppm level in W1, sphalerite, goethite and hematite. Germanium occurs at ppm levels in W1 and W2, and in scarcely detectable amounts in hemimorphite, goethite and hematite. Indium has low concentrations in goethite and hematite. These different deportments among the various phases are probably due to the different initial Ga, In and Ge abundances in the mineralization, to the different solubilities of the three elements at different temperatures and pH values, and finally to their variable affinities with the various minerals formed.
Since the last General Assembly in Patras, Greece, we have held three meetings of the Working Group. The 10th Meeting was held in Mzkheta, the ancient capital of Georgia, USSR, hosted by their Academy of Sciences on April 3-7, 1984. All members except one, who was represented by a member of his Task Group, were present at the very productive meeting.
A multi-faceted, multi-institutional laboratory astrophysics program is carried out at the Livermore electron beam ion trap facility, which is a mature spectroscopic source with unsurpassed controls and capabilities, and an unparalleled assortment of spectroscopic equipment, including a full complement of grating and crystal spectrometers and a 6x6 micro-calorimeter array. Recent results range from the calibration of x-ray diagnostics, including the Fe XVII and Fe XXV emission lines, extensive lists of L-shell ions, the first laboratory simulation and fit of a cometary x-ray emission spectrum, and the discovery of new spectral diagnostics for measuring magnetic field strengths.
Toxoplasma gondii is a globally distributed parasite infecting humans and warm-blooded animals. Although many surveys have been conducted for T. gondii infection in mammals, little is known about the detailed distribution in localized natural populations. In this study, host genotype and spatial location were investigated in relation to T. gondii infection. Wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) were collected from 4 sampling sites within a localized peri-aquatic woodland ecosystem. Mice were genotyped using standard A. sylvaticus microsatellite markers and T. gondii was detected using 4 specific PCR-based markers: SAG1, SAG2, SAG3 and GRA6 directly from infected tissue. Of 126 wood mice collected, 44 samples were positive giving an infection rate of 34·92% (95% CI: 27·14–43·59%). Juvenile, young adults and adults were infected at a similar prevalence, respectively, 7/17 (41·18%), 27/65 (41·54%) and 10/44 (22·72%) with no significant age-prevalence effect (P = 0·23). Results of genetic analysis of the mice showed that the collection consists of 4 genetically distinct populations. There was a significant difference in T. gondii prevalence in the different genotypically derived mouse populations (P = 0·035) but not between geographically defined populations (P = 0·29). These data point to either a host genetic/family influence on parasite infection or to parasite vertical transmission.
Despite widespread recognition that the physiological systems underlying stress reactivity are well coordinated at a neurobiological level, surprisingly little empirical attention has been given to delineating precisely how the systems actually interact with one another when confronted with stress. We examined cross-system response proclivities in anticipation of and following standardized laboratory challenges in 664 4- to 14-year-olds from four independent studies. In each study, measures of stress reactivity within both the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system (i.e., the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system) and the corticotrophin releasing hormone system (i.e., the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis) were collected. Latent profile analyses revealed six distinctive patterns that recurred across the samples: moderate reactivity (average cross-system activation; 52%–80% of children across samples), parasympathetic-specific reactivity (2%–36%), anticipatory arousal (4%–9%), multisystem reactivity (7%–14%), hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis specific reactivity (6%–7%), and underarousal (0%–2%). Groups meaningfully differed in socioeconomic status, family adversity, and age. Results highlight the sample-level reliability of children's neuroendocrine responses to stress and suggest important cross-system regularities that are linked to development and prior experiences and may have implications for subsequent physical and mental morbidity.
