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Self-reported activity restriction is an established correlate of depression in dementia caregivers (dCGs). It is plausible that the daily distribution of objectively measured activity is also altered in dCGs with depression symptoms; if so, such activity characteristics could provide a passively measurable marker of depression or specific times to target preventive interventions. We therefore investigated how levels of activity throughout the day differed in dCGs with and without depression symptoms, then tested whether any such differences predicted changes in symptoms 6 months later.
Design, setting, participants, and measurements:
We examined 56 dCGs (mean age = 71, standard deviation (SD) = 6.7; 68% female) and used clustering to identify subgroups which had distinct depression symptom levels, leveraging baseline Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale–Revised Edition and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) measures, as well as a PHQ-9 score from 6 months later. Using wrist activity (mean recording length = 12.9 days, minimum = 6 days), we calculated average hourly activity levels and then assessed when activity levels relate to depression symptoms and changes in symptoms 6 months later.
Clustering identified subgroups characterized by: (1) no/minimal symptoms (36%) and (2) depression symptoms (64%). After multiple comparison correction, the group of dCGs with depression symptoms was less active from 8 to 10 AM (Cohen’s d ≤ −0.9). These morning activity levels predicted the degree of symptom change on the PHQ-9 6 months later (per SD unit β = −0.8, 95% confidence interval: −1.6, −0.1, p = 0.03) independent of self-reported activity restriction and other key factors.
These novel findings suggest that morning activity may protect dCGs from depression symptoms. Future studies should test whether helping dCGs get active in the morning influences the other features of depression in this population (i.e. insomnia, intrusive thoughts, and perceived activity restriction).
We documented the consequences of large-scale habitat loss on a community of Galápagos native bird species on San Cristóbal island, based on point counts conducted between 2010 and 2017. Surprisingly, despite considerable habitat change and a variety of other threats, the landbirds of San Cristóbal have fared much better than on the neighbouring islands Floreana or Santa Cruz. While two species went extinct very soon after human colonisation, the majority have adapted well to subsequent vegetation change and habitat loss. The endemic San Cristóbal Mockingbird Mimus melanotis is more widespread than previously thought and its population seems to be stable since the 1980s. We thus propose a change in IUCN classification from ‘Endangered’ to ‘Near threatened’. We present evidence gained by interviewing locals which suggests that a small population of the Least Vermilion Flycatcher Pyrocephalus dubius, classified as ‘Extinct’ by BirdLife International, may have persisted until very recently. Although extensive searches in 2018 and 2019 were unsuccessful, the possibility remains that a few birds may have survived in remote parts of the island. Further searches that involve the general public and other interested parties are therefore deemed necessary.
A range of endophenotypes characterise psychosis, however there has been limited work understanding if and how they are inter-related.
This multi-centre study includes 8754 participants: 2212 people with a psychotic disorder, 1487 unaffected relatives of probands, and 5055 healthy controls. We investigated cognition [digit span (N = 3127), block design (N = 5491), and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (N = 3543)], electrophysiology [P300 amplitude and latency (N = 1102)], and neuroanatomy [lateral ventricular volume (N = 1721)]. We used linear regression to assess the interrelationships between endophenotypes.
The P300 amplitude and latency were not associated (regression coef. −0.06, 95% CI −0.12 to 0.01, p = 0.060), and P300 amplitude was positively associated with block design (coef. 0.19, 95% CI 0.10–0.28, p < 0.001). There was no evidence of associations between lateral ventricular volume and the other measures (all p > 0.38). All the cognitive endophenotypes were associated with each other in the expected directions (all p < 0.001). Lastly, the relationships between pairs of endophenotypes were consistent in all three participant groups, differing for some of the cognitive pairings only in the strengths of the relationships.
The P300 amplitude and latency are independent endophenotypes; the former indexing spatial visualisation and working memory, and the latter is hypothesised to index basic processing speed. Individuals with psychotic illnesses, their unaffected relatives, and healthy controls all show similar patterns of associations between endophenotypes, endorsing the theory of a continuum of psychosis liability across the population.
Site-specific management provides the ability to align the production intensity to demand and thus adjust the expenses to the necessary level. So it is possible to increase the proportion of marketable commodity in the normal sort–size of 40 mm to 60 mm. Planting distances adapted to the soil properties seem to achieve this objective. It is possible to further optimize the proportion of marketable commodity especially in the potato regions where irrigation and fertilization already contribute to a consistently high yield. Different planting distances on the soil sites by EM38 were tested in field trials. Planting distances of 31.50 cm in the row on the light (sandy) soil, 24.50 cm on middle and 27.50 cm on the heavy soil sites seems the best for these three years. There is a yield impact in total, as well as in the proportion of marketable commodity. Depending on the planting strategy, increases in income up to €153 per hectare can be obtained.
