To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Residual strain in electrodeposited Li films may affect safety and performance in Li metal battery anodes, so it is important to understand how to detect residual strain in electrodeposited Li and the conditions under which it arises. To explore this Li films, electrodeposited onto Cu metal substrates, were prepared under an applied pressure of either 10 or 1000 kPa and subsequently tested for the presence or absence of residual strain via sin2(ψ) analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of Li films required preparation and examination within an inert environment; hence, a Be-dome sample holder was employed during XRD characterization. Results show that the Li film grown under 1000 kPa displayed a detectable presence of in-plane compressive strain (−0.066%), whereas the Li film grown under 10 kPa displayed no detectable in-plane strain. The underlying Cu substrate revealed an in-plane residual strain near zero. Texture analysis via pole figure determination was also performed for both Li and Cu and revealed a mild fiber texture for Li metal and a strong bi-axial texture of the Cu substrate. Experimental details concerning sample preparation, alignment, and analysis of the particularly air-sensitive Li films have also been detailed. This work shows that Li metal exhibits residual strain when electrodeposited under compressive stress and that XRD can be used to quantify that strain.
Ongoing challenges in maintaining optimum manual cleaning and disinfection of hospital rooms have created increased interest in “no-touch” decontamination technologies including the use of ultraviolet light (UV). Trials have shown that some UV devices can decrease surface contamination and reduce healthcare-associated infections. Despite substantial marketing of these devices for use in healthcare settings, few data are available regarding the doses of UV-C necessary to yield desired reductions in healthcare pathogens and the ability of mobile devices to deliver adequate doses to various surfaces in patient rooms. This review summarizes the physical aspects of UV that affect the doses delivered to surfaces, the UV-C doses needed to yield 3 log10 reductions of several important healthcare-associated pathogens, the doses of UV-C that can be achieved in various locations in patient rooms using mobile UV-C devices, and methods for measuring UV doses delivered to surfaces.
The Kabwe Zn-Pb deposit (central Zambia) consists of a cluster of mixed sulfide and non-sulfide orebodies. The sulfide ores comprise sphalerite, galena, pyrite, chalcopyrite and accessory Ge-sulfides (±Ga and In). The non-sulfide ores comprise: (1) willemite-dominated zones encasing massive sulfide orebodies and (2) oxide-dominated alteration bands, overlying both the sulfide and Zn-silicate orebodies. This study focuses on the Ge, In and Ga distribution in the non-sulfide mineralization, and was carried out on a suite of Kabwe specimens, housed in the Natural History Museum Ore Collection (London). Petrography confirmed that the original sulfides were overprinted by at least two contrasting oxidation stages dominated by the formation of willemite (W1 and W2), and a further event characterized by weathering-related processes. Oxygen isotopic analyses have shown that W1 and W2 are unrelated genetically and furthermore not related to supergene Zn-Pb-carbonates in the oxide-dominated assemblage. The δ18O composition of 13.9–15.7‰ V-SMOW strongly supports a hydrothermal origin for W1. The δ18O composition of W2 (−3.5‰ to 0‰ V-SMOW) indicates that it precipitated from groundwaters of meteoric origin in either a supergene or a low-T hydrothermal environment. Gallium and Ge show a diversity of distribution among the range of Zn-bearing minerals. Gallium has been detected at the ppm level in W1, sphalerite, goethite and hematite. Germanium occurs at ppm levels in W1 and W2, and in scarcely detectable amounts in hemimorphite, goethite and hematite. Indium has low concentrations in goethite and hematite. These different deportments among the various phases are probably due to the different initial Ga, In and Ge abundances in the mineralization, to the different solubilities of the three elements at different temperatures and pH values, and finally to their variable affinities with the various minerals formed.
Toxoplasma gondii is a globally distributed parasite infecting humans and warm-blooded animals. Although many surveys have been conducted for T. gondii infection in mammals, little is known about the detailed distribution in localized natural populations. In this study, host genotype and spatial location were investigated in relation to T. gondii infection. Wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) were collected from 4 sampling sites within a localized peri-aquatic woodland ecosystem. Mice were genotyped using standard A. sylvaticus microsatellite markers and T. gondii was detected using 4 specific PCR-based markers: SAG1, SAG2, SAG3 and GRA6 directly from infected tissue. Of 126 wood mice collected, 44 samples were positive giving an infection rate of 34·92% (95% CI: 27·14–43·59%). Juvenile, young adults and adults were infected at a similar prevalence, respectively, 7/17 (41·18%), 27/65 (41·54%) and 10/44 (22·72%) with no significant age-prevalence effect (P = 0·23). Results of genetic analysis of the mice showed that the collection consists of 4 genetically distinct populations. There was a significant difference in T. gondii prevalence in the different genotypically derived mouse populations (P = 0·035) but not between geographically defined populations (P = 0·29). These data point to either a host genetic/family influence on parasite infection or to parasite vertical transmission.