Renin is essential for renal development and in adult kidneys vitamin D deficiency increases renin gene expression. We aimed to determine whether maternal vitamin D deficiency upregulates fetal renal renin expression, and if this is sustained. We also examined growth and the long-term renal effects in offspring on a normal diet. Female Sprague–Dawley rats in UVB-free housing were fed either vitamin D deficient chow (DEF) or normal chow from 4 weeks and mated with vitamin D replete males at 10 weeks. Fetuses were collected at E20 or dams littered and the pups were weaned onto normal chow. Kidney mRNA levels for renin, (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR], transforming growth factor β 1 (TGF-β1), and nephrin were determined in E20 fetuses and in male offspring at 38 weeks. Renal function was assessed at 33 weeks (24 h, metabolic cage) in both sexes. Renal mRNA expression was upregulated for renin in fetuses (P < 0.05) and was almost doubled in adult male offspring from DEF dams (P < 0.05). Adult males had reduced creatinine clearance, solute excretion and a suppressed urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio (P < 0.05). Female adult DEF offspring drank more and excreted more urine (P < 0.05) but creatinine clearance was not impaired. We conclude that maternal vitamin D depletion upregulates fetal renal renin gene expression and this persists into adulthood where, in males only, there is evidence of sodium retention and compromised renal function. Importantly these effects occurred despite the animals being on a normal diet from the time of weaning onwards.
We report on a preliminary analysis of a 5600 sec per point survey of 32 square degrees in Centaurus, carried out with the Parkes 13-beam system. The signal-to-noise ratio is found to improve as for the whole integration. We have detected 102 HI sources between +250 and +12,700 km s−1 either by eye or by using the new galaxy-finding algorithm PICASSO. Over half of these are new HI detections. Around a dozen of these are not associated with catalogued galaxies and, in two of these cases, we have not identified an optical counterpart on the Digitized Sky Survey. Arguments are put forward to explain why deep integrations are needed to find low surface brightness objects.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and transmission electron microscopy have been used to obtain information on the local structure of deuterium in single-crystal silicon, both for deuterated, phosphorous-doped Si that contains platelet-structured defects and for deuterated boron-doped silicon. In both cases, the NMR spectrum consists of two components, a narrow doublet and a central, unsplit line. The doublet arises from D bonded to Si with the Si-D bond along the <111> directions. The central line, which contains more D than does the doublet, is ascribed primarily to molecular D2 that resides in regions of the crystal where translation and tumbling are inhibited and possibly to some D in weak Si-D bonds.
The diagnosis of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) is often controversial, and existing guidelines differ in important ways.
To determine both the range of practices involved in obtaining blood culture samples and how central line-associated infections are diagnosed and to obtain members' opinions regarding the process of designating bloodstream infections as publicly reportable CLABSIs.
Electronic and paper 11-question survey of infectious-diseases physician members of the Infectious Diseases Society of America Emerging Infections Network (IDSA EIN).
All 1,364 IDSA EIN members were invited to participate.
692 (51%) members responded; 52% of respondents with adult practices reported that more than half of the blood culture samples for intensive care unit (ICU) patients with central lines were drawn through existing lines. A sizable majority of respondents used time to positivity, differential time to positivity when paired blood cultures are used, and quantitative culture of catheter tips when diagnosing CLABSI or determining the source of that bacteremia. When determining whether a bacteremia met the reportable CLABSI definition, a majority used a decision method that involved clinical judgment.
Our survey documents a strong preference for drawing 1 set of blood culture samples from a peripheral line and 1 from the central line when evaluating fever in an ICU patient, as recommended by IDSA guidelines and in contrast to current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations. Our data show substantial variability when infectious-diseases physicians were asked to determine whether bloodstream infections were primary bacteremias, and therefore subject to public reporting by National Healthcare Safety Network guidelines, or secondary bacteremias, which are not reportable.
The objective of this research was to assess current patterns of hospital antibiotic prescribing in Northern Ireland and to determine targets for improving the quality of antibiotic prescribing. A point prevalence survey was conducted in four acute teaching hospitals. The most commonly used antibiotics were combinations of penicillins including β-lactamase inhibitors (33·6%), metronidazole (9·1%), and macrolides (8·1%). The indication for treatment was recorded in 84·3% of the prescribing episodes. A small fraction (3·9%) of the surgical prophylactic antibiotic prescriptions was for >24 h. The results showed that overall 52·4% of the prescribed antibiotics were in compliance with the hospital antibiotic guidelines. The findings identified the following indicators as targets for quality improvement: indication recorded in patient notes, the duration of surgical prophylaxis and compliance with hospital antibiotic guidelines. The results strongly suggest that antibiotic use could be improved by taking steps to address the identified targets for quality improvement.