We present results from a multiwavelength study of the blazar PKS 1954–388 at radio, UV, X-ray, and gamma-ray energies. A RadioAstron observation at 1.66 GHz in June 2012 resulted in the detection of interferometric fringes on baselines of 6.2 Earth-diameters. This suggests a source frame brightness temperature of greater than 2 × 1012 K, well in excess of both equipartition and inverse Compton limits and implying the existence of Doppler boosting in the core. An 8.4-GHz TANAMI VLBI image, made less than a month after the RadioAstron observations, is consistent with a previously reported superluminal motion for a jet component. Flux density monitoring with the Australia Telescope Compact Array confirms previous evidence for long-term variability that increases with observing frequency. A search for more rapid variability revealed no evidence for significant day-scale flux density variation. The ATCA light-curve reveals a strong radio flare beginning in late 2013, which peaks higher, and earlier, at higher frequencies. Comparison with the Fermi gamma-ray light-curve indicates this followed ~ 9 months after the start of a prolonged gamma-ray high-state—a radio lag comparable to that seen in other blazars. The multiwavelength data are combined to derive a Spectral Energy Distribution, which is fitted by a one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton (SSC) model with the addition of external Compton (EC) emission.
An automated respirometer system was used to measure VO2, protein catabolism as ammonia quotient and the energy budget to evaluate whether the crude protein content of a standard protein (SP) diet (42·5 %) or a high-protein (HP) diet (49·5 %) influences metabolism in rainbow trout under challenging intermittent, low dissolved oxygen concentrations. In total, three temperature phases (12, 16, 20°C) were tested sequentially, each of which were split into two oxygen periods with 5 d of unmanipulated oxygen levels (50–70 %), followed by a 5d manipulated oxygen period (16.00–08.00 hours) with low oxygen (40–50 %) levels. For both diets, catabolic protein usage was lowest at 16°C and was not altered under challenging oxygen conditions. Low night-time oxygen elevated mean daily VO2 by 3–14 % compared with the unmanipulated oxygen period for both diets at all temperatures. The relative change in VO2 and retained energy during the intermittent low oxygen period was smaller for the HP diet compared with the SP diet. However, in absolute terms, the SP diet was superior to the HP diet as the former demonstrated 30–40 % lower protein fuel use rates, higher retained energy (1–4 % digestible energy) and slightly lowered VO2 (0–8 %) over the range of conditions tested. The decrease in retained energy under low oxygen conditions suggests that there is scope to improve the performance of SP diets under challenging conditions; however, this study suggests that simply increasing the dietary protein content is not a remedy, and other strategies need to be explored.
The increasing prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram-negative bacteria is a serious threat for current healthcare settings. In this study we investigated the molecular epidemiology of ESBL-producing E. coli at the University Medical Center Göttingen in Lower Saxony, Germany. All E. coli isolates with an ESBL phenotype were collected during a 6-month period in 2014. Multilocus sequence typing and CTX-M characterization were performed on 160 isolates. Of the ESBL-producing isolates 95·6% were CTX-M positive. Compared to recent Germany-wide studies, we found CTX-M-1 to occur in higher frequency than CTX-M-15 (44·4% vs. 34·4%). CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-27 were detected at 9·4% and 5·0%, respectively. The globally dominant sequence type (ST) 131, which is often associated with CTX-M-15, occurred at a relatively low rate of 24%. Major non-ST131 sequence types were ST101 (5%), ST58 (5%), ST10 (4·4%), ST38 (4·4%), ST410 (3·8%) and ST453 (3·1%). Several of these major sequence types were previously shown to be associated with livestock farming. Together, our study indicates that E. coli lineage distribution in individual healthcare settings can significantly differ from average numbers obtained in nationwide studies.
In the first part of this article, we extend the formal upscaling of a diffusion–precipitation model through a two-scale asymptotic expansion in a level set framework to three dimensions. We obtain upscaled partial differential equations, more precisely, a non-linear diffusion equation with effective coefficients coupled to a level set equation. As a first step, we consider a parametrization of the underlying pore geometry by a single parameter, e.g. by a generalized “radius” or the porosity. Then, the level set equation transforms to an ordinary differential equation for the parameter. For such an idealized setting, the degeneration of the diffusion tensor with respect to porosity is illustrated with numerical simulations. The second part and main objective of this article is the analytical investigation of the resulting coupled partial differential equation–ordinary differential equation model. In the case of non-degenerating coefficients, local-in-time existence of at least one strong solution is shown by applying Schauder's fixed point theorem. Additionally, non-negativity, uniqueness, and global existence or existence up to possible closure of some pores, i.e. up to the limit of degenerating coefficients, is guaranteed.
