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The benefits of no-till fallow, which include reduced soil erosion, improved soil health, and increased stored soil water, are in jeopardy due to the widespread development of glyphosate resistance in Russian-thistle. The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of soil-active, residual herbicides for Russian-thistle control in no-till fallow. Sulfentrazone + carfentrazone, flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone, and metribuzin were each applied in late fall, late winter, and split-applied in late fall and late winter at three sites: Adams, OR in 2017-2018; Lind, WA in 2018-2019; and Ralston, WA in 2019-2020. All treatments provided good to excellent control of the initial flush of Russian-thistle when assessed in mid-May, except the late fall application of metribuzin at all three sites, and the late fall application of sulfentrazone + carfentrazone at Adams. Cumulative Russian-thistle densities, evaluated monthly throughout the fallow season, were lowest for the sulfentrazone + carfentrazone treatments, except for the late fall application at Adams. However, flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone and metribuzin provided greater control of tumble mustard and prickly lettuce than sulfentrazone + carfentazone. Sulfentrazone + carfentrazone, flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone, and metribuzin can all be used for Russian-thistle control in fallow. To reduce the risk for crop injury to subsequently planted winter wheat, a late fall application of sulfentrazone + carfentrazone may be the preferred treatment in low rainfall regions where winter wheat-fallow is commonly practiced. A late winter application may be preferred in higher rainfall regions where a three-year rotation (e.g., winter wheat-spring wheat-fallow) is common. Flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone should be considered if other broadleaf weeds, such as tumble mustard or prickly lettuce, are of concern. The use of these soil-applied herbicides will reduce the need for the frequent application of glyphosate for Russian-thistle control in no-till fallow.
Harvest weed seed control (HWSC) may control problematic weeds by decreasing contributions to the weed seed bank. However, HWSC practices will not be effective if plants have shed a great part of their seeds before harvest, or if a low proportion of seed production is retained at a height that enables collection during harvest. The seed shattering pattern of several weed species was evaluated over three growing seasons to determine their potential to be controlled with HWSC in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). The studied weed species were downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.), feral rye (Secale cereale L.), Italian ryegrass [Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot,], and rattail fescue [Vulpia myuros (L.) C.C. Gmel.]. Seed retention at harvest, seed production, and plant height differed among species, locations, and years. Environmental conditions influenced seed shattering patterns, particularly the time plants started to shatter seeds and the rate of the shattering. Agronomic factors such as herbicide use, inter-row space, or crop height/vigor also seemed to affect shattering patterns and seed production, but more specific studies must be conducted to determine their individual effects. Bromus tectorum, L. perenne ssp. multiflorum, and V. myuros had an average seed retention at harvest of less than 50%. In addition, the low seed retention height of V. myuros makes this species a poor candidate for HWSC. Secale cereale had average seed retention at harvest greater than 50% and seed retention height was greater than 30 cm. The variability of seed retention in different species will make the efficacy of HWSC practices species and environment dependent in PNW winter wheat cropping systems. Harvesting the wheat crop as early as possible will be crucial to the success of HWSC.
The COVID-19 pandemic and mitigation measures are likely to have a marked effect on mental health. It is important to use longitudinal data to improve inferences.
To quantify the prevalence of depression, anxiety and mental well-being before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Also, to identify groups at risk of depression and/or anxiety during the pandemic.
Data were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) index generation (n = 2850, mean age 28 years) and parent generation (n = 3720, mean age 59 years), and Generation Scotland (n = 4233, mean age 59 years). Depression was measured with the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire in ALSPAC and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 in Generation Scotland. Anxiety and mental well-being were measured with the Generalised Anxiety Disorder Assessment-7 and the Short Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale.
Depression during the pandemic was similar to pre-pandemic levels in the ALSPAC index generation, but those experiencing anxiety had almost doubled, at 24% (95% CI 23–26%) compared with a pre-pandemic level of 13% (95% CI 12–14%). In both studies, anxiety and depression during the pandemic was greater in younger members, women, those with pre-existing mental/physical health conditions and individuals in socioeconomic adversity, even when controlling for pre-pandemic anxiety and depression.
