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Laser pulses of 200 ps with extremely high intensities and high energies are sufficient to satisfy the demand of shock ignition, which is an alternative path to ignition in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). This paper reports a type of Brillouin scheme to obtain high-intensity 200-ps laser pulses, where the pulse durations are a challenge for conventional pulsed laser amplification systems. In the amplification process, excited Brillouin acoustic waves fulfill the nonlinear optical effect through which the high energy of a long pump pulse is entirely transferred to a 200-ps laser pulse. This method was introduced and achieved within the SG-III prototype system in China. Compared favorably with the intensity of
in existing ICF laser drivers, a 6.96-
pulse with a width of 170 ps was obtained in our experiment. The practical scalability of the results to larger ICF laser drivers is discussed.
In this paper, we propose a method of using an autonomous flying robot to explore an underground tunnel environment and build a 3D map. The robot model we use is an extension of a 2D non-holonomic robot. The measurements and sensors we considered in the presented method are simple and valid in practical unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) engineering. The proposed safe exploration algorithm belongs to a class of probabilistic area search, and with a mathematical proof, the performance of the algorithm is analysed. Based on the algorithm, we also propose a sliding control law to apply the algorithm to a real quadcopter in experiments. In the presented experiment, we use a DJI Guidance sensing system and an Intel depth camera to complete the localization, obstacle detection and 3D environment information capture. Furthermore, the simulations show that the algorithm can be implemented in sloping tunnels and with multiple UAVs.
Residents of Hong Kong have undergone a dietary transition from a traditional Chinese diet that is high in seafood to a more Western diet. This may have affected the nutritional composition of breast milk of Hong Kong mothers. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between the dietary pattern and the fatty acid profile of the breast milk of lactating women in Hong Kong. Seventy-three volunteering healthy Hong Kong lactating mothers participated in the study. Their dietary intakes were assessed by using a 3-d dietary record and FFQ. The mean n-3 fatty acid levels were approximately 0·4 % (EPA) and 0·9 % (DHA) of total fatty acids in the breast milk of lactating mothers who had exclusively breastfed their infants aged 2–6 months. Maternal dietary intakes of n-3 fatty acids were positively associated with their levels in the breast milk. The levels of maternal intakes of freshwater and saltwater fish, especially the consumption of salmon, croaker and mandarin, were significantly correlated with the content of DHA in breast milk. The present study is among the very few in the literature to determine the fatty acid profile of breast milk in Hong Kong populations and verify certain dietary factors that influence this profile. High levels of n-3 PUFA, especially DHA, were observed in the breast milk of Hong Kong lactating women. The findings may serve as a dietary reference for lactating mothers to optimise the fatty acid profile of their breast milk.
Dipetalonema gracile is a common parasite in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), which can cause malnutrition and progressive wasting of the host, and lead to death in the case of massive infection. This study aimed to identify a suspected D. gracile worm from a dead squirrel monkey by means of molecular biology, and to amplify its complete mitochondrial genome by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence analysis. The results identified the worm as D. gracile, and the full length of its complete mitochondrial genome was 13,584 bp, which contained 22 tRNA genes, 12 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, one AT-rich region and one small non-coding region. The nucleotide composition included A (16.89%), G (20.19%), T (56.22%) and C (6.70%), among which A + T = 73.11%. The 12 protein-coding genes used TTG and ATT as start codons, and TAG and TAA as stop codons. Among the 22 tRNA genes, only trnS1AGN and trnS2UCN exhibited the TΨC-loop structure, while the other 20 tRNAs showed the TV-loop structure. The rrnL (986 bp) and rrnS (685 bp) genes were single-stranded and conserved in secondary structure. This study has enriched the mitochondrial gene database of Dipetalonema and laid a scientific basis for further study on classification, and genetic and evolutionary relationships of Dipetalonema nematodes.
In this paper, we carry out an investigation on modelling basis risk and measuring risk reduction in a longevity hedge constructed by index-based longevity swaps. We derive the fitting procedures of the M7-M5 and common age effect+Cohorts models and define the level of longevity risk reduction. Based on a wide range of hedging scenarios of pension plans, we find that the risk reduction levels are often around 50%–80% for a large plan, while the risk reduction estimates are usually smaller than 50% for a small plan. Moreover, index-based hedging looks more effective under a more precise hedging scheme. We also perform a detailed sensitivity analysis on the hedging results. The most important modelling features are the behaviour of simulated future variability, portfolio size, speed of reaching coherence, data size and characteristics, simulation method, and mortality structural changes.