Despite widespread recognition that the physiological systems underlying stress reactivity are well coordinated at a neurobiological level, surprisingly little empirical attention has been given to delineating precisely how the systems actually interact with one another when confronted with stress. We examined cross-system response proclivities in anticipation of and following standardized laboratory challenges in 664 4- to 14-year-olds from four independent studies. In each study, measures of stress reactivity within both the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system (i.e., the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system) and the corticotrophin releasing hormone system (i.e., the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis) were collected. Latent profile analyses revealed six distinctive patterns that recurred across the samples: moderate reactivity (average cross-system activation; 52%–80% of children across samples), parasympathetic-specific reactivity (2%–36%), anticipatory arousal (4%–9%), multisystem reactivity (7%–14%), hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis specific reactivity (6%–7%), and underarousal (0%–2%). Groups meaningfully differed in socioeconomic status, family adversity, and age. Results highlight the sample-level reliability of children's neuroendocrine responses to stress and suggest important cross-system regularities that are linked to development and prior experiences and may have implications for subsequent physical and mental morbidity.
Renin is essential for renal development and in adult kidneys vitamin D deficiency increases renin gene expression. We aimed to determine whether maternal vitamin D deficiency upregulates fetal renal renin expression, and if this is sustained. We also examined growth and the long-term renal effects in offspring on a normal diet. Female Sprague–Dawley rats in UVB-free housing were fed either vitamin D deficient chow (DEF) or normal chow from 4 weeks and mated with vitamin D replete males at 10 weeks. Fetuses were collected at E20 or dams littered and the pups were weaned onto normal chow. Kidney mRNA levels for renin, (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR], transforming growth factor β 1 (TGF-β1), and nephrin were determined in E20 fetuses and in male offspring at 38 weeks. Renal function was assessed at 33 weeks (24 h, metabolic cage) in both sexes. Renal mRNA expression was upregulated for renin in fetuses (P < 0.05) and was almost doubled in adult male offspring from DEF dams (P < 0.05). Adult males had reduced creatinine clearance, solute excretion and a suppressed urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio (P < 0.05). Female adult DEF offspring drank more and excreted more urine (P < 0.05) but creatinine clearance was not impaired. We conclude that maternal vitamin D depletion upregulates fetal renal renin gene expression and this persists into adulthood where, in males only, there is evidence of sodium retention and compromised renal function. Importantly these effects occurred despite the animals being on a normal diet from the time of weaning onwards.
We report on a preliminary analysis of a 5600 sec per point survey of 32 square degrees in Centaurus, carried out with the Parkes 13-beam system. The signal-to-noise ratio is found to improve as for the whole integration. We have detected 102 HI sources between +250 and +12,700 km s−1 either by eye or by using the new galaxy-finding algorithm PICASSO. Over half of these are new HI detections. Around a dozen of these are not associated with catalogued galaxies and, in two of these cases, we have not identified an optical counterpart on the Digitized Sky Survey. Arguments are put forward to explain why deep integrations are needed to find low surface brightness objects.
The diagnosis of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) is often controversial, and existing guidelines differ in important ways.
To determine both the range of practices involved in obtaining blood culture samples and how central line-associated infections are diagnosed and to obtain members' opinions regarding the process of designating bloodstream infections as publicly reportable CLABSIs.
Electronic and paper 11-question survey of infectious-diseases physician members of the Infectious Diseases Society of America Emerging Infections Network (IDSA EIN).
All 1,364 IDSA EIN members were invited to participate.
692 (51%) members responded; 52% of respondents with adult practices reported that more than half of the blood culture samples for intensive care unit (ICU) patients with central lines were drawn through existing lines. A sizable majority of respondents used time to positivity, differential time to positivity when paired blood cultures are used, and quantitative culture of catheter tips when diagnosing CLABSI or determining the source of that bacteremia. When determining whether a bacteremia met the reportable CLABSI definition, a majority used a decision method that involved clinical judgment.
Our survey documents a strong preference for drawing 1 set of blood culture samples from a peripheral line and 1 from the central line when evaluating fever in an ICU patient, as recommended by IDSA guidelines and in contrast to current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations. Our data show substantial variability when infectious-diseases physicians were asked to determine whether bloodstream infections were primary bacteremias, and therefore subject to public reporting by National Healthcare Safety Network guidelines, or secondary bacteremias, which are not reportable.
