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The current study evaluated the effect of sowing date (early, mid-August or timely, mid-September) on two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (Hereford, Mariboss) with different rates of nitrogen (N) (0–225 kg total N/ha) applied as animal manure (AM; cattle slurry) or mineral fertilizers (N: phosphorus: potassium; NPK). Overwinter plant N uptake and soil mineral N content were determined during 2014/15, while harvest yields (grain, straw, N content) were determined during 2014/15 and 2015/16. Overwinter uptake of N was 14 kg N/ha higher in early than in timely-sown wheat. Despite very different yield levels in 2015 and 2016 harvests, the advantage of early sowing on grain yields was similar (1.1 and 0.9 t/ha); straw yield benefits were greater in 2015 (1.7 t/ha more) than in 2016 (0.4 t/ha more). In 2015 and 2016, N offtake was 35 and 17 kg N/ha higher in early than in timely-sown wheat, respectively. The mineral N fertilizer value of cattle slurry averaged 50%. Early sowing increased the apparent N recovery (ANR) for wheat regardless of nutrient source. However, ANR was substantially higher for NPK (82% in 2015; 52% in 2016) than for AM (39% in 2015; 27% in 2016). Performance of the two cultivars did not differ consistently with respect to the effect of early sowing on crop yield, N concentration and offtake, or ANR. Within the north-west European climatic region, moving the sowing time of winter wheat from mid-September to mid-August provides a significant yield and N offtake benefit.
Using district population in Spain between 1860 and 1991, recorded approximately every decade, this article examines whether initial population affects subsequent population growth. While such a relationship between these two variables hardly existed during the second half of the nineteenth century, this link increased significantly between 1910 and 1970, although this trend was abruptly interrupted by the Civil War and the autarkic period that followed. The intensity of this relationship decreased in the 1970s, a process that continued during the 1980s. Our findings also stress that agglomeration economies were stronger in medium-size districts, especially from 1960 onwards.
The central star of NGC 2346 is a well known binary with an A-type primary and a hot companion (Méndez and Niemela 1981). The star went through a series of periodic light variations which ceased in 1986 and were interpreted as an eclipse of a dust cloud passing in front of the binary system (e.g. Méndez et al. 1982, Costero et al. 1986). Recently, light variations reappeared with shallower minima compared to the previous eclipse (e.g. Kohoutek et al. 1992).
The spectra of objects suffering extinction by diffuse interstellar dust contain a broad feature centered at ~3300 cm−1 (~3.0 μm), attributed to O-H stretching vibrations, and/or a feature near 2950 cm−1 (3.4 μm) attributed to C-H stretching vibrations. The 2950 cm−1 feature can be attributed to C-H stretching vibrations in the -CH2- and -CH3 groups of a fairly complex carbonaceous material containing aliphatic functional groups.
GM24 is a small visible nebulosity in the vicinity of a molecular cloud. In this contribution we present the results of continuum (6-cm) and CO line (J = 1 → 0) radio observations, infrared maps, broad-band photometry and low-resolution spectroscopy as well as long-slit Echelle Ha spectroscopy. We found evidence that the GM24 = PP85 nebula is part of a larger region where star formation occurred in the past 104 years; the region is embedded in a typical molecular cloud with a dimension of ∼ 10 pc and mass of ∼104 M⊙. A compact radio H II region seems to be associated with GM24 and with one of the mid-infrared peaks detected. The nebula is most probably the visible part of an embedded H II region that is starting to emerge from the cloud. The other infrared peaks found in its vicinity (∼ 1 pc) are probably associated with less evolved stellar objects. The complex also shows an extended near-infrared flux which we believe to arise in a reflection nebula. From energy arguments, we found that the luminosity required to power the H II region and keep the cloud at the observed large temperature (TK ≅33 K), is ∼105 L⊙ which is consistent with the infrared total flux from the present measurements and those from IRAS of 4x104 L⊙; this corresponds to the flux of ∼3 BO ZAMS stars. The details of the present work have appeared in the Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Volume 11, 83, 1985.
