To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Sleep disturbance is a symptom of and a well-known risk factor for depression. Further, atypical functioning of the HPA axis has been linked to the pathogenesis of depression. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of adolescent HPA axis functioning in the link between adolescent sleep problems and later depressive symptoms. Methods: A sample of 157 17–18 year old adolescents (61.8% female) completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI) and provided salivary cortisol samples throughout the day for three consecutive days. Two years later, adolescents reported their depressive symptoms via the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Results: Individuals (age 17–18) with greater sleep disturbance reported greater depressive symptoms two years later (age 19–20). This association occurred through the indirect effect of sleep disturbance on the cortisol awakening response (CAR) (indirect effect = 0.14, 95%CI [.02 -.39]). Conclusions: One pathway through which sleep problems may lead to depressive symptoms is by up-regulating components of the body’s physiological stress response system that can be measured through the cortisol awakening response. Behavioral interventions that target sleep disturbance in adolescents may mitigate this neurobiological pathway to depression during this high-risk developmental phase.
Psychosocial stress during childhood and adolescence is associated with alterations in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and with heightened inflammation, both of which are implicated in poor health; however, factors that may protect against these effects relatively early in life are not well understood. Thus, we examined whether psychosocial resources protect against stress-related alterations in the HPA axis and heightened inflammation in a sample of 91 late adolescents. Participants completed measures of various stressors (major life events, daily interpersonal stress, early adversity), and psychosocial resources (mastery, optimism, self-esteem, and positive reappraisal). They also completed the Trier Social Stress Test and provided saliva and blood samples for the assessment of cortisol and interleukin-6 reactivity. Each of the stressors was associated with lower cortisol reactivity. Additionally, associations with major life events and daily stress were moderated by psychological resources, such that more life events and daily stress were associated with decreased HPA reactivity among adolescents with lower levels of psychological resources, but not among those with higher levels of psychological resources. This pattern of findings was observed only for cortisol reactivity and not for interleukin-6 reactivity. Findings suggest that psychological resources may counteract the effects of certain adversity-related decreases in cortisol reactivity.
Prior studies suggest that the influenza vaccine is protective against some outcomes in hospitalized patients infected with influenza despite vaccination. We utilized surveillance data from Columbus, Ohio to investigate this association over multiple influenza seasons and age groups. Data on laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations were collected as a part of the Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Project for the 2012–2013, 2013–2014, and 2014–2015 influenza seasons. The association between influenza vaccination status was examined in relation to the outcomes of severe influenza and diagnosis of pneumonia among patients receiving antiviral treatment. Data were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. We observed no overall association between influenza vaccination status and severe influenza among hospitalized patients. During the 2013–2014 season, those who were vaccinated were 41% less likely to be diagnosed with pneumonia compared with those who were unvaccinated (OR = 0·59 95% CI 0·41–0·86). The influenza vaccine may provide a secondary preventive function against pneumonia among influenza cases requiring hospitalization. However, a protective effect was only observed in 2013–2014, an influenza H1N1 dominant year. Differences in circulating influenza virus strains and vaccine matching to the circulating strains during influenza seasons may impact this association.
Within acute psychiatric inpatient services, patients exhibiting severely disturbed behaviour can be transferred to a psychiatric intensive care unit (PICU) and/or secluded in order to manage the risks posed to the patient and others. However, whether specific patient groups are more likely to be subjected to these coercive measures is unclear. Using robust methodological and statistical techniques, we aimed to determine the demographic, clinical and behavioural predictors of both PICU and seclusion.
Data were extracted from an anonymised database comprising the electronic medical records of patients within a large South London mental health trust. Two cohorts were derived, (1) a PICU cohort comprising all patients transferred from general adult acute wards to a non-forensic PICU ward between April 2008 and April 2013 (N = 986) and a randomly selected group of patients admitted to general adult wards within this period who were not transferred to PICU (N = 994), and (2) a seclusion cohort comprising all seclusion episodes occurring in non-forensic PICU wards within the study period (N = 990) and a randomly selected group of patients treated in these wards who were not secluded (N = 1032). Demographic and clinical factors (age, sex, ethnicity, diagnosis, admission status and time since admission) and behavioural precursors (potentially relevant behaviours occurring in the 3 days preceding PICU transfer/seclusion or random sample date) were extracted from electronic medical records. Mixed effects, multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed with all variables included as predictors.