To investigate the prevalence of canine and feline hookworms in South China, and to assess the risk of zoonotic hookworms to humans, one pair of primers (HRM-F/HRM-R) was designed to establish a high-resolution melting (HRM) method based on internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) rDNA for the detection of Ancylostoma ceylanicum, A. caninum and A. tubaeforme infection. The results showed that the HRM for the three hookworms produced different melting-curve profiles, where melting temperature (Tm) values were 84.50°C for A. ceylanicum, 82.25°C for A. caninum and 81.73°C for A. tubaeforme, respectively. The reproducibility of intra- and inter-assay melting curves was almost perfect. The lowest concentration detected was about 5.69 ×10−4 g/μl. The HRM detection results from 18 canine and feline hookworm samples were in complete accordance with their sequencing results. The HRM method was more sensitive than the polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique in the detection of 98 clinical samples. It is concluded that the HRM method can differentiate between A. ceylanicum, A. caninum, A. tubaeforme and their mixed infections, which may provide important technical support for the zoonotic risk assessment and molecular epidemiological survey of canine and feline hookworms.
The 2012 Dividend Tax Reform in China ties individual investors’ dividend tax rates to the length of their shareholding period. We find that firms facing a reduction (increase) in their individual investors’ dividend tax rates are more (less) likely to increase dividend payout. Such an effect is concentrated in firms where incentives of controlling shareholders and minority shareholders are aligned. Furthermore, investors respond to this tax law change by reducing trading activities before the cum-dividend day and successfully lower their dividend tax penalty. Overall, our evidence enhances the notion that individual investors’ tax profiles shape firms’ payout policies.
In this paper, a safe map building and area search algorithm for a mobile robot in a closed unknown environment with obstacles is presented. A range finder sensor is used to detect the environment. The objective is to perform a complete search of the environment and build a complete map of it while avoiding collision with the obstacles. The developed robot navigation algorithm is randomized. It is proved that with probability 1 the robot completes its task in a finite time. Computer simulations and experiments with a real Pioneer-3DX robot confirm the performance of the proposed method.
Ancylostoma tubaeforme may infect canids, felids and humans, and pose a potential risk to public health. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to amplify the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of A. tubaeforme from cats and to analyse its sequence characteristics after molecular identification based on the internal transcribed spacer ITS1+ sequence. The results show that the complete mt genome sequence (GenBank accession number KY070315) of A. tubaeforme from cats was 13,730 bp in length, including 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, two non-coding regions and an AT-rich region. The nucleotide content of A and T was 77.93%, biased toward A and T. Twelve protein-coding genes used ATT, TTG and GTG as initiation codons, and TAA, TAG, TA and T as termination codons. The length of the 22 tRNA genes ranged from 52 to 62 bp, their predicted secondary structures were D loops and V loops. The lengths of the two rRNAs were 958 and 697 bp. Phylogenetic analyses showed that A. tubaeforme from cats was in the lineage of Ancylostoma, having a close phylogenetic relationship with A. caninum. This study reports for the first time the mt genome of A. tubaeforme from cats in China, which could enhance the mt genome database of Ancylostomatidae nematodes, and it offers the scientific basis for further studies in the genetic diversity of hookworms among different hosts.
A free standing 2D PS colloidal crystal with Au nanoshells/hydrogel composite film (CAuHCF) was fabricated by embedding a 2D PS colloidal crystal with Au nanoshells into a polyacrylic acid (PAA) hydrogel film. This CAuHCF can act as a visualized sensor with high diffraction intensity. The 2D PS colloidal crystal with Au nanoshells was prepared by depositing an Au layer on PS colloidal crystal obtained by interfacial self-assembly. The diffraction intensity of the CAuHCF was increased by about 30-fold than that of traditional 2D PS colloidal crystal/hydrogel composite film on transparent substrate due to large scattering cross section of Au shell. Such sensors based Au nanoshells array with the simple preparation process and the strong diffraction signal are promising ones for practical applications in visual detection. Additionally, with the simple preparation process and high diffraction intensity, other visualized sensors based different hydrogel matrix and the 2D PS colloidal crystal with Au nanoshells could be synthesized for monitoring various analysts.