These results provide evidence for increased anxiety in young people that is coincident with the pandemic. Specific groups are at elevated risk of depression and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic. This is important for planning current mental health provisions and for long-term impact beyond this pandemic.
Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) is an umbrella term for all drug and nondrug addictive behaviors, due to a dopamine deficiency, “hypodopaminergia.” There is an opioid-overdose epidemic in the USA, which may result in or worsen RDS. A paradigm shift is needed to combat a system that is not working. This shift involves the recognition of dopamine homeostasis as the ultimate treatment of RDS via precision, genetically guided KB220 variants, called Precision Behavioral Management (PBM). Recognition of RDS as an endophenotype and an umbrella term in the future DSM 6, following the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), would assist in shifting this paradigm.
Rush skeletonweed is an aggressive perennial weed that establishes itself on land in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), and persists during cropping following contract expiration. It depletes critical soil moisture required for yield potential of winter wheat. In a winter wheat/fallow cropping system, weed control is maintained with glyphosate and tillage during conventional fallow, and with herbicides only in no-till fallow. Research was conducted for control of rush skeletonweed at two sites in eastern Washington, Lacrosse and Hay, to compare the effectiveness of a weed-sensing sprayer and broadcast applications of four herbicides (aminopyralid, chlorsulfuron + metsulfuron, clopyralid, and glyphosate). Experimental design was a split-plot with herbicide and application type as main and subplot factors, respectively. Herbicides were applied in the fall at either broadcast or spot-spraying rates depending on sprayer type. Rush skeletonweed density in May was reduced with use of aminopyralid (1.1 plants m−2), glyphosate (1.4 plants m−2), clopyralid (1.7 plants m−2), and chlorsulfuron + metsulfuron (1.8 plants m−2) compared with the nontreated check (2.6 plants m−2). No treatment differences were observed after May 2019. There was no interaction between herbicide and application system. Area covered using the weed-sensing sprayer was, on average, 52% (P < 0.001) less than the broadcast application at the Lacrosse location but only 20% (P = 0.01) at the Hay location. Spray reduction is dependent on foliar cover in relation to weed density and size. At Lacrosse, the weed-sensing sprayer reduced costs for all herbicide treatments except aminopyralid, with savings up to US$6.80 per hectare. At Hay, the weed-sensing sprayer resulted in economic loss for all products because of higher rush skeletonweed density. The weed-sensing sprayer is a viable fallow weed control tool when weed densities are low or patchy.
To compare neuropsychological functions of individuals at risk (IR) for psychosis and patients with a first episode of psychosis (FE) with healthy control subjects (HC). And to determine cognitive factors which have the potential to discriminate IR with (IRtrans) and without (IRnon-trans) transition to psychosis.
N = 60 prodromal IR and N = 51 healthy control subjects were assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Besides general intelligence the test battery covered two functional domains (executive and attentional functions) and working memory. Within a follow up period of at least 30 month N = 19 IR transited to psychosis and N = 30 IR still have been followed up.
For each patient group (FE and IR), cognitive profiles were constructed by means of z-values adjusted for demographic and medication influence. The HC mean performance level was used as baseline of each group profile. A further profile was constructed by differential values considering IRtrans versus IRnon-trans. Comparisons were carried out by MANOVA and post- hoc t-tests.
In all functional domains FE and IR performed below HC except for specific sustained attention measures. There were no significant differences between FE and IR.
Executive functions and working memory measures were more compromised in IRtrans as compared to IRnon-trans.
Neuropsychological deficiencies precede psychotic breakdown. This indicates that neuropsychological assessments of affected domains may support early detection of psychosis.
Loneliness is a growing public health issue in the developed world. Among older adults, loneliness is a particular challenge, as the older segment of the population is growing and loneliness is comorbid with many mental as well as physical health issues. Comorbidity and common cause factors make identifying the antecedents of loneliness difficult, however, contemporary machine learning techniques are positioned to tackle this problem.