PICU cases were significantly more likely to be younger in age, have a diagnosis of bipolar disorder and to be held on a formal section compared with patients who were not transferred to PICU; female sex and longer time since admission were associated with lower odds of transfer. With regard to behavioural precursors, the strongest predictors of PICU transfer were incidents of physical aggression towards others or objects and absconding or attempts to abscond. Secluded patients were also more likely to be younger and legally detained relative to non-secluded patients; however, female sex increased the odds of seclusion. Likelihood of seclusion also decreased with time since admission. Seclusion was significantly associated with a range of behavioural precursors with the strongest associations observed for incidents involving restraint or shouting.
Whilst recent behaviour is an important determinant, patient age, sex, admission status and time since admission also contribute to risk of PICU transfer and seclusion. Alternative, less coercive strategies must meet the needs of patients with these characteristics.
Human anthrax cases reported in the country of Georgia increased 75% from 2011 (n = 81) to 2012 (n = 142). This increase prompted a case-control investigation using 67 culture- or PCR-confirmed cases and 134 controls matched by residence and gender to investigate risk factor(s) for infection during the month before case onset. Independent predictors most strongly associated with disease in the multivariable modelling were slaughtering animals [odds ratio (OR) 7·3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·9–18·1, P < 0·001] and disposing of dead animals (OR 13·6, 95% CI 1·5–119·8, P = 0·02). Participants owning or working with livestock (n = 131) were additionally interviewed about livestock management practices during the previous 6 months: 53 (44%) of 121 respondents vaccinated livestock against anthrax; 19 (16%) of 116 moved livestock >1 km; 15 (12%) of 125 had sick livestock; and 11 (9%) of 128 respondents reported finding dead livestock. We recommend joint public health and veterinary anthrax case investigations to identify areas of increased risk for livestock anthrax outbreaks, annual anthrax vaccination of livestock in those areas, and public awareness education.
The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) will give us an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the transient sky at radio wavelengths. In this paper we present VAST, an ASKAP survey for Variables and Slow Transients. VAST will exploit the wide-field survey capabilities of ASKAP to enable the discovery and investigation of variable and transient phenomena from the local to the cosmological, including flare stars, intermittent pulsars, X-ray binaries, magnetars, extreme scattering events, interstellar scintillation, radio supernovae, and orphan afterglows of gamma-ray bursts. In addition, it will allow us to probe unexplored regions of parameter space where new classes of transient sources may be detected. In this paper we review the known radio transient and variable populations and the current results from blind radio surveys. We outline a comprehensive program based on a multi-tiered survey strategy to characterise the radio transient sky through detection and monitoring of transient and variable sources on the ASKAP imaging timescales of 5 s and greater. We also present an analysis of the expected source populations that we will be able to detect with VAST.
Although basic research on neuroimmune interactions suggests that inflammatory processes may play a role in the development of fatigue, population-based evidence on this association is limited. This study examined whether plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), biomarkers of systemic inflammation, predict fatigue onset.
The Whitehall II study is a large-scale cohort study conducted in 20 civil service departments in London. Plasma CRP and IL-6 were measured in 4847 non-fatigued participants at phase 3 (1991–1993, aged 39–63 years). Fatigue was assessed using the Vitality subscale of the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) at phase 3 and phase 4 (1995–1996).
During a mean follow-up of 3.1 years, 957 new fatigue cases (19.7%) were identified using the pre-established cut-off score of ⩽50 on the Vitality subscale. CRP values were dichotomized as low (<1.0 mg/l ) or high (⩾1.0 mg/l) using the Centers for Disease Control/American Heart Association recommendations. Similarly, IL-6 values were also dichotomized as low (<1.5 pg/ml) or high (⩾1.5 pg/ml). After full adjustment for sociodemographic and biobehavioral covariates, the odds ratios for new-onset fatigue were 1.28 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09–1.49, p = 0.003] for high CRP and 1.24 (95% CI 1.06–1.45, p = 0.008) for high IL-6. Similar results were found when CRP and IL-6 were treated as continuous variables.