The photometric behaviour of AGK3-0°965, the central star of the bipolar planetary nebula NGC 2346, has been monitored photometrically for several months at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at Tonantzintla and San Pedro Mértir, Mexico. A model is proposed in which the eclipses were caused by the passage of an elongated cool dust cloudlet of size ~ 2–5 × 1012 cm and total mass ~ 10−12 M⊙. This model can explain most of the observations. The velocity of the cloud in the direction of the major axis of the projected central binary orbit is vp = 0.14 km s−1. Another warmer (T ≲ 1000 K) circumstellar cloud is responsible for the infrared excess at wavelengths from 3 to 12 μm. Its emission, as seen from the Earth, has not changed significantly at λ > 3 μm during the past twelve years, as shown by new infrared observations also reported. Its most relevant physical properties are still to be determined. The present results provide the first evidence of a dense circumstellar cloudlet of mass similar to that of a minor planet which is probably the result of the fragmentation of a disk or toroid around the central star of NGC 2346. Although the presence of many other similar cloudlets in its vicinity is expected, the probability of similar events occurring in the next few hundred years is very small.
The details of the present work will be published in the Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica.
The total solar eclipse of July 11, 1991 was observed from “La Matanza”, Baja California Sur, México, only 5 km south of the center line of totality, with several small instruments intended to obtain images of the corona during totality, and using a range of exposure times which allowed us to detect both the inner and outer corona. Relations between large and fine scale structures of the corona, the photospheric and chromospheric activity, and the presence of coronal holes are presented.
High dispersion time-resolved spectrograms of the dwarf nova SS Cygni, obtained with the Echelle-Mepsicron system, show double peaked emission lines with a complex profile. The intensity of the Hβ line appears to be modulated by the orbital period. Radial velocity measurements of the wings of Hβ and of the absorption line system of the late-type star yield semiamplitude values of Kem = 101 ± 6 km s−1 and Kab = 151 ± 7 km s−1, respectively. Radial velocity measurements of the blue and red peaks and of the central absorption of Hβ reveal a synchronous movement with the broad wings, although there is some evidence of a narrow component probably associated with a hot spot in the disk or a chromospheric emission line from the secondary star. The Hβ modulation, the double profile and recently discovered UBV light variations support an inclination angle i ~ 50°. The masses of the primary and secondary stars using this angle and the observed semiamplitudes are Mp = 0.60 M⊙ and Ms = 0.40 M⊙, respectively. A detailed analysis of the absorption lines reveals a spectral type of K2V.
The results of photometric and spectroscopic observations of dwarf novae are presented. The data were obtained during an international program of multiwavelength observations, held in 1986 February at several observatories, of dwarf novae during the first and subsequent days of outburst. During the campaign numerous dwarf novae were monitored in order to catch them in outburst. Preliminary results and analysis of some objects are reported elsewhere. A total of 30 dwarf novae were observed in the northern and southern hemispheres. Among them 37% were caught in outburst, including 10% on the rise to outburst and 17% in decline. Photometric observations were carried out in the UBVRI system and colour indexes were calculated.
Use of cooled and frozen semen is becoming increasingly prevalent in the equine industry. However, these procedures cause harmful effects in the sperm cell resulting in reduced cell lifespan and fertility rates. Apoptosis and necrosis-related events are increased during semen cryopreservation. However, a third type of cell death, named autophagy, has not been studied during equine semen storage. Light chain (LC)3 protein is a key component of the autophagy pathway. Under autophagy activation, LC3-I is lipidated and converted to LC3-II. The ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I is widely used as a marker of autophagy activation. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether LC3 is processed during cooling, freezing and the stressful conditions associated with these technologies. A secondary objective was to determine if LC3 processing can be modulated and if that may improve the quality of cryopreserved semen. LC3 processing was studied by Western blot with a specific antibody that recognized both LC3-I and LC3-II. Viability was assessed by flow cytometry. Modulation of LC3-I to LC3-II was studied with known autophagy activators (STF-62247 and rapamycin) or inhibitors (chloroquine and 3-MA) used in somatic cells. The results showed that conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II increased significantly during cooling at 4°C, freezing/thawing and each of the stressful conditions tested (UV radiation, oxidative stress, osmotic stress and changes in temperature). STF-62247 and rapamycin increased the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and decreased the viability of equine sperm, whereas chloroquine and 3-MA inhibited LC3 processing and maintained the percentage of viable cells after 2 h of incubation at 37°C. Finally, refrigeration at 4°C for 96 h and freezing at −196°C in the presence of chloroquine and 3-MA resulted in higher percentages of viable cells. In conclusion, results showed that an ‘autophagy-like’ mechanism may be involved in the regulation of sperm viability during equine semen cryopreservation. Modulation of autophagy during these reproductive technologies may result in an improvement of semen quality and therefore in higher fertility rates.