This study analyzed four cohorts of older individuals, split into two age groups – 45–69 and 70–79 – to examine which common psychological and sociodemographic are associated with loneliness at different ages. Gradient boosted modeling, a machine learning technique, and regression models were used to identify and replicate associations with loneliness.
In all cohorts, higher emotional stability was associated with lower loneliness. In the older group, social circumstances such as living alone were also associated with higher loneliness. In the younger group, extraversion's association with lower loneliness was the only other confirmed relationship.
Different individual and social factors might underlie loneliness differences in distinct age groups. Machine learning methods have the potential to unveil novel associations between psychological and social variables, particularly interactions, and mental health outcomes.
Nutritional factors and infectious agents may contribute to paediatric growth deficits in low- and middle-income countries; however, the contribution of enteric pathogens is only beginning to be understood. We analysed the stool from children <5 years old from an open cohort, cluster-randomised controlled trial of a point-of-collection water chlorinator in urban Bangladesh. We compared the presence/absence of 15 enteric pathogens detected via multiplex, molecular methods in the stool with concurrent Z-scores/Z-score cut-offs (−2 standard deviations (s.d.)) for height-for-age (HAZ/stunting), weight-for-age (WAZ/underweight) and weight-for-height (WHZ/wasting), adjusted for sociodemographic and trial-related factors, and measured caregiver-reported diarrhoea. Enteric pathogen prevalence in the stool was high (88% had ≥1 enteric pathogen, most commonly Giardia spp. (40%), Salmonella enterica (33%), enterotoxigenic E. coli (28%) and Shigella spp. (27%)) while reported 7-day diarrhoea prevalence was 6%, suggesting high subclinical infection rates. Many children were stunted (26%) or underweight (24%). Adjusted models suggested Giardia spp. detection was associated with lower HAZ (−0.22 s.d., 95% CI −0.44 to 0.00; prevalence ratio for stunting: 1.39, 95% CI 0.94–2.06) and potentially lower WAZ. No pathogens were associated with reported diarrhoea in adjusted models. Giardia spp. carriage may be associated with growth faltering, but not diarrhoea, in this and similar low-income settings. Stool-based enteric pathogen detection provides a direct indication of previous exposure that may be useful as a broader endpoint of trials of environmental interventions.
Diet modifies the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), and inconclusive evidence suggests that yogurt may protect against CRC. We analysed the data collected from two separate colonoscopy-based case–control studies. The Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study (TCPS) and Johns Hopkins Biofilm Study included 5446 and 1061 participants, respectively, diagnosed with hyperplastic polyp (HP), sessile serrated polyp, adenomatous polyp (AP) or without any polyps. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to derive OR and 95 % CI to evaluate comparisons between cases and polyp-free controls and case–case comparisons between different polyp types. We evaluated the association between frequency of yogurt intake and probiotic use with the diagnosis of colorectal polyps. In the TCPS, daily yogurt intake v. no/rare intake was associated with decreased odds of HP (OR 0·54; 95 % CI 0·31, 0·95) and weekly yogurt intake was associated with decreased odds of AP among women (OR 0·73; 95 % CI 0·55, 0·98). In the Biofilm Study, both weekly yogurt intake and probiotic use were associated with a non-significant reduction in odds of overall AP (OR 0·75; 95 % CI 0·54, 1·04) and (OR 0·72; 95 % CI 0·49, 1·06) in comparison with no use, respectively. In summary, yogurt intake may be associated with decreased odds of HP and AP and probiotic use may be associated with decreased odds of AP. Further prospective studies are needed to verify these associations.
The giant carnivorous phorusrhacid bird Phorusrhacos longissimus (Aves, Cariamiformes) was first described in 1887 by Florentino Ameghino on the basis of a jaw fragment. The majority of a skull of the species still encased in crumbling rock was preserved only long enough for illustrations to be made by Carlos Ameghino in the field and for a brief description to be written. Skull remains of this species have remained scarce, and few postcranial remains have been figured. Here, we reassess the cranial anatomy of this outstanding ‘terror bird’ species taking into account data from a newly discovered skull. An additional specimen of a well-preserved dorsal vertebra referable to Phorusrhacinae is also described from a separate locality within the Miocene Santa Cruz Formation (late early Miocene) from Santa Cruz Province in Argentina. The skull includes most of the rostrum, skull roof, and mandible and is compared with material from other members of the Phorusrhacinae. The new data from the skull and vertebra provide morphological features of this clade that benefit future taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses of this iconic group of birds.