Plasma CRP and IL-6 were prospectively associated with new-onset fatigue, supporting the hypothesis that low-grade inflammation has a role in the development of fatigue.
Postpartum depression (PPD) is a relatively common and often severe mood disorder that develops in women after childbirth. The aetiology of PPD is unclear, although there is emerging evidence to suggest a psychoneuroimmune connection. Additionally, deficiencies in n-3 PUFA, B vitamins, vitamin D and trace minerals have been implicated. This paper reviews evidence for a link between micronutrient status and PPD, analysing the potential contribution of each micronutrient to psychoneuroimmunological mechanisms of PPD. Articles related to PPD and women's levels of n-3 PUFA, B vitamins, vitamin D and the trace minerals Zn and Se were reviewed. Findings suggest that while n-3 PUFA levels have been shown to vary inversely with PPD and link with psychoneuroimmunology, there is mixed evidence regarding the ability of n-3 PUFA to prevent or treat PPD. B vitamin status is not clearly linked to PPD, even though it seems to vary inversely with depression in non-perinatal populations and may have an impact on immunity. Vitamin D and the trace minerals Zn and Se are linked to PPD and psychoneuroimmunology by intriguing, but small, studies. Overall, evidence suggests that certain micronutrient deficiencies contribute to the development of PPD, possibly through psychoneuroimmunological mechanisms. Developing a better understanding of these mechanisms is important for guiding future research, clinical practice and health education regarding PPD.
Silicon (Si) has been the dominating material platform of microelectronics over half century. Continuous technological advances in circuit design and manufacturing enable complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chips with increasingly high integration complexity to be fabricated in an unprecedently scale and economical manner. Conventional Si-based planar lightwave circuits (PLCs) has benefited from advanced CMOS technology but only demonstrate passive functionalities in most circumstances due to poor light emission efficiency and weak major electro-optic effects (e.g., Pockels effect, the Kerr effect and the Franz–Keldysh effect) in Si. Recently, a new hybrid III-V-on-Si integration platform has been developed, aiming to bridge the gap between Si and III-V direct-bandgap materials for active Si photonic integrated circuit applications. Since then high-performance lasers, amplifiers, photodetectors and modulators, etc. have been demonstrated. Here we review the most recent progress on hybrid Si lasers and high-speed hybrid Si modulators. The former include distributed feedback (DFB) lasers showing over 10 mW output power and up to 85 oC continuous-wave (cw) operation, compact hybrid microring lasers with cw threshold less than 4 mA and over 3 mW output power, and 4-channel hybrid Si AWG lasers with channel space of 360 GHz. Recently fabricated traveling-wave electro-absorption modulators (EAMs) and Mach-Zehnder interferometer modulators (MZM) on this platform support 50 Gb/s and 40 Gb/s data transmission with over 10 dB extinction ratio, respectively.
In this study, we use a quantum well (QW) probe structure to explore the size dependent effects of sidewall recombination in GaN. Mesas 0.8-7 μm in width with pitches of 4 μm, 8 μm, and 12 μm were etched into the QW probe structure, exposing the QW at the sidewalls. Several etch conditions were investigated. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements, using a He-Cd laser as an excitation source and laser spot size of approximately 230 μm, were taken before and after the mesas were etched. The effects of sidewall formation were quantified by comparing the maximum PL intensity of the QW before and after etch. Higher remaining PL intensity was observed for etch conditions which used both Ar ions and Cl2 gas instead of only Ar ions. The fraction of remaining PL decreased with decreasing mesa width, however the remaining PL intensity was relatively large even for small features. The preliminary data suggested that GaN is relatively insensitive to sidewall damage.