The objective of this research was to assess current patterns of hospital antibiotic prescribing in Northern Ireland and to determine targets for improving the quality of antibiotic prescribing. A point prevalence survey was conducted in four acute teaching hospitals. The most commonly used antibiotics were combinations of penicillins including β-lactamase inhibitors (33·6%), metronidazole (9·1%), and macrolides (8·1%). The indication for treatment was recorded in 84·3% of the prescribing episodes. A small fraction (3·9%) of the surgical prophylactic antibiotic prescriptions was for >24 h. The results showed that overall 52·4% of the prescribed antibiotics were in compliance with the hospital antibiotic guidelines. The findings identified the following indicators as targets for quality improvement: indication recorded in patient notes, the duration of surgical prophylaxis and compliance with hospital antibiotic guidelines. The results strongly suggest that antibiotic use could be improved by taking steps to address the identified targets for quality improvement.
The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is prevalent worldwide and can infect a remarkably wide range of hosts despite felids being the only definitive host. As cats play a major role in transmission to secondary mammalian hosts, the interaction between cats and these hosts should be a major factor determining final prevalence in the secondary host. This study investigates the prevalence of T. gondii in a natural population of Apodemus sylvaticus collected from an area with low cat density (<2·5 cats/km2). A surprisingly high prevalence of 40·78% (95% CI: 34·07%–47·79%) was observed despite this. A comparable level of prevalence was observed in a previously published study using the same approaches where a prevalence of 59% (95% CI: 50·13%–67·87%) was observed in a natural population of Mus domesticus from an area with high cat density (>500 cats/km2). Detection of infected foetuses from pregnant dams in both populations suggests that congenital transmission may enable persistence of infection in the absence of cats. The prevalences of the related parasite, Neospora caninum were found to be low in both populations (A. sylvaticus: 3·39% (95% CI: 0·12%–6·66%); M. domesticus: 3·08% (95% CI: 0·11%–6·05%)). These results suggest that cat density may have a lower than expected effect on final prevalence in these ecosystems.
The moderating effects of biological sensitivity to context (physiological and behavioral stress reactivity) on the association between the early teacher–child relationship and the development of adolescent mental health problems were examined in a community sample of 96 children. Grade 1 measures of biological sensitivity to context included physiological (i.e., slope of mean arterial pressure across a 20- to 30-min stress protocol) and behavioral (i.e., temperamental inhibition/disinhibition) markers. Grade 1 measures of the teacher–child relationship included positive (i.e., closeness) and negative (i.e., conflict) qualities. Mental health symptoms were assessed at Grades 1 and 7. Results of a multiple regression analysis indicated substantial association of the teacher–child relationship with the development of adolescent mental health symptoms, especially for more reactive children. In addition to teacher–child relationship main effects, all four Reactivity × Teacher–Child Relationship interaction terms were statistically significant when controlling for Grade 1 symptom severity, suggesting that both physiological and behavioral reactivity moderate the association of both adverse and supportive aspects of the teacher–child relationship with Grade 7 symptom severity over and above Grade 1 severity. There were important differences, depending on which stress reactivity measure was considered. The importance of these findings for recent theoretical arguments regarding biological sensitivity to context and differential susceptibility is discussed.
Money is the default way in which intangible losses, such as pain and suffering, are currently valued and compensated in law courts. Economists have suggested that subjective well-being regressions can be used to guide compensation payouts for psychological distress following traumatic life events. We bring together studies from law, economic, psychology and medical journals to show that alleviating psychological distress through psychological therapy could be at least 32 times more cost effective than financial compensation. This result is not only important for law courts but has important implications for public health. Mental health is deteriorating across the world – improvements to mental health care might be a more efficient way to increase the health and happiness of our nations than pure income growth.
Two body condition scoring systems were compared for assessing body condition of cows at the Scottish Agricultural College's Crichton Royal Farm. The weekly body condition scores (BCS) were collected for a period of 12 weeks (5 September–21 November). Scores were obtained using the primary systems utilized within the UK and USA. The USBCS were obtained by the same evaluator each week, while the UKBCS were obtained by two different evaluators alternating between weeks. Paired scores (n=2088) between the two systems within week were moderately correlated (r=0·75, P<0·0001). Regression equations to convert scores between the two systems were created using the GLM procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary NC, USA). The simple GLM models to convert from UK to US scores and US to UK scores were USBCS=1·182+0·816 * UKBCS (R2=0·56) and UKBCS=0·131+0·681 (R2=0·56), respectively. These equations may be used to interpret scores within the literature obtained using these two BCS systems, although they must be used with caution.
