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With the surging number of digital devices penetrating our daily routines, the risks inherent to cybersecurity—the protection of data on digital products connected to the Internet—have also increased since these devices (e.g., connected home devices, personal monitoring) collect, process, analyze and store users’ sensitive personal information. Thus, there is a pressing need to assist users in being aware of and dealing with potential cybersecurity threats. With the proposition that fulfilling the need starts with developing an in-depth understanding of the user behaviors in the context of cybersecurity, an exploratory study was conducted that employed three mixed qualitative and quantitative research methods—a trend analysis, an interview study, and an online survey study. The paper reports the user characteristics on (1) awareness levels of cybersecurity issues, (2) uses of digital devices, and (3) means of dealing with the privacy issues in product use. The results of the studies were translated into eight personas that systematically reflect distinct characteristics of users, which can help designers empathize with their potential users vulnerable to cybersecurity risks.
Residual stress is generally evaluated using indentation by comparing the indentation curves of stressed and stress-free states. Here, we suggest a new method that can evaluate surface residual stress without indentation testing on stress-free specimen using stress-independent indentation parameters and an analysis of indentation contact morphology for the stress-free state. We found that several indentation parameters are independent of the stress by Vickers indentation testing on various stress states. The indentation contact morphology can be represented by indentation parameters including stress-independent ones, and by applying the stress-independent parameters obtained from the stressed state to the indentation contact depth function, we can estimate an indentation curve for stress-free state. The estimated curve matches well with the experimental stress-free indentation curve, and it was also confirmed that the applied stress values evaluated by comparing the estimated curve with the stressed indentation curve agree well with the reference values obtained from strain gauge.
We investigated potential nosocomial aerosol transmission of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) with droplet precautions. During aerosol generating procedures, SFTSV was be transmitted from person to person through aerosols. Thus, airborne precautions should be added to standard precautions to avoid direct contact and droplet transmission.
Given that only a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia responds to first-line antipsychotic drugs, a key clinical question is what underlies treatment response. Observations that prefrontal activity correlates with striatal dopaminergic function, have led to the hypothesis that disrupted frontostriatal functional connectivity (FC) could be associated with altered dopaminergic function. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between frontostriatal FC and striatal dopamine synthesis capacity in patients with schizophrenia who had responded to first-line antipsychotic drug compared with those who had failed but responded to clozapine.
Twenty-four symptomatically stable patients with schizophrenia were recruited from Seoul National University Hospital, 12 of which responded to first-line antipsychotic drugs (first-line AP group) and 12 under clozapine (clozapine group), along with 12 matched healthy controls. All participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and [18F]DOPA PET scans.
No significant difference was found in the total PANSS score between the patient groups. Voxel-based analysis showed a significant correlation between frontal FC to the associative striatum and the influx rate constant of [18F]DOPA in the corresponding region in the first-line AP group. Region-of-interest analysis confirmed the result (control group: R2 = 0.019, p = 0.665; first-line AP group: R2 = 0.675, p < 0.001; clozapine group: R2 = 0.324, p = 0.054) and the correlation coefficients were significantly different between the groups.
The relationship between striatal dopamine synthesis capacity and frontostriatal FC is different between responders to first-line treatment and clozapine treatment in schizophrenia, indicating that a different pathophysiology could underlie schizophrenia in patients who respond to first-line treatments relative to those who do not.
We suggest a new method to evaluate stress directionality, the ratio of principal stresses, using nanoindentation by introducing a modified Berkovich indenter that is extended in one direction from the Berkovich indenter. In a nonequibiaxial stress state, the indentation load-depth curves are shifted differently as the extended axis of the indenter is placed in accordance with each principal direction. The indentation load-difference is proportional to each principal stress and the slopes are defined by the normal and parallel conversion factors whose ratio is constant at 0.58. The suggested method was verified by indentation tests using five nonequibiaxial stressed specimens. The evaluated stress directionality results show agreement with the applied reference values within ±20%. Furthermore, we calculated the conversion factor ratios for other modified Berkovich indenters extended to different degrees through finite element analysis and confirmed that the conversion factor ratio was inversely proportional to the extension of the modified Berkovich indenter.
A prominent large negative δ13Corg excursion and a coeval notable spike in mercury (Hg)/total organic carbon ratio are observed in the middle–upper Permian Gohan Formation in central Korea, located in the eastern Sino-Korean block (SKB), which may represent the Capitanian mass extinction event. The SKB was separated from the South China block by the eastern Palaeo-Tethys Ocean. This finding from the SKB supports the widespread Hg loading to the environment emitted from the Emeishan volcanic eruptions in SW China. This study demonstrates that the Hg cycle was globally perturbed in association with global carbon cycle perturbation that occurred during the Capitanian Extinction.
