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Smoking rates in schizotypic individuals are shown to be elevated, as in patients with schizophrenia, although findings on the association of smoking with different symptomatology of schizotypy have been mixed. Moreover, possible moderating effects of schizotypy on the relationship between smoking and cognition have not been well documented.
Subjects and methods
The Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) and the full version of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) were administered to 501 healthy adults. Subjects were divided into smokers (n = 85) and non-smokers (n = 416) based on the presence/absence of current smoking.
The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) on the three factor scores as well as the total score of the SPQ, controlling for age and gender, revealed that cognitive-perceptual factor was significantly associated with an increased rate of smoking (P = 0.048). The ANCOVA on the WMS-R indices, with smoking group as a fixed factor and age, gender and total SPQ score as covariates, revealed that the schizotypy-by-smoking interaction was significant for attention/working memory (P = 0.029).
Discussion and conclusion
Positive schizotypy may be associated with more smoking. Schizotypy and smoking could interact with each other to negatively affect attention/working memory.
Altered levels of phenylalanine and its metabolites in blood and cerebrospinal fluid have previously been reported in schizophrenia. This study attempted to examine whether phenylalanine kinetics is altered in schizophrenia using the 13C-phenylalanine breath test (13C-PBT).
Subjects were 20 patients with schizophrenia and the same number of controls. 13C-phenylalanine was administered and then 13CO2 concentration in breath was monitored for 120 minutes. The Δ 13CO2 at each collecting time, the maximal Δ 13CO2 (Cmax), the time to reach Cmax (Tmax), the area under the curve of time course of Δ13CO2 (AUC), the cumulative recovery rate (CRR) at each collecting time of the 13C-PBT were calculated for each subject.
Body weight (BW) and diagnostic status were significant predictors for Cmax. BW, age and diagnostic status were significant predictors for AUC and CRR at 120 minutes (CRR0-120). A repeated measures ANCOVA controlling for age and BW revealed a different pattern of change in CRR over time between the patients and controls and that Δ13CO2 in schizophrenia were lower than that in healthy control at all sampling point during 120 min, with an overall significant differences between healthy control and schizophrenia. The ANCOVA controlling for age and BW, showed that Cmax, AUC and CRR0-120 were significantly lower in schizophrenics than in controls.
Our data indicate the different change of Δ13CO2 and CRR over time and the decreased Cmax, AUC and CRR0-120 of 13C-PBT in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls, suggesting the altered phenylalanine kinetics in schizophrenia.
It has been reported that cognitive functioning in major depressive disorder (MDD) can be affected by various factors, such as symptom severity, personality dimensions and stress hormone activity. However, the relative role of each is largely unknown.
Seventy-six non-remitted patients with MDD were recruited. Symptomatology was assessed by the 21-item version of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL). Personality was assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Neurocognitive functions, including verbal and visual memory, delayed recall and attention/working memory were measured by the full version of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. Neuroendocrine function was determined by the reactivity of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) to the combined dexamethasone/corticotropin releasing hormone test. To quantify cognitive impairments in patients, age-, sex- and education- matched 187 healthy controls were also recruited and administered the same neuropsychological test.
MDD patients performed significantly worse than controls on visual memory and delayed recall. A stepwise multiple regression analysis predicting performance of each cognitive domain from five HSCL dimensions, seven TCI dimensions and hormonal variables, controlling for age, gender and education, revealed that higher cooperativeness was the only significant predictor towards better verbal memory, that less somatization symptoms and lower self-directedness were significant predictors towards better visual memory, and that lower age, less anxiety symptoms and lower DHEAS levels after dexamethasone administration were significant predictors towards better delayed recall.
Besides symptomatology, some personality dimensions and neuroendocrine function may, at least partly independently, contribute to memory impairment in MDD.
Recent studies have shown that it is important to understand the brain mechanism specifically by focusing on the common and unique functional connectivity in each disorder including depression.
To specify the biomarker of major depressive disorder (MDD), we applied the sparse machine learning algorithm to classify several types of affective disorders using the resting state fMRI data collected in multiple sites, and this study shows the results of depression as a part of those results.
The aim of this study is to understand some specific pattern of functional connectivity in MDD, which would support diagnosis of depression and development of focused and personalized treatments in the future.
The neuroimaging data from patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 100) and healthy control adults (HC: n = 100) from multiple sites were used for the training dataset. A completely separate dataset (n = 16) was kept aside for testing. After all preprocessing of fMRI data, based on one hundred and forty anatomical region of interests (ROIs), 9730 functional connectivities during resting states were prepared as the input of the sparse machine-learning algorithm.