Observational surveys of hand hygiene compliance are time consuming. Measuring the use of a hand hygiene product is a less time-consuming method of monitoring the frequency of hand hygiene performance.
To evaluate the usefulness of electronic devices for monitoring alcohol-based hand rub use.
Prospective observational trial.
A university-affiliated teaching hospital.
Prototypes of an electronic device designed to record each time a dispenser is used (hereafter referred to as a hand hygiene event) were placed in alcohol-based hand rub dispensers on the general medical ward and in the surgical intensive care unit. Data were downloaded wirelessly to a data logger and then uploaded to a dedicated Web site for analysis. Alcohol-based hand rub dispensers were located in patient rooms and in corridors.
During a 6-month trial, 105,462 hand hygiene events occurred in the surgical intensive care unit, and 44,845 events occurred on the general medical ward. The dispensers located in patient rooms accounted for 47% of the hand hygiene events performed in the surgical intensive care unit but for only 36% of events on the general medical ward (P<.001). The dispensers most often used were located in corridors. Hand hygiene events were most common on Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Thursdays, between 7:00 AM and 11:00 AM.
The use of these electronic devices provided an efficient and accurate method of monitoring the frequency of alcohol-based hand rub performance on the general medical ward and in the surgical intensive care unit, and yielded more detailed information on usage patterns than did expressing use as liters per 1,000 patient-days. The wireless downloading of data from dispensers required a limited amount of time, and the dedicated Web site facilitated data analysis. Such devices should prove useful in monitoring the impact of various interventions on the frequency of hand hygiene performance.
The objective of this study is to characterize the nanoparticle dispersion and to investigate its effect on the surface mechanical properties of nanoparticle-polymer systems. Two types of TiO2 nanoparticles were chosen to mix in two polymeric matrices: solvent-borne acrylic urethane (AU) and water-borne butyl-acrylic styrene latex (latex) coatings. Nanoparticle dispersion was characterized using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Overall, Particle A (PA, without surface treatment) dispersed better than Particle B (PB, organic treatment) in both systems. The AU-PA system exhibited the best dispersion of the four systems, however PB forms big clusters in both of the matrices. Surface mechanical properties, such as surface modulus at micron and sub-micron length scales were determined from depth sensing indentation equipped with a pyramidal tip or a conical tip. The surface mechanical properties were strongly affected by the dispersion of nanoparticle clusters, and a good correlation was found between dispersion of nanoparticle clusters near surface and the modulus-depth mapping using a pyramid tip.
Bulk metallic glasses exhibit confined low and high frequency vibrational properties resulting from the significant bon and topological disorder occuring at the atomic scale. The precise nature of the low frequency modes and how they are influenced by local atomic structure remains unclear. Using standard harmonic analysis, the current work investigates various aspects of the problem by diagonalizing the Hessian of atomistic samples derived from molecular dynamics simulations via a model binary Lennard Jones pair potential.
In many areas of south and south-eastern Asia, concentrations of As in ground water have been found to exceed the WHO maximum concentration limit of 10 μg/l. This is adversely affecting the health of millions of people and has grave current and future health implications. It has recently been suggested that extensive abstraction of ground water in these areas may accelerate the release of As to ground water. This study uses geochemical and isotopic data to assess this hypothesis. The area investigated in this study is in the Chakdaha block of the Nadia District, West Bengal. The ground water is predominantly of the Ca-Mg-HCO3 type, although some samples were found to contain elevated concentrations of Na, Cl and SO4. This is thought to reflect a greater degree of water-rock interaction at the locations of these particular samples. Arsenic concentrations exceeded the national limit of 50 μg/l in 13 of the 22 samples collected. Four of the 13 samples with high As were recovered from tubewells with depths of 60 m or more. Shallow ground water samples were found to have a stable isotopic composition which falls subparallel to the Global Meteoric Water Line. This probably represents a contribution of evaporated surface water to the ground water, possibly from surface ponds or re-infiltrating irrigation water. Deep ground water, conversely, was shown to have a composition that closely reflects that of meteoric water. The data presented in this study suggest that, whilst the drawdown of surface waters may drive As release in shallow ground waters, it is not responsible for driving As release in deep ground water. However, local abstraction may have resulted in changes in the ground water flow regime of the area, with contaminated shallow ground waters being drawn into previously uncontaminated deep aquifers.