A series of mechanical tests have been conducted on bonded silicon to silicon (native oxide present only) and oxide to oxide wafers at several times and temperatures. Tensile tests have been designed to evaluate the strength of the bond. Tensile tests have been conducted over the full range of bond strengths ranging from the weak van der Waals forces to the full silicon bonds.
Progress on mid-infrared photodetectors fabricated by the liquid phase epitaxial growth of GaInAsSb, InAsSbP, and AlGaAsSb on GaSb and InAs substrates is reported. GaInAsSb p/n and p-i-n detectors, InAsSbP p/n detectors and AlGaAsSb/GaInAsSb avalanche photodiode (APD) structures were fabricated. Preliminary results indicate that these devices can have higher detectivity with lower cooling requirements than commercially available detectors in the same wavelength range. Infrared p/n junction detectors made from GaInAsSb and InAsSbP showed cut-off wavelengths of 2.3.μm and 2.8. μm respectively. Room temperature background noiselimited detectivity (D*BLIP) of 4 × 1010 cmHz1/2/W for GaInAsSb detectors and 4 × 108 cmHz1/2/W for InAsSbP was measured. Room-temperature avalanche multiplication gain of 20 was measured on AlGaAsSb/GaInAsSb avalanche photodiodes.
Blue-emitting nitride laser diodes have been fabricated on a-plane sapphire (1120). The active region is composed of 10 In.18Ga.82N quantum wells, which were grown by MOCVD at atmospheric and low pressure in a modified two-flow Thomas-Swan Ltd. horizontal reactor. The chemical precursors used were trimethylgallium (TMGa), trimethylindium (TMIn), trimethylaluminum (TMAI), ammonia, and disilane. The n- and p-contacts were formed by depositing Ti/Al/Ni/Au and Ni/Au/Ni/Au, respectively. Diode wafers were thinned to less than 50 μm before they were cleaved along the sapphire r-plane (1120).Lasers show TE polarization, spectral line narrowing, and far field interference patterns above the lasing threshold. The laser emission spectra peak at 410–420 nm. Under pulsed operation at room temperature, the lowest observed threshold current density was 15 kA/cm2 with threshold voltages ranging from 50–90 V. Differential efficiencies are as high as 7% with maximum output powers greater than 50 mW. Near and far field mode patterns are presented. Structures are gain-guided devices with each device occupying a mesa with a width of 125 μm. Device widths range from 3 to 20 μm, with lengths of 500 to 1200 μm.
Basal plane sapphire is a common substrate for the heteroepitaxy of GaN. This presents a challenge for fabrication of cleaved facet GaN lasers because the natural cleavage planes in (0001) α-A12O3 are not perpendicular to the wafer surface. This paper describes a method for achieving perpendicular cleaved facets through wafer fusion that can potentially be used to fabricate GaN based in-plane lasers. We demonstrate successful fusion of GaN to InP without voids or oxide at the interface and fabricate optically flat cleaved GaN facets that are parallel to the crystallographic planes of the host InP. I-V measurements have been performed across the n-N fused interface. These results show that the fused interface exhibits a barrier for electrons passing from the InP to the GaN and ohmic conduction of electrons moving in the opposite direction.
We report the fabrication and characterization of thin film power generators composed 400 p- and n-type ErAs:InGaAs/InGaAlAs superlattice thermoelectric elements. The thermoelectric elements incorporate erbium arsenide metallic nanoparticles into the semiconductor superlattice structure to provide charge carriers and create scattering centers for phonons. 10 µm p- and n-type InGaAs/InGaAlAs superlattices with embedded ErAs nano-particles were grown on InP substrates using molecular beam epitaxy. Thermal conductivity values were measured using the 3ω method and cross-plane Seebeck coefficients were determined using Seebeck device test patterns. 400 element ErAs:InGaAs/InGaAlAs thin film power generators were fabricated from superlattice elements 10 µm thick and 200 µm × 200 µm in area. The output power was 4.7 milliwatts for an external electrical load resistor of 150 Ω at about 80 K temperature difference drop across the generator. We discuss the limitations to the generator's performance and provide suggestions for further improvement.