The past two decades have seen a significant advancement in the detection, classification and understanding of exoplanets and binary star systems. The vast majority of these systems consist of stars on the main sequence or on the giant branch, leading to a dearth of knowledge of properties at early times (<50 Myr). Only one transiting planet candidate and a dozen eclipsing binaries are known among pre-main sequence objects, yet these are the systems that can provide the best constraints on stellar and planetary formation models. We have recently completed a photometric survey of 3 young (<50 Myr), nearby (D<150 pc) moving groups with a small-aperture instrument, nicknamed “AggieCam”. We detected 7 candidate Hot Jupiters and over 200 likely pre-main sequence binaries, which are now being followed up photometrically and spectroscopically.
The impact of the privatisation of the commons remains a contested topic throughout the social sciences. Focusing on the Spanish case, this article reviews the literature and provides an overall assessment of this historical process based on recent research. Common lands appear to have been reasonably well managed and their dismantling did not foster agricultural productivity. Instead, the privatisation process negatively affected the economic situation of a large proportion of rural households and local councils, as well as deteriorating the stock of social capital. Therefore, the long-standing belief in the existence of a trade-off between equity and efficiency actually turns out to be misleading.
By analyzing the different factors affecting labor agricultural productivity in early-twentieth-century Spain, this article shows that common lands were not detrimental to agricultural development. Even though privatization fostered output per worker by bringing more land into cultivation, the role of the commons as provider of pasture and fertilizing materials counteracted that effect, especially in humid regions. The supposed advantages of dismantling the communal regime are thus not supported by the data.
Un cas exceptionnel de radiothérapie peropératoire intracardiaque a nécessité l’organisation de ce traitement administrativement, mais aussi en terme de radioprotection. En effet, le traitement devait être effectué dans un établissement non prévu pour des irradiations. Nous avons donc dû préparer, informer, simuler avant la réalisation. Avec l’énergie des photons de 50 kVp et les précautions prises il n’y a eu aucune incidence sur le personnel et l’environnement. Ce cas montre qu’il est possible d’envisager une externalisation de la radiothérapie peropératoire sous réserve des procédures d’autorisation et des mesures de radioprotection.
This chapter reviews evidence concerning the vital role that temporal dynamics can have in the ecology of trees and other long-lived species in the assembly and maintenance of natural communities. The research synthesised here was stimulated by a desire to determine the action of temporal dynamics in nature, and its implications for the nature of competition, community structure and assembly on multiple scales and across a range of climatic conditions. For the most part, the results discussed concern tropical forests, but we think they provide strong support for a more general view that can be applied across biomes. Finally, we ask if there may be a potential role for temporal dynamics in speciation, in light of what we have learned from the tropical trees.
A field programme begun in the late ’90s in the tropical dry forest of México was consciously designed to study the coexistence of closely related species in a very speciose community, but the role of temporal dynamics had not been suspected and its finding was serendipitous. With centuries-long lifespans, decades-long juvenile stages and low population turnover rates, trees are problematic candidates for demographic analyses, either observational or experimental. Unless instant death is involved, the particular hurdle with trees, as with any long-lived organism, is directly connecting any specific response in the early life of the individual with the long-term individual persistence or character of the standing population. However, trees differ from many long-lived organisms in carrying their history in their structure at both the individual and population levels. Thus, a tree population itself documents individual success over the history of the population (Parker et al. 1997, Cole et al. 2011). The distribution of a population with regard to physical conditions, size and age structure and relative to other woody species all contain information on the ecology and interactions of species (e.g. Veblen 1989, 1992, Villalba and Veblen 1998, Kelly et al. 2001) and it was the age structure of populations that revealed the action of temporal dynamics at Chamela Biological Station.
The slow growth of the stock of human capital in Spain has been related to weak levels of economic development and a low commitment of Spanish institutions to primary education. This paper adds to these explanations by showing that common lands positively contributed to achieving significantly higher levels of both schooling expenditure and literacy rates. By supporting both municipal and households’ incomes, these collective resources sustained not only the local supply of education, but also the demand for it, although their influence decreased over time. Likewise, either low levels of economic development prevented human capital from growing endogenously or demand factors were not as important as previously argued. Lastly, even though the active intervention of the central government was crucial to promote education, its effort was not enough and human capital in Spain lagged behind other European countries in the early stages of economic development.