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Nanocrystalline and nanolaminated materials show enhanced radiation tolerance compared with their coarse-grained counterparts, since grain boundaries and layer interfaces act as effective defect sinks. Although the effects of layer interface and layer thickness on radiation tolerance of crystalline nanolaminates have been systematically studied, radiation response of crystalline/amorphous nanolaminates is rarely investigated. In this study, we show that irradiation can lead to formation of nanocrystals and nanotwins in amorphous CuNb layers in Cu/amorphous-CuNb nanolaminates. Substantial element segregation is observed in amorphous CuNb layers after irradiation. In Cu layers, both stationary and migrating grain boundaries effectively interact with defects. Furthermore, there is a clear size effect on irradiation-induced crystallization and grain coarsening. In situ studies also show that crystalline/amorphous interfaces can effectively absorb defects without drastic microstructural change, and defect absorption by grain boundary and crystalline/amorphous interface is compared and discussed. Our results show that tailoring layer thickness can enhance radiation tolerance of crystalline/amorphous nanolaminates and can provide insights for constructing crystalline/amorphous nanolaminates under radiation environment.
Serrated flow is one important characteristic of shear bands through which metallic glasses (MGs) accommodate plastic deformation. Serrated flow can be affected by intrinsic properties such as elastic modulus or extrinsic variables such as strain rate. However, the influences of pre-deformation and interfaces on serrated flow are less well understood. In this study, by using in situ micropillar compression inside a scanning electron microscope, we show that pre-deformation (consisting of cyclic loading/unloading below the nominal elastic limit) suppresses serrated flows in amorphous-CuNb but enhances serrated flows in amorphous-CuZr at both high and low strain rates. Moreover, layer interfaces in Cu/amorphous-CuNb multilayers mitigate serrated flows, and the average stress drop and strain duration associated with shear banding process can be tailored. Strain accommodation and energy dissipation via shear banding have clear impact on serrated flows. This study provides new perspectives on tailoring serrated flows and enhancing plastic deformation of MGs.
The overuse of antibiotics and the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance prompted the launch of an antimicrobial stewardship programme in 2011. This study aimed to investigate the trends and correlations between antibiotic consumption and resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in a tertiary hospital of northwest China from 2010 to 2016. Trends were analysed by linear regression, and correlations were assessed by an autoregressive integrated moving average model. The total consumption of antibiotics halved during the 7-year study period, while the rates of resistance of S. aureus decreased significantly or remained stable; methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) declined markedly, from 73.3% at the beginning of the study to 41.4% by the end. This latter decrease was significantly correlated with the consumption of several classes of antibiotics. In conclusion, reduction in antibiotic use impacted significantly on resistance rates and contributed to a decline in MRSA prevalence.
AlMg alloys have widespread industrial applications. Grain refinement techniques have been frequently used to achieve high strength in these alloys. Here, we report on the fabrication of epitaxial co-sputtered AlMg thin films with high-density growth twins. The microstructure evolution with varying Mg composition has been characterized. Nanoindentation and in-situ micropillar compression tests show that the strength of AlMg alloys increases with increasing Mg composition. The flow stress of epitaxial nanotwinned Al–10 at.% Mg thin film exceeds 800 MPa. The modified Hall–Petch plots incorporating the solid solution strengthening effect suggest that, compared to high angle grain boundaries, incoherent twin boundaries are equivalent barriers to the transmission of dislocations in nanotwinned AlMg alloys.
Self-assembled oxide-based vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) thin films have aroused tremendous research interest in the past decade. The interest arises from the range of unique nanostructured films which can form and the multifunctionality arising from these forms. Hence, a large number of oxide VAN systems have been demonstrated and explored for enhancing specific physical properties, such as strain-enhanced ferroelectricity, tunable magnetotransport, and novel electrical/ionic transport properties. The epitaxial growth of the nanocomposite thin films and the coupling at the heterogeneous interfaces are critical considerations for future device applications. In this review, the advantages of strain coupling along vertical interfaces and film-substrate interfaces in nanocomposite films over conventional single phase films are discussed. Specifically, a unique strain compensation model enabling the epitaxial growth of two-phase nanocomposites having large lattice mismatch with substrates is proposed. Out-of-plane strain coupling between the two phases is also discussed in terms of designing strain states for desired functionalities.