In the quest for dynamic multimodal probing of a material’s structure and functionality, it is critical to be able to quantify the chemical state on the atomic-/nanoscale using element-specific electronic and structurally sensitive tools such as electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Ultrafast EELS, with combined energy, time, and spatial resolution in a transmission electron microscope, has recently enabled transformative studies of photoexcited nanostructure evolution and mapping of evanescent electromagnetic fields. This article aims to describe state-of-the-art experimental techniques in this emerging field and its major uses and future applications.
Here, we report an experimental characterization of a new subcritical graphene nanostructure termed a crinkle ruga. Multilayer graphene forms crinkles as a periodic mode of buckling if the ratio of periodic buckling span to thickness is smaller than a critical value. Otherwise, it forms wrinkles. The crinkles have sawtooth-shaped profiles with their faces perfectly flat and the tips of the peaks and valleys highly curved. Our AFM measurements show that the width of the curvature focusing band at the tip is very narrow, e.g. smaller than 16 nm for a 6o crinkle, indicating a strong influence of flexoelectric coupling in crinkle formation. We also found that concavity or convexity of crinkle tips, i.e. parity of the crinkle, can be controlled. Due to the flexoelectric coupling, the concave tip at the crinkle valley is positively charged, and the convex tip at the crinkle peak negatively charged. In addition, here, we demonstrate that the charges at the crinkle tips can attract macromolecules in adsorption experiments. We show linearly-aligned adsorption of C60 along crinkle valleys on an HOPG surface. In another experiment, we exhibit period-doubled adsorption of lambda DNA on an HOPG surface, possibly caused by ion kinetics involved in the DNA adsorption along the crinkle valleys.
Introduction: Foreign patients often do not receive appropriate treatment in the emergency room as compared to locals. This is due to various causes such as language, insurance, and cultural differences. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a wide range of health inequalities among foreigners who visited the emergency room with injury and to find out what causes it. Methods: We analyzed clinical data from the National Emergency Department Information System(NEDIS) database, which visited the emergency room from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2015, in all age groups. Foreigners are classified based on the personal information described in the NEDIS. We analyzed the number of injuries, serious cases(death, operation, ICU admission), length of stay in ER, and transfer ratio. Results: A total of 4,464,603 cases of injured patients were included, of whom 67,683 were foreign patients. The incidence rate per 100,000 people per year was 2960.5 from locals and 1659.8 from foreigners. Serious outcomes were higher for foreigners than for locals(31.0% versus 23.2%, p<0.001). There was a further difference in the rural region. Length of stay was longer for foreigners(72 versus 69 minutes, median, p<0.001). The transfer rate was also higher for foreigners(1.9% versus 1.6%, p<0.001). Daegu had the highest ratio of foreigners’ injury compared to locals(ratio=0.998). Jeonnam(0.073) was the highest serious outcome rate in Korea, and Jeonbuk(0.070) was the second. The area with the longest length of stay in the Emergency department was the median 139 minutes for locals and 153 minutes for foreigners in Daegu. The more patients per day, the shorter the time spent in the emergency rooms(Spearman correlation coefficient=-0.388). This phenomenon was more prominent in locals(-0.624 versus -0.175). Multivariable logistic regression was used as a dependent variable for the serious outcomes of foreign patients. The foreign patients(OR=1.413, p<0.001), intention, no insurance, age, sex, urban area, low blood pressure, decreased consciousness, transfer, acuity, and length of stay were statistically significant. Conclusion: This study showed that there is a health inequality for foreigners who came to the emergency room due to injury in Korea. Also, serious outcomes from injury in foreigners have been shown to be related to various causes including factors of the foreigner.
Due to the lack of an effective prophylactic intervention and diagnosis, human liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis continues to afflict a large human population, causing a chronic inflammatory bile duct disease. With an aim to identify target antigens for sensitive serodiagnosis, adenylate kinase 3 of C. sinensis (CsAK3) was successfully expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli by fusion to an RNA-interacting domain derived from human Lys-tRNA synthetase and purified by Ni2+-affinity chromatography. Anti-CsAK3 serum was raised by immunization of mice, and Western blotting confirmed that CsAK3 was expressed in adult-stage C. sinensis. Histochemical analysis showed that CsAK3 was localized to the subtegumental tissue of C. sinensis and was excreted into the bile duct of the host. When tested against sera from various parasite-infected patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the recombinant CsAK3 elicited a specific response to C. sinensis-infected sera. The results suggest that CsAK3, either alone or in combination with other antigens, could be used for improving the clinical diagnosis of clonorchiasis.