The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is prevalent worldwide and can infect a remarkably wide range of hosts despite felids being the only definitive host. As cats play a major role in transmission to secondary mammalian hosts, the interaction between cats and these hosts should be a major factor determining final prevalence in the secondary host. This study investigates the prevalence of T. gondii in a natural population of Apodemus sylvaticus collected from an area with low cat density (<2·5 cats/km2). A surprisingly high prevalence of 40·78% (95% CI: 34·07%–47·79%) was observed despite this. A comparable level of prevalence was observed in a previously published study using the same approaches where a prevalence of 59% (95% CI: 50·13%–67·87%) was observed in a natural population of Mus domesticus from an area with high cat density (>500 cats/km2). Detection of infected foetuses from pregnant dams in both populations suggests that congenital transmission may enable persistence of infection in the absence of cats. The prevalences of the related parasite, Neospora caninum were found to be low in both populations (A. sylvaticus: 3·39% (95% CI: 0·12%–6·66%); M. domesticus: 3·08% (95% CI: 0·11%–6·05%)). These results suggest that cat density may have a lower than expected effect on final prevalence in these ecosystems.
Proton NMR and proton-29Si double resonance NMR have been performed on hot wire a-Si:H films deposited from SiH4. Results are compared with those from conventional plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition a-Si:H. Proton nutational angle studies and proton-29Si spin-echo double resonance (SEDOR) signals at 80 and 294 K indicate that a significant proton resonance population arises from T-site-trapped molecular H2. The hot wire films also display a ≥80 kHz FWHM uperbroad proton line and a sharp feature diamagnetically shifted by 25 ppm.
A novel concept of field aided lateral crystallization (FALC) and the effects of Cu on FALC of amorphous silicon (a-Si) were investigated. Cu was found to induce the lateral crystallization toward a metal-free region as well as the crystallization of a-Si in contact with Cu. In particular, the lateral crystallization caused by Cu was noticeably accelerated at the negative electrode side in every pattern with an aid of electric field, while it was retarded at the positive electrode side. The occurrence of Cu-FALC phenomenon was interpreted in terms of dominant diffusing species (DDS) in the reaction between metal and Si. The FALC velocity increased with the applied field intensity and the annealing temperature. The crystallization of a-Si was achieved at temperatures as low as 375°C when the annealing time increased in the presence of high electric field, above 30V/cm. Therefore, we could demonstrate the possibility of low temperature (<500°C) polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) crystallization using Cu as a mediator in FALC technology.
We have investigated the changes, produced by light-soaking, in both the IR and Raman responses of the Si-Hn stretching peaks in the 2000-2100 cm−1 range. Our observations of the IR response are in qualitative agreement with those of Kong and co-workers : that is, short-term light soaking produces an increase in the intensity of the signal and a simultaneous shift to lower frequency. In contrast, short-term light soaking decreases the total intensity of the Raman signal in the 2000-2100 cm−1 range, when normalized to the TO phonon peak at about 480 cm−1. In both cases, these modifications are reversed on annealing at 200° C. We suggest that these changes are attributable to alterations in the environments of the Si-Hn bonds, with the resultant transfer of intensity between IR and Raman matrix elements. Details of the evolution of the components of the Raman spectrum in the 2000-2100 cm−1 range are presented, and compared with IR changes in the same range.
A phenomenological model for the light-induced metastability of a-Si:H is proposed in which a two-domain model of the amorphous network plays a central role. Boundaries between high and low density domains are associated with a significant fraction of the clustered Si-H in aSi:H. Weakly bonded hydrogen at these boundaries catalyzes metastable local configuration changes in the Si network due to non-radiative carrier recombination, leading qualitatively to both the gross structural changes and the increase in electronic defect density that are observed experimentally.
For many years it has been assumed widely that hydrogen is involved in some way in the formation of light induced defects. However recently some doubt has been cast on this because of experimental evidence that there is little H near light induced dangling bonds. In this paper we present a number of model calculations comparing ESR spectra of dangling bonds with and without correlations with H positions. The above models include different distributions of H and correlations or anti correlations of nearby H. In all cases the spectra are compared to those with no correlations or clustering. Our results coupled with published experimental data strongly suggest that dangling bonds are not correlated positively with the presence of nearby H and, in fact, it appears that light induced dangling bonds are negatively correlated with nearby H.