The stellar radial velocity dispersion profiles of elliptical galaxies can be well described by a power-law σ(r)∝r−β. We analyze a set of elliptical galaxies formed by major mergers of isolated disk galaxies with mass ratios of 1:1 and 3:1 for several orbital configurations (Johansson et al. 2009). The galaxies in our sample show a deviation from the power-law at 1 − 3Reff, which we term the σ-bump (Schauer et al. 2014). This feature is most prominent in remnants of 1:1 mergers and weakens for remnants of mergers with smaller mass ratios, indicating that the σ-bump is a signature of an equal mass merger. The σ-bump does not vanish with time but stays constant once it has formed, in contrast to shells. It can be seen under all projections, making it an observable feature in the outskirts of elliptical galaxies. We indeed identify three possible σ-bump candidates in the sample of 12 SLUGGS-survey ellipticals studied by Pota et al. (2013), who use globular clusters as tracers for the outer stellar halos (see Schauer et al. 2014, for more details). For further comparisons, we here provide for the first time a two dimensional map of the velocity dispersion of one simulated σ-bump galaxy, to identify the σ-bump in observations of kinematic maps out to several Reff. The σ-bump appears as a global ring-like feature if seen face-on and as an extended box-like feature in its edge-on projection.
Winter oilseed rape represents an important food source for Great Bustards. Great Bustard surveys during four consecutive winters (2005/2006–2008/2009) were used to identify characteristics of oilseed rape fields, which increase their attractiveness for the species in its West Pannonian wintering area. The study was conducted in study areas in Eastern Austria, around the Austrian–Slovakian–Hungarian border and in the Hungarian Moson Plain. To test for effects of field size and isolation of fields from other rape fields, and the distance to the nearest paved road on occurrence and abundance of Great Bustards (maximum number of birds counted in individual rape fields per winter), we calculated generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) including all three predictor variables as fixed effects and winter as random effect for each of the three study areas. Field size most strongly affected occurrence and abundance of Great Bustards. The availability of large (>>15 ha) winter rape fields far from paved roads is recommended as a prime conservation measure to improve the quality of rape fields as foraging habitat for Great Bustards during the winter months (November–March).
The lowland forest on the southern Pacific slope of Costa Rica has an extremely diverse avifauna, including the Black-cheeked Ant-tanager Habia atrimaxillaris. The only known remaining populations of this highly range-restricted species occur in the areas of Piedras Blancas and Corcovado National Park. It is assumed that the population is decreasing due to habitat loss and fragmentation. We assessed the species’ population density in a part of the Piedras Blancas National Park using distance sampling (in February–April 2009 and November 2010–January 2011) and territory mapping (November 2010–January 2011). We also examined habitat preferences based on vegetation structure at point count locations. Black-cheeked Ant-tanagers were exclusively found in old-growth forest. The species’ likelihood of occurrence at census points increased with forest cover (within a radius of 200 m around census points), canopy closure, and density of trees (with diameter at breast height >10 cm). Average population density estimated by distance sampling was 24–27 individuals per km², which is in accordance with the population size estimated by territory mapping (17–25 birds per km²). Based on these estimates, an overall population size of 12,432–20,720 birds is predicted for the remaining 592 km² lowland forest area of the Golfo Dulce region. The Black-cheeked Ant-tanager was only recorded in old-growth forest, but not in gallery forests embedded in a human-dominated landscape matrix. Since the species appears to avoid forest edges, further forest degradation and fragmentation will have a strong negative impact and should be rapidly reduced by adequate conservation measures.
A tunable substrate-integrated waveguide phase shifter using low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC)-technology is presented in this paper. By changing the effective permittivity in the liquid crystal (LC)-filled waveguide, the differential phase can be tuned continuously. This is achieved by means of an analog signal applied to the electrodes, surrounding the LC. The design allows for precise tuning of the differential phase, which is proven with a Monte Carlo measurement resulting in phase errors of less than 3° at 28 GHz. Besides that, the ambient temperature dependency of the module is shown. The phase shifter has a high integration level and can be included into a complete and lightweight single-phased array antenna module. The phase shifter is realized with a high level of integration which is available through the multilayer process of the LTCC. It has a length of 50 and provides a differential phase shift of more than 360° at 28 GHz. The figure of merit for tunable phase shifters is >40°/dB.