The adoption of chemical fallow rotations in Pacific Northwest dryland winter wheat production has caused a weed species composition shift in which scouringrush has established in production fields. Thus, there has been interest in identifying herbicides that effectively control scouringrush in winter wheat–chemical fallow cropping systems. Field experiments were established in growers’ fields near Reardan, WA, in 2014, and The Dalles, OR, in 2015. Ten herbicide treatments were applied to mowed and nonmowed plots during chemical fallow rotations. Scouringrush stem densities were quantified the following spring and after wheat harvest at both locations. Chlorsulfuron plus MCPA-ester resulted in nearly 100% control of scouringrush through wheat harvest. Before herbicide application, mowing had no effect on herbicide efficacy. We conclude chlorsulfuron plus MCPA-ester is a commercially acceptable treatment for smooth and intermediate scouringrush control in winter wheat–chemical fallow cropping systems; however, the lack of a positive yield response when scouringrushes were controlled should factor into management decisions.
Recognising the significant extent of poor-quality care and human rights issues in mental health, the World Health Organization launched the QualityRights initiative in 2013 as a practical tool for implementing human rights standards including the United Nations Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) at the ground level.
To describe the first large-scale implementation and evaluation of QualityRights as a scalable human rights-based approach in public mental health services in Gujarat, India.
This is a pragmatic trial involving implementation of QualityRights at six public mental health services chosen by the Government of Gujarat. For comparison, we identified three other public mental health services in Gujarat that did not receive the QualityRights intervention.
Over a 12-month period, the quality of services provided by those services receiving the QualityRights intervention improved significantly. Staff in these services showed substantially improved attitudes towards service users (effect sizes 0.50–0.17), and service users reported feeling significantly more empowered (effect size 0.07) and satisfied with the services offered (effect size 0.09). Caregivers at the intervention services also reported a moderately reduced burden of care (effect size 0.15).
To date, some countries are hesitant to reforming mental health services in line with the CRPD, which is partially attributable to a lack of knowledge and understanding about how this can be achieved. This evaluation shows that QualityRights can be effectively implemented even in resource-constrained settings and has a significant impact on the quality of mental health services.
A point-prevalence study of antimicrobial use among inpatients at 5 public hospitals in Sri Lanka revealed that 54.6% were receiving antimicrobials: 43.1% in medical wards, 68.0% in surgical wards, and 97.6% in intensive care wards. Amoxicillin-clavulanate was most commonly used for major indications. Among patients receiving antimicrobials, 31.0% received potentially inappropriate therapy.
Optimization of production factors plays a central role in efficient milk production operations. Causal relationships between production parameters (health, fertility, feeding, performance and farm size) on the one hand and efficiency parameters on the other have been identified in several studies. In recent years, structural equation modelling (SEM) has not only gained importance in agriculture but also in milk production, providing the opportunity to investigate multilateral relationships. Additionally, SEM enables an estimation of parameters which are not themselves measurable, the so-called latent variables. The current study was based on the data of 943 branch settlements (including the years 2012 and 2013) of dairy farms keeping German Holstein cows in Schleswig-Holstein (Northern Germany) which provided a combination of the structural parameters, economic parameters and biological performance of the farms. An SEM using this combined data was applied to investigate the complexity of influences on efficiency parameters in milk production. Efficiency was sub-divided into and evaluated by two effect variables (economic efficiency and biological efficiency). Economic efficiency was defined as a conventional efficiency assessment criterion from full-cost accounting, whereas biological efficiency was used to evaluate the quality of herd management. Performance was identified as the key parameter for independent evaluation of efficiency by assessing biological (γ41 = 0.644) or economic efficiency (γ42 = 0.266). The SEM explained more than three times higher proportion of the variance in biological efficiency than in economic efficiency. The investigation proved the eligibility of partial least squares SEM for the evaluation of efficiency in milk production.