Metallic glasses (MGs) are known to have high strength, but poor ductility. Prior studies have shown that plasticity in MG can be enhanced by significantly reducing their dimension to nanoscale. Here we show that, via the introduction of certain types of crystalline/amorphous interfaces, plasticity of MG can be prominently enhanced as manifested by the formation of ductile “dimples” in a 2 μm thick amorphous CuNb film. By tailoring the volume fraction and architecture of crystalline/amorphous multilayers, tensile fracture surface of MG can evolve from brittle featureless morphology to containing ductile dimples. In situ micropillar compression studies performed inside a scanning electron microscope show that shear instability in amorphous layers can be inhibited by interfaces. The mechanisms for improving plasticity and fracture resistance of MG via interface and size effect are discussed.
Previous studies have supported the theory that there is a positive association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in Western people. Diet plays an important role in determining serum ferritin concentration. Asian dietary patterns are different from Western dietary patterns, implying that there may be a difference in the association of ferritin with carotid atherosclerosis between Asian and Western people. However, few studies focus on the association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis among Asians. The aim of this study was to investigate how serum ferritin levels are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in an Asian adult population. A cross-sectional assessment was performed in 8302 adults in Tianjin, China. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaques were assessed using ultrasonography, and serum ferritin was measured using the protein chip-chemiluminescence method. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between quartiles of serum ferritin concentration and carotid atherosclerosis. In the present study, the overall prevalence of IMT and carotid plaques in participants is 29·2 and 22·7 %, respectively. In women, after adjustments for potentially confounding factors, the OR of IMT and carotid plaques by increasing serum ferritin quartiles were 1·00, 1·39 (95 % CI 0·98–1·99), 1·39 (95 % CI 0·99–1·97), 1·81 (95 % CI 1·30–2·55) (Pfor trend<0·001) and 1·00, 1·24 (95 % CI 0·89–1·73), 1·18 (95 % CI 0·85–1·65), 1·59 (95 % CI 1·15–2·20) (Pfor trend<0·01), respectively. However, no association was found between serum ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in men. The study demonstrated that increased serum ferritin levels are independently associated with IMT and carotid plaques in Asian women but not in Asian men.
We bring the recently developed framework of dependence uncertainty into collective risk models, one of the most classic models in actuarial science. We study the worst-case values of the Value-at-Risk (VaR) and the Expected Shortfall (ES) of the aggregate loss in collective risk models, under two settings of dependence uncertainty: (i) the counting random variable (claim frequency) and the individual losses (claim sizes) are independent, and the dependence of the individual losses is unknown; (ii) the dependence of the counting random variable and the individual losses is unknown. Analytical results for the worst-case values of ES are obtained. For the loss from a large portfolio of insurance policies, an asymptotic equivalence of VaR and ES is established. Our results can be used to provide approximations for VaR and ES in collective risk models with unknown dependence. Approximation errors are obtained in both cases.
Growth of unexpected phases from a composite target of BiFeO3:BiMnO3 and/or BiFeO3:BiCrO3 has been explored using pulsed laser deposition. The Bi2FeMnO6 tetragonal phase can be grown directly on SrTiO3 (STO) substrate, while two phases (S1 and S2) were found to grow on LaAlO3 (LAO) substrates with narrow growth windows. However, introducing a thin CeO2 buffer layer effectively broadens the growth window for the pure S1 phase, regardless of the substrate. Moreover, we discovered two new phases (X1 and X2) when growing on STO substrates using a BiFeO3:BiCrO3 target. Pure X2 phase can be obtained on CeO2-buffered STO and LAO substrates. This work demonstrates that some unexpected phases can be stabilized in a thin film form by using composite perovskite BiRO3 (R = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) targets. Furthermore, it also indicates that CeO2 can serve as a general template for the growth of bismuth compounds with potential room-temperature multiferroicity.