Historically, patient access processes of new and innovative medical devices including in-vitro diagnostics are made in the sequence of regulatory approval, new Health Technology Assessment (nHTA) approval, reimbursement coverage and coding finally reaching the pricing approval stage in South Korea. Although the individual patient access process has its own distinct objective and perspective, there are still opportunities for the authorities or agencies in charge to streamline their processes by working together to promote earlier patient access of new and innovative medical devices to patients without impacting their own decision making.
This research examined and analyzed the current policies about: patient access processes with a holistic viewpoint, industry-wide survey about patient access practices; case studies of two innovative medical devices for patient access in South Korea and also proposed new or alternative programs which can contribute to patient access harmonization efforts with a holistic approach.
Historically, health authorities play defensive strategies by delaying the adoption of new and innovative medical devices and implementing certain periods (that is, 2 to 5 years) for a patient's out-of-pocket payment scheme. It is well illustrated with the statistic that only twenty-nine percent of new and innovative medical technologies which have successfully gone through the nHTA process were determined for reimbursement coverage in the past 7 years.
The survey by the medical device industry to determine the patient access lead-time of innovative medical devices with a holistic perspective indicated significantly delayed patient access even considerabley exceeding the legally required decision-making lead time. The in-depth case studies with two innovative devices indicated the disadvantageous patient access processes to the innovator in terms of both final approval timing and the price level.
The concurrent review process for reimbursement coverage decision making for medical procedures, medical devices and reimbursement coverage payment guidelines committed within the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service shall be created. New programs to deal with uncertainty in reimbursement coverage decision making shall be considered such as coverage with evidence development, performance-based risk-sharing arrangement, multi-criteria decision analysis and economic evaluation.
Spirituality is what gives people meaning and purpose in life, and it has been recognized as a critical factor in patients’ well-being, particularly at the ends of their lives. Studies have demonstrated relationships between spirituality and patient-reported outcomes such as quality of life and mental health. Although a number of studies have suggested that spiritual belief can be associated with mortality, the results are inconsistent. We aimed to determine whether spirituality was related to survival in advanced cancer inpatients in Korea.
For this multicenter study, we recruited adult advanced cancer inpatients who had been admitted to seven palliative care units with estimated survival of <3 months. We measured spirituality at admission using the Korean version of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-sp), which comprises two subscales: meaning/peace and faith. We calculated a Kaplan-Meier curve for spirituality, dichotomized at the predefined cutoffs and medians for the total scale and each of the two subscales, and performed univariate regression with a Cox proportional hazard model.
We enrolled a total of 204 adults (mean age: 64.5 ± 13.0; 48.5% female) in the study. The most common primary cancer diagnoses were lung (21.6%), colorectal (18.6%), and liver/biliary tract (13.0%). Median survival was 19.5 days (95% confidence interval [CI95%]: 23.5, 30.6). Total FACIT-sp score was not related to survival time (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.981, CI95% = 0.957, 1.007), and neither were the scores for its two subscales, meaning/peace (HR = 0.969, CI95% = 0.932, 1.008) and faith (HR = 0.981, CI95% = 0.938, 1.026).
Significance of results
Spirituality was not related to survival in advanced cancer inpatients in Korea. Plausible mechanisms merit further investigation.