In 1994, the National Jointed Goatgrass Research Program was initiated with funding from a special USDA grant. The 15-yr program provided $4.1 million to support jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host.) research and technology transfer projects in 10 western states. These projects resulted in approximately 80 refereed manuscripts, including journal articles and extension publications. The research covered various topics related to the biology and ecology of jointed goatgrass as well as its management and control in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production systems. This review summarizes the research on jointed goatgrass published after Donald and Ogg’s 1991 review, most of which was conducted as part of the USDA-funded National Jointed Goatgrass Research Program. Specific topics that were studied and reviewed here include A. cylindrica genetics, especially as it relates to gene flow and hybridization rates with wheat and fertility of the resulting hybrids; vernalization requirements; seed dormancy, longevity, and germination requirements; competitiveness with wheat; and herbicide resistance acquired through evolution or gene flow from wheat. With respect to management, a wide variety of practices were evaluated, including various tillage types and frequencies; crop rotations, especially diversified wheat production systems that include spring-seeded annual crops; competitive wheat cultivars, seeding dates, seeding density, and row spacing; fertility management, including nitrogen application timing and placement; and field burning. Finally, many studies evaluated the use of herbicides, especially the introduction of imazamox in imidazolinone-resistant wheat cultivars, as well as comparison of adjuvant systems and application timings. In addition to the many management practices that were studied individually, several integrated management systems were evaluated that combined crop rotations, tillage, and herbicide programs. Between 1993 and 2013, weed scientists in 14 western states estimated that jointed goatgrass infestations decreased by 45% to 55% and attributed the reduction to the implementation of more diverse crop rotations, improved cultural practices, and use of imazamox-resistant wheat technology. This is evidence that the practical implications of the National Jointed Goatgrass Research Program have been successfully implemented by growers throughout the western United States.
Rush skeletonweed is emerging as a regionally important weed of winter wheat production in eastern Washington. Field studies were conducted during the 2016 and 2017 crop years to evaluate several auxin herbicides applied at two seasonal timings (fall or spring) for control of rush skeletonweed in winter wheat. Clopyralid (210 g ae ha-1) provided>90% visual control of rush skeletonweed in both years of the study and aminopyralid (10 g ae ha-1) provided>80% visual control. Aminocyclopyrachlor, dicamba, and 2,4-D provided<55% control of rush skeletonweed. Season of application did not meaningfully affect efficacy of any herbicide tested. Wheat yields were reduced by 39 to 69% compared to the non-treated check when aminocyclopyrachlor was applied in the spring. Clopyralid is an effective option for control of rush skeletonweed in Pacific Northwest winter wheat.
The diagnosis and control of Mycobacterium bovis infection (bovine tuberculosis: TB) continues to present huge challenges to the British cattle industry. A clearer understanding of the magnitude and duration of immune response to M. bovis infection in the European badger (Meles meles) – a wildlife maintenance host – may assist with the future development of diagnostic tests, and vaccination and disease management strategies. Here, we analyse 5280 diagnostic test results from 550 live wild badgers from a naturally-infected population to investigate whether one diagnostic test (a gamma interferon release [IFNγ] assay, n = 550 tests) could be used to predict future positive results on two other tests for the same disease (a serological test [n = 2342 tests] and mycobacterial culture [n = 2388 tests]) and hence act as an indicator of likely bacterial excretion or disease progression. Badgers with the highest IFNγ optical density (OD) values were most likely to subsequently test positive on both serological and culture tests, and this effect was detectable for up to 24 months after the IFNγ test. Furthermore, the higher the original IFNγ OD value, the greater the chance that a badger would subsequently test positive using serology. Relationships between IFNγ titres and mycobacterial culture results from different types of clinical sample suggest that the route of infection may affect the magnitude of immune response in badgers. These findings identify further value in the IFNγ test as a useful research tool, as it may help us to target studies at animals and groups that are most likely to succumb to more progressive disease.