This article focuses on in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterization to explore twins in face-centered-cubic and body-centered-cubic monolithic metals, and their impact on the overall mechanical performance. Taking advantage of simultaneous nanomechanical deformation and nanoscale imaging using versatile in situ TEM tools, direct correlation of these unique microscopic defects with macroscopic mechanical performance becomes possible. This article summarizes recent evidence to support the mechanisms related to strengthening and plasticity in metals, including nanotwinned Cu, Ni, Al, Au, and others in bulk, thin film, and nanowire forms.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed has become an especially problematic weed in different crop production systems across the United States and the world. In this field study, we used a nondestructive measurement system to analyze the pollen production, deposition, and dispersion of a Tennessee glyphosate resistant (TNR) horseweed biotype in Knoxville, TN during the 2013 pollination season. We observed that the pollination season of TNR horseweed lasted about 2 mo (54 d). About 78.93% of horseweed pollen was released between 9:00 A.M. and 7:00 P.M. during each sampling day and the release peak was at about 1:30 P.M. The seasonal release of pollen grains was estimated to be 5.11 million grains plant−1. The release rate data indicated that the integrated horizontal flux density and deposition flux density contributed to 78.17% and 21.83% of the release rate, respectively. We also found that pollen concentration decreased with distance from the source field; the average pollen concentration decreased to 50.69% at a distance of 16 m from the source plot. This is the first result of a systematic, direct examination of the release rate (emission and deposition), release pattern (daily and seasonal), and dispersion pattern of GR horseweed pollen.
Recent studies have shown that elevated red blood cell distribution width is associated with poor outcome in cardiovascular diseases. In order to assess the predictive value of red blood cell distribution width, before treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins, for coronary artery lesions in patient with Kawasaki disease, we compared 83 patients with coronary artery lesions and 339 patients without coronary artery lesions before treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin. Clinical, echocardiographic, and biochemical values were evaluated along with red blood cell distribution width. A total of 422 consecutive patients with Kawasaki disease were enrolled into our study. According to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the optimal red blood cell distribution width cut-off value for predicting coronary artery lesions was 14.55% (area under the curve was 0.721; p=0.000); eighty-three patients (19.7%) had coronary artery lesions, and 70% of the patients with coronary artery lesions had red blood cell distribution width level >14.55%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that fever duration >14 days (odds ratio was 3.42, 95% confidence interval was 1.27–9.22; p=0.015), intravenous immunoglobulin resistance (odds ratio was 2.33, 95% confidence interval was 1.02–5.29; p=0.04), and red blood cell distribution width >14.55% (odds ratio was 3.49, 95% confidence interval was 2.01–6.05; p=0.000) were independent predictors of coronary artery lesions in patients with Kawasaki disease. In Conclusion, red blood cell distribution width may be helpful for predicting coronary artery lesions in patients with Kawasaki disease.
Complex oxides provide an ideal playground for exploring the interplay among the fundamental degrees of freedom: structural (lattice), electronic (orbital and charge), and magnetic (spin). In thin films and heterostructures, new states of matter can emerge as a consequence of such interactions. Over the past decade, the ability to synthesize self-assembled nanocomposite thin films of metal oxides has provided another pathway for creating new interfaces and, thus, new physical phenomena. In this article, we describe examples of such materials systems explored to date and highlight the fascinating multifunctional properties achieved. These include enhanced flux pinning in superconductors, strain-enhanced ferroelectricity, strain- and charge-coupled magnetoelectrics, tunable magnetotransport, novel electrical/ionic transport, memristors, and tunable dielectrics.