Graphene nanoribbons as a quasi-one-dimensional form of graphene has attracted intensive attention in energy related devices. Upon oxidation and cutting of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), highly dispersive graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs) were obtained, on which Zn2+ and Sn4+ can be homogenously deposited. The reduced graphene oxide nanoribbons (rGONRs)/Zn2SnO4 composite with a homogeneous distribution of nanoparticles on the nanoribbons have been prepared through facile in situ chemical co-reduction process. It is worth noting that the size of Zn2SnO4 particles tightly dispersed on rGONRs is about 15 nm. Benefit from the introduction of rGONRs, the specific surface area and electrode conductivity of rGONRs/Zn2SnO4 can both be effectively enhanced. The as-prepared rGONRs/Zn2SnO4 as anode material for lithium-ion batteries displays desirable electrochemical performance (727.2 mA h/g after 50 cycles at the current density of 100 mA/g), which is mainly attributed to the uniformly distributed Zn2SnO4 nanoparticles and the immobilizing and conducting effects of rGONRs.
Although longevity risk arises from both the variation surrounding the trend in future mortality and the uncertainty about the trend itself, the latter is often left unmodeled. In this paper, we address this problem by introducing the locally linear CBD model, in which the drifts that govern the expected mortality trend are allowed to follow a stochastic process. This specification results in median forecasts that are more consistent with the recent trends and more robust relative to changes in the data sample period. It also yields wider prediction intervals that may better reflect the possibilities of future trend changes. The treatment of the drifts as a stochastic process naturally calls for nuga hedging, a method proposed by Cairns (2013) to hedge the risk associated with changes in drifts. To improve the existing nuga-hedging method, we propose a new hedging method which demands less stringent assumptions. The proposed method allows hedgers to extract more hedge effectiveness out of a hedging instrument, and is therefore useful when there are only a few traded longevity securities in the market.
The effect of annealing treatment on the microstructures, mechanical, and wear properties of a CuZnAlMnSiNiCr brass alloy is investigated. The results indicate that nanosized Mn5Si3 particles are observed to precipitate from the β phase at temperatures above 750 °C. After annealing at 800 °C for 4 h, the formation of finely, coherent precipitates dispersed within the matrix results in the great improvement of strength, hardness and thus the high wear resistance, which can be proven by the decreased wear rates and friction coefficients. According to the examination of the wear topography, adhesive, abrasive, and oxidative wear are found to be the major wear forms during the dry sliding wear. After the precipitation-hardening treatment, the adhesion and abrasion decrease, and few spallings and cracks are observed on the worn surfaces. In addition, the wear behavior of the alloy is found to be strongly dependent on its strength and hardness.
A 100-J-level Nd:glass laser system in nanosecond-scale pulse width has been constructed to perform as a standard source of high-fluence-laser science experiments. The laser system, operating with typical pulse durations of 3–5 ns and beam diameter 60 mm, employs a sequence of successive rod amplifiers to achieve 100-J-level energy at 1053 nm at 3 ns. The frequency conversion can provide energy of 50-J level at 351 nm. In addition to the high stability of the energy output, the most valuable of the laser system is the high spatiotemporal beam quality of the output, which contains the uniform square pulse waveform, the uniform flat-top spatial fluence distribution and the uniform flat-top wavefront.
We investigate the entrainment of liquid films on a partially wetting plate vertically withdrawn from a reservoir of viscous liquid using a combination of diffuse-interface numerical simulation and lubrication analysis. So far available theoretical investigations were commonly conducted by focusing on separate parameter regions, and a complete description of the flow regimes with increasing plate speed is still missing. By solving the full Stokes equations, we present a complete scenario of film transition in the presence of moving contact line. With increasing plate speed, we identify numerically four successive flow regimes in terms of the interfacial morphologies: (1) a stationary meniscus, (2) a speed-independent thick film connected to the liquid bath through a stationary dimple, (3) coexistence of a thick film and the classical Landau–Levich–Derjaguin (LLD) film connected by a propagating capillary shock and (4) a film with a monotonically varying thickness. The characteristics of the film profiles in different regions of the interfaces are analysed with lubrication theory as applicable, and satisfactory agreements with the numerical results are obtained. In particular, we confirm that the onset of film deposition occurs at a vanishing apparent contact angle, consistent with the predictions of lubrication theory. Numerical results suggest that the critical capillary number for the onset of film deposition is smaller than that for the onset of LLD film despite the fact that it is higher than the experimentally observed one, showing that the thick film can be realized in the two-dimensional model. We also demonstrated that the LLD film is triggered by the bifurcation of the stationary dimple, which is found to admit multiple branches of stable and unstable solutions.
The Cu–Cr system alloys with different Ti contents were prepared and processed by deformation and heat treatment. The microstructures, mechanical, and electrical properties were investigated under as-cast and aged conditions. The results indicate that the Cr precipitates present a dispersed distribution and exhibit a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure rather than equilibrium body-centered cubic (bcc) structure in the initial stage of aging. A certain amount of Ti atoms dissolves in matrix due to the large solid solubility, while the remaining atoms segregate around the interface of the Cr precipitates to form a sandwich structure. Improvement of mechanical properties is achieved with Ti addition and the increasing rolling reduction, which can be ascribed to multiple mechanisms. In addition, Ti has a negative effect on the electrical conductivity, while deformation has a slight effect on conductivity.