To secure the reliability of flexible electronics, the effect of multicomponent stress on the device properties during complex mechanical deformation needs to be thoroughly understood. The electrical resistances of metal interconnects are investigated by in situ monitoring at different twisting angles and with different pattern positions. As the twisting angle increased, the electrical resistance increased earlier. Furthermore, in the line pattern located far from the central axis, severe electrical degradation and fatigue damage formation were observed. Multicomponent stress evolution during twisting was analyzed by the finite-element simulation method. For easy practical application for estimating the representative twisting strain, an analytic solution of twisting deformation was formulated and compared with the simulation. Using the equivalent strain, the fatigue lifetime was fitted, and the exponents were obtained for lifetime expectation. This systematic study provides the guidelines for highly reliable flexible devices and the tools for determining the expected fatigue lifetime.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: In this pilot case-control study, the metabolome was quantified in subjects with previously measured serum and clinical biomarkers. The serum metabolome was then integrated with existing serum and clinical biomarkers of WTC-exposed firefighters to identify pathways significant to loss of lung function following acute PM-exposure. This robust subset of metabolite and serum biomarkers may be clinically relevant to predicting progression to lung disease in a larger cohort. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Serum drawn within 6 months of 9/11 was analyzed in this pilot. Clinical measures were obtained from electronic medical records. Never-smoking, male, WTC-exposed firefighters with normal pre-9/11 lung function were segregated based on FEV1 percent predicted (FEV1 %Pred) at symptomatic presentation. Cases of WTC-LI (FEV1 %Pred <LLN, n=15) and controls (n=15) were identified from previous cohorts. Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy quantified the metabolomic fingerprints of a group with previously assessed (by multiplex panels; ELISA and Luminex) serum chemokines and cytokines. High-dimensional data analysis and dimension reduction techniques integrated metabolites, cytokines, chemokines, and clinical data to identify pathways of WTC-LI on curated data. Random Forest (RF) out-of-bag estimated success rates were used to measure classification utility of the refined biomarker profile. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to visualize class separation produced by the refined profile. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Of the 765 metabolites detected, 580 metabolites were quantified in more than 80% of subjects/group with relative standard deviation ≥15%. Relevant chemokines, cytokines, and clinical biomarkers were included based on previously established clinical importance. Initial PCA explained 34.7% of the variance in the first 3 components. RF was used to identify the top 5% of biomarkers important to class separation. RF of the refined biomarker profile correctly classified cases and controls with a 96.7% estimated success rate. A PCA of the refined metabolic profile now explained 46.2% of the variance in components 1–3, demonstrating improved class separation. Differentiators between cases of WTC-LI and controls included elevated sphingolipids in cases of WTC-LI. The metabolic-inflammatory serum biomarkers MDC, Apo AI, GM-CSF, and heart rate play an important role in class separation. Phospholipids and lysolipids also appeared to differentiate cases of WTC-LI from controls. Specifically, several glycero-phosphatidylcholines (GPC) were elevated in cases of WTC-LI. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: High-dimensional data analysis on the metabolic fingerprints, serum, and clinical biomarker data of a subset of WTC-exposed 9/11 rescue workers has identified pathways associated with the loss of lung function. Sphingolipids, known to function as inflammatory signaling mediators, are thought to play important roles in lung function under both physiological and pathological conditions. Changes in sphingolipid metabolism have been linked to several pulmonary disorders, including asthma, COPD, and acute lung injury. Interestingly, a relation between sphingolipid metabolism and the metabolic-inflammatory pathway is suggested by similarities observed in PCA. Findings of elevated GPCs are similar to COPD literature. Higher levels of GPCs could correspond to elevated levels of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a ligand of RAGE. RAGE is a known proinflammatory mediator; LPA species have well-described roles as lipid signaling molecules, function as synthetic intermediates in other metabolic pathways, and were found to be predictive of WTC-LI. Since metabolites are more proximal markers of disease processes, metabolites could capture the complexity of past exposures and, therefore, may better inform treatment. These pathways warrant further investigation into their mechanisms and therapeutic importance.
Rapid determination of the larval species composition and understanding of their genetic structure is important to establish the appropriate management system for multiple species infesting in fruits. We established accurate and rapid diagnostic methods based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnostic techniques to discriminate the three major lepidopteran species in orchard, Carposina sasakii, Grapholita dimorpha, and Grapholita molesta. Each species was identified by amplifying species-specific PCR products (375 bp for C. sasakii, 125 and 234 bp for G. dimorpha, and 125 bp for G. molesta). Based on species composition analysis from six types of infested fruits, G. dimorpha constituted the highest proportion (47.8%), followed by 35.2 and 13.5% for G. molesta and C. sasakii, respectively. Interestingly, high prevalence was found in G. dimorpha and G. molesta for plum and peach, respectively. Based on genetic diversity analysis, the three insect species exhibited moderate or high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity, ranging from 0.319 to 0.699 and 0.0006 to 0.0045, respectively. Demographic expansion was not detected according to either a neutrality test or mismatch distribution analysis. Moreover, no significant genetic structure corresponding to province, host plant, fruit type, or collection period was observed. These results suggest that the population of each species would have high dispersal ability following fruit-generating periods via intrinsic host adaptation ability regardless of the spatial and temporal conditions. Determination of larval composition on fruit is valuable for establishing appropriate management systems that take the species into consideration; additionally, population genetic approaches can be utilized to understand the effects of environmental factors (province, host fruit, fruit type, etc.) on population structures.