Recent studies have shown that chemical immiscibility is important to achieve enhanced radiation tolerance in metallic multilayers as immiscible layer interfaces are more stable against radiation induced mixing than miscible interfaces. However, as most of these immiscible systems have incoherent interfaces, the influence of coherency on radiation resistance of immiscible systems remains poorly understood. Here, we report on radiation response of immiscible Cu/Fe multilayers, with individual layer thickness h varying from 0.75 to 100 nm, subjected to He ion irradiation. When interface is incoherent, the peak bubble density decreases with decreasing h and reaches a minimum when h is 5 nm. At even smaller h when interface is increasingly coherent, the peak bubble density increases again. However, void swelling in coherent multilayers with smaller h remains less than those in incoherent multilayers. Our study suggests that the coherent immiscible interface is also effective to alleviate radiation induced damage.
InGaN/GaN green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been prepared by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition with various growth temperatures for p-GaN layer. The structural and optoelectronic properties of as-grown multiple quantum wells (MQWs) and LEDs are studied in detail. It reveals that with the growth of p-GaN layer, the crystalline qualities of the as-grown n-GaN layer are improved significantly, while the optoelectronic properties of MQWs are decreased dramatically. Furthermore, the mechanisms for the effect of p-GaN growth temperature on the properties of InGaN/GaN green LEDs are proposed. It is demonstrated that the p-GaN layer grown at a suitable temperature of 950 °C shows the highest optoelectronic properties due to the fact that this suitable temperature for p-layer growth is good for the Mg doping and would not cause the fluctuation of indium in the MQWs, and eventually benefits to the effective recombination of carriers. This work provides an optimized p-GaN layer growth temperature for realizing highly efficient InGaN/GaN green LED devices.
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is characterised by progressive, fibrofatty replacement of myocardium, and ventricular arrhythmias, and its prognosis is usually poor. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy associated with atrial septal defect is very rare, and this combination may make the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis difficult. We present a case of a patient with this association who underwent interventional treatment with a septal defect occluder. Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect in a patient with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is hitherto unreported. During a 3-year follow-up he remained relatively stable. We also review the cases reported in the medical literature describing this uncommon association between arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and atrial septal defect or patent foramen ovale.
The properties of a series of phase measurement techniques, including interferometry, the Hartmann–Shack wavefront sensor, the knife-edge technique, and coherent diffraction imaging, are summarized and their performance in high power laser applications is compared. The advantages, disadvantages, and application ranges of each technique are discussed.
We aimed to assess and compare the behavioural and emotional outcomes of school-aged children after surgery or transcatheter closure for ventricular septal defect and investigate the risk factors for developing abnormal behavioural problems with the condition.
In this study, we included 29 children, including 20 boys, with ventricular septal defect who underwent surgery and 35 children, including 21 boys, who underwent transcatheter closure (6–13 years old) and their age- and sex-matched best friends (n = 56) and their parents. The Child Behavior Checklist was used to obtain standardised parents’ reports of behavioural and emotional problems in children. The 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire was used to assess parents’ psychological distress. Pearson correlation and logistic regression were used to analyse risk factors for developing behaviour problems.
Behavioural problems were greater for boys and girls undergoing surgery or transcatheter closure than controls. The behavioural problems were mainly depression, somatic complaints, and social withdrawal for boys and thought problems, depression, somatic complaints, and social withdrawal for girls. Depression and somatic complaints were greater for boys undergoing surgery than for boys undergoing transcatheter closure. Behavioural problems did not differ between treatment groups for girls. Risk factors for developing behavioural problems were age at the time of ventricular septal defect repair (p = 0.03; odds ratio = 2.35), skin scar (p = 0.04; odds ratio = 3.12), post-operative atrioventricular block (p = 0.03; odds ratio = 2.81), and maternal anxiety (p < 0.01; odds ratio = 4.5).
School-aged children who underwent repair of ventricular septal defect regardless of the type of treatment (surgery or transcatheter closure) exhibit internalising behavioural problems. Risk factors for developing problems are young age, scarring, post-operative atrioventricular block, and maternal anxiety. In particular, maternal anxiety is the most important risk factor.