The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is used for screening mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and the Beijing version (MoCA-BJ) is widely used in China. We aimed to develop a computerized tool for MoCA-BJ (MoCA-CC).
MoCA-CC used person-machine interaction instead of patient-to-physician interaction; other aspects such as the scoring system did not differ from the original test. MoCA-CC, MoCA-BJ and routine neuropsychological tests were administered to 181 elderly participants (MCI = 96, normal controls [NC] = 85).
A total of 176 (97.24%) participants were evaluated successfully by MoCA-CC. Cronbach's α for MoCA-CC was 0.72. The test–retest reliability (retesting after six weeks) was good (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.82; P < 0.001). Significant differences were observed in total scores (t = 9.38, P < 0.001) and individual item scores (t = 2.18–8.62, P < 0.05) between the NC and MCI groups, except for the score for “Naming” (t = 0.24, P = 0.81). The MoCA-CC total scores were highly correlated with the MoCA-BJ total scores (r = 0.93, P < 0.001) in the MCI participants. The area under receiver–operator curve for the prediction of MCI was 0.97 (95% confidence interval = 0.95–1.00). At the optimal cut-off score of 25/26, MoCA-CC demonstrated 95.8% sensitivity and 87.1% specificity.
The MoCA-CC tool developed here has several advantages over the paper-pencil method and is reliable for screening MCI in elderly Chinese individuals, especially in the primary clinical setting. It needs to be validated in other diverse and larger populations.
This study aims at understanding the effects of rotating magnetic field (RMF) on the fading effect of Al–5Ti–1B in commercial pure Al. The results indicate that fading effect is obvious after adding Al–5Ti–1B to Al with a holding time of 20 min. It is fair to claim that the fading effect can be eliminated to a great extent when RMF with magnetic flux densities of 6 and 12 mT is applied until the temperature decreases to 662 °C, which is mainly attributed to the homogeneous distribution of TiB2 particles caused by forced convection. However, refinement performance of pure Al by Al–5Ti–1B can be greatly weakened by RMF with an increase in magnetic flux density to 18 mT, since strong convection aggravates the agglomeration of TiB2 particles. In addition, the inoculated Al treated by a RMF of 6 mT until solidification exhibits a coarser solidification structure compared to that treated until the temperature decreased to 662 °C, which is mainly due to the prolongation of solidification time caused by Joule heat under RMF as proved by thermal analysis.
We investigated the prevalence of β-lactamase genes and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants in 51 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) from five teaching hospitals in central China. The prevalence of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae was 1·0% (51/5012). Of 51 CRE, 31 (60·8%) isolates were positive for one tested carbapenemase gene, while 10 (19·6%) were simultaneously positive for two tested carbapenemase genes. The positive rates of blaKPC-2, blaNDM-1, blaIMP-4, blaIMP-26 and blaIMP-8 were 54·9%, 17·6%, 11·8%, 11·8% and 3·9%, respectively. Of 10 CRE with two carbapenemase genes, three, five, one and one were positive for blaKPC-2 and blaIMP-4, blaKPC-2 and blaIMP-26, blaKPC-2 and blaIMP-8, and blaKPC-2 and blaNDM-1, respectively. Eight of nine blaNDM-1-positive isolates lacked carbapenemases by the modified Hodge test, while 27/28 isolates harbouring blaKPC-2 were positive for carbapenemases determined by this test; 41·2% of the CRE-positive isolates also harboured ESBL genes in various combinations (three and two positive for blaKPC-2 also carried blaDHA-1 and blaCMY-2). The positive rates of qnrS1, qnrA1, qnrB and aac-(6/)-Ib-cr in CRE were 25·5%, 9·8%, 23·5% and 15·7%, respectively. In particular, 7/9 isolates harbouring blaNDM-1 were positive for these quinolone resistance genes, of which five carried qnrS1 and two carried qnrS1 and qnrB4. All but two of 29 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were grouped into 20 clonal clusters by PFGE, with the predominant cluster accounting for four blaKPC-2-positive isolates distributed in the same hospital. We conclude that there is a high prevalence of blaNDM-1 and PMQR determinants in CRE isolates in central China. Multiple resistance determinants in various combinations co-exist in these strains and we report for the first time the co-existence of blaKPC-2 and blaIMP-26 in a strain of Klebsiella oxytoca.