Mineral nitrogen (N) fertilization in cereals is commonly split into three or four applications. In order to simplify N fertilization, a single N application either broadcast or placed on the soil surface was compared to conventionally split fertilization for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The 4-year experiment (2007–2010) was performed using a participatory approach on farmers’ fields on deep loamy soils (Luvisols) in South-West Germany.
Grain yield and crude protein contents differed only slightly or not at all between treatments including different N fertilizer types (calcium ammonium nitrate, urea ammonium nitrate solution, urea) and application techniques (broadcast, placed). Furthermore, no differences were found for the yield components ears/m2 and thousand grain weight. Inorganic N in the soil profile after harvest was generally below 40 kg N/ha and did not differ between treatments. In the area where N was placed, mineral N was depleted during the vegetation period.
At the experimental sites a single N application in the period between tillering and stem elongation was sufficient to achieve high yield and quality of winter wheat without increased risk of nitrate leaching. This finding was independent of the method of application or the type of fertilizer.
Welfare concerns for intensive beef production have often been raised, but on-farm welfare assessment studies are rare. The aim of this study was to apply the Welfare Quality® (WQ) welfare assessment system for fattening cattle on beef bull farms to evaluate the state of welfare at the level of WQ measures and of aggregated scores, as well as overall classification. In addition, the purpose was to evaluate two ways of providing feedback information to the farmers with regard to possible welfare improvements on the farms. The study was conducted in Austria, Germany and Italy on a total of 63 beef bull farms with deep litter or cubicle-housing systems. Assessments were carried out 3 times (1 month and 7 months apart from the initial visit). In every country, farmers were assigned to two treatment groups (feedback from initial visit as written report, F, written feedback plus oral advice, FA) and a control group (C), which did not receive any feedback. At the criterion level, the highest average welfare scores were obtained from ‘Absence of prolonged hunger’ (94/100 points) followed by ‘Absence of pain induced by management procedures’ (88/100) and ‘Comfort around resting’ (77/100). Most welfare concerns related to the criteria ‘Absence of disease’ (40/100), ‘Expression of social behaviour’ (44/100) and ‘Positive emotional state’ (48/100), thus indicating room for improvements. Two-thirds of the farms achieved the ‘Enhanced’ level, about one-third was judged ‘Acceptable’ and only one farm ‘Excellent’. After 6 months of monitoring period, there was no significant welfare improvement in both the treatment groups as compared with the control group. Reasons for the lack of effect may mainly be seen in the short monitoring period and a lack of external incentives. In conclusion, the WQ assessment system revealed areas for improvement, but longer term studies and investigations on alternative ways of transferring outcomes from on-farm welfare assessments to farmers should be carried out in future.
Consistency over time of (on-farm) animal welfare assessment systems forms part of reliability, meaning that results of the assessment should be representative of the longer-term welfare state of the farm as long as the housing and management conditions have not changed considerably. This is especially important if assessments are to be used for certification purposes. It was the aim of the present study to investigate consistency over time of the Welfare Quality® (WQ®) assessment system for fattening cattle at single measure level, aggregated criterion and principle scores, and overall classification across short-term (1 month) and longer-term periods (6 months). We hypothesized that consistency over time of aggregated criterion and principle scores is higher than that of single measures. Consistency was also expected to be lower with longer intervals between assessments. Data were obtained using the WQ® protocol for fattening cattle during three visits (months 0, 1 and 7) on 63 beef farms in Austria, Germany and Italy. Only data from farms where no major changes in housing and management had taken place were considered for analysis. At the single measure level, Spearman rank correlations between visits were >0.7 and variance was lower within farms than between farms for six and two of 19 measures after 1 month and 6 months, respectively. After aggregation of single measures into criterion and principle scores, five and two of 10 criteria and three and one of four principles were found reliable after 1 and 6 months, respectively. At the WQ® principle level, this was the case for three and one of four principles. Seventy-nine per cent and 75% of the farms were allocated to the same overall welfare category after 1 month and 6 months. Possible reasons for a lack of consistency are seasonal effects or short-term fluctuations that occur under normal farm conditions, low prevalence of clinical measures and probably insufficient sample size, whereas poor inter-observer agreement leading to inflation of correlation can be ruled out. At the criterion and principle level, aggregation of information into scores appears to partly smoothen undirected variation at the single measure level without losing sensitivity in terms of welfare evaluation. Reliable on-farm animal welfare assessments should therefore be based on repeated assessments. Further long-term studies are recommended to better understand the factors influencing consistency over time.