As results, 20 functional connectivities were selected with the classification performance of Accuracy: 83.0% (Sensitivity: 81.0%, Specificity: 85.0%). The test data, which was completely separate from the training data, showed the performance accuracy of 83.3%.
The selected functional connectivities based on the sparse machine learning algorithm included the brain regions which have been associated with depression.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
We present ALMA detection of the [O iii] 88 μm line and 850 μm dust continuum emission in a Y-dropout Lyman break galaxy, MACS0416_Y1. The [O iii] detection confirms the object with a spectroscopic redshift to be z = 8.3118±0.0003. The 850 μm continuum intensity (0.14 mJy) implies a large dust mass on the order of 4×106M⊙. The ultraviolet-to-far infrared spectral energy distribution modeling, where the [O iii] emissivity model is incorporated, suggests the presence of a young (τage ≍ 4 Myr), star-forming (SFR ≍ 60M⊙yr−1), and moderately metal-polluted (Z ≍ 0.2Z⊙) stellar component with a stellar mass of 3 × 108M⊙. An analytic dust mass evolution model with a single episode of star formation does not reproduce the metallicity and dust mass in ≍ 4 Myr, suggesting an underlying evolved stellar component as the origin of the dust mass.
We report a recent result of the FUGIN project, a Galactic plane CO survey using the Nobeyama 45-m Telescope and the FOREST receiver. In the third galactic quadrant, 42 square degrees are observed and 4752 molecular clouds are detected. Among them, 12 clouds are located at R (distance from the Galactic center) > 16 kpc. Molecular clouds at R < 16 kpc trace the Local, Perseus, and Outer arms.
Using a newly developed rapid test, an outbreak of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) infection in a long-term care facility was detected within only 2 days after the onset of symptoms in a putative index case. The outbreak was almost under control within 8 days mainly by zoning patients, with the exception of two cases of HMPV that were diagnosed 16 and 17 days after the onset of the outbreak. According to an immunological diagnosis as well as the rapid test, it was eventually proven that 18 patients had HMPV infections. We suspected that even asymptomatic residents, who had not been completely separated from the facility population, were a source of infection. That suggested that all asymptomatic residents should be tested and that the separation of the infected patients should be absolute, if an outbreak of HMPV infection is suspected in such a facility.
The charge transport properties critically depend on the degree of ordering of the chains in the solid state as well as on the density of chemical or structural defects. In general, goodelectronic performance requires strong electronic coupling between adjace nt molecules in the solid-state that yield strong intermolecular π-overlap. Herein, we newly designed and synthesized organic semiconducting materials having both aryl (Ar) and perfluoroaryl (FAr) as substituents for organic electronics along with molecular packing control. Regarding this molecular design, we hypothesized and expected that the Ar and FAr substituents would induce well-defined π-π stacking structure of charge transport units for high performance organic electronics devices.
To find the ideal combination of Fe fortifier and its food vehicle is an essential measure in developing countries. However, its cost also plays an important role. In the present study, the effect on blood parameter values of corn flour-derived products fortified with powdered elemental Fe in the form of H2-reduced Fe was investigated in children and adolescents.
One hundred and sixty-two individuals (eighty-six boys and seventy-six girls) from public educational centres in Londrina, Paraná (southern Brazil) participated in the study. Fe-deficiency anaemia (IDA) was defined when Hb and serum ferritin values fell below 12 g/dl and 20 μg/l, respectively; Fe deficiency (ID) was considered when serum ferritin was below 20 μg/l.
The prevalence of ID and IDA decreased from 18·0 % and 14·9 %, values found at the beginning of the study, to respectively 5·6 % and 1·2 % after 6 months. Changes from altered to normal values occurred more often than normal to altered values with transferrin saturation (14·2 % v. 6·8 %; P < 0·04) and ferritin (12·4 % v. 0 %; P < 0·001). Hb, transferrin saturation and ferritin showed differences between normal and altered parameters after 6 months (P < 0·001).
A pronounced reduction in the prevalence of ID and IDA was observed in children and adolescents following 6 months’ ingestion of corn flour-derived products enriched with elemental Fe.
Ornithodoros moubata ticks were fed on blood infected with Babesia equi. However, the parasites were quickly cleared as evidenced by the disappearance of B. equi-specific ribosomal RNA from the ticks. We hypothesized that if the Babesia parasite can escape midgut-associated barriers a non-vector tick can become infected with Babesia. To test this hypothesis, B. equi parasite-infected blood from in vitro culture was injected into the haemocoel of ticks. B. equi-specific rRNA was surprisingly detected 45 days after injection even in the eggs. Babesia-free dogs were infested with O. moubata ticks that were infected by inoculation with B. gibsoni-infected red blood cells. Parasitaemia and antibody production against Bg-TRAP of B. gibsoni increased gradually. These results indicate that O. moubata may be a useful vector model for Babesia parasites and also a very important tool for studies on tick immunity against Babesia parasites and tick-Babesia interactions.
Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) is a joint project between Japan and Chile for installing and operating a 10 m high precision telescope in the Atacama Desert in order to explore the southern sky through the submillimeter wavelength. We have achieved an accuracy of 19 μm (rms) for the main reflector surface and a stable radio pointing accuracy of about 2 arcsec (rms). A 350 GHz cartridge type SIS mixer receiver achieves good performance with a typical system noise temperature of 150 ~ 250 K in DSB and a main beam efficiency of 0.6 ~ 0.7 during winter nights.
A large scale CO(3-2) imaging survey of nearby galaxies using ASTE is now in progress. One of our goals is to compare our wide area CO(3-2) images with existing CO(1-0) data as well as distributions of massive star formation tracers (i.e., Hα and radio continuum emission) in order to understand the physical mechanism which controls the global star formation properties such as star formation efficiency. Initial CO(3-2) maps of some sample galaxies (M 83, NGC 604 in M 33, NGC 1672, & NGC 7130) are reported.
CYP2C19 polymorphisms and smoking influence the efficacy of H. pylori eradication therapy, but interaction between the two have hitherto not been examined. A total of 142 H. pylori-positive patients who received triple drug therapy with lansoprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin were categorized into three groups with regard to diplotypes of CYP2C19: homozygous extensive metabolizer (homEM), heterozygous EM (hetEM), and poor metabolizer (PM). The overall success rate was 61·3%. Smoking was an independent risk factor of eradication failure (OR 2·81, 95% CI 1·14–6·91), whereas CYP2C19 polymorphisms were less influential. Among non-smokers, the homEM and hetEM groups showed worse eradication rates (58·5 and 67·3%) relative to PM (76·2%) as expected; however, an opposite trend was observed among smokers (homEM 50·0%, hetEM 46·7%, PM 20·0%), indicating possible interactions with CYP2C19 polymorphisms. Smoking has a greater influence on H. pylori eradication than the CYP2C19 genotype. Interaction between smoking and CYP2C19 should be examined in the future.
Phase equilibria among the bcc Fe(α), fcc Fe(γ) and Fe2Mo(λ)_phases in Fe-Mo-Ni ternary system, particularly paying attention to the existence of the γ+λ two-phase region, have been examined at elevated temperatures below Tc (1200 K), the peritectoid reaction temperature in Fe-Mo binary system: λ?α+Fe7Mo6 (μ). At 1173 K the α+γ+μ three-phase coexisting region exists near the Fe-Mo binary edge and no λ phase region was identified. At 1073 K the λ phase in equilibrium with α and γ phases exists, although the composition homogeneity region of the ternary λ phase was limited to its binary edge toward the equi-nickel concentration direction up to about 3at % Ni. Instead, large two-phase region of γ+μ was extended along the same direction up to 20 at% Ni. The γ+λ two-phase region appears below Tc through a transition peritectoid reaction: α+μ¨γ+λ. The γ phase in equilibrium with λ phase is stable only at elevated temperatures, and it transforms martensitically to α phase during cooling. The addition of Ni stabilizes γ and μ phases against α and λ phases, thereby decreasing the relative stability of the λ phase.
Based on our analysis of a lot of creep rate-strain curves of PST crystals with the different angles between the lamellar plate and the stress axis, designated as ø, it was confirmed that the creep rate and the creep deformation manner strongly depend on the ø. It was supposed that the predominant creep deformation using γ plate during the transient stage is derived by the fully suppression of the operation of another slip systems not parallel to γ plate through α2 plate. It was also confirmed that the initial stress axes of the PST crystals within the standard stereographic triangle move for the - line, and then turn their directions for  pole during the transient stage. This moving manner of the stress axis indicated that the first slip system of (111) continues to the area near the - line in the standard stereographic triangle, and then, the second slip system of (111) operates. By comparing this moving manner to the creep rate-strain curve, it is suggested that the first slip system of (111) operates during the Stage I where the light decrease in the creep rate remains, after that, the second slip system of (111) appears and leads to steep decrease in the creep rate. This stage was designated as the Stage II. According to this conception, it is supposed that the strain at the end of the Stage I is directly correlated with the angle from the initial stress axis to the - line in the standard stereographic triangle. In this study, this supposition was confirmed by conducting the creep tests at 1148 K/68.6 MPa using two PST crystals with ø of 31° and 34°. The initial stress axis of the PST crystal with ø of 31° locates nearer to the -[-111] line than that of the PST crystal with ø of 34°. The strain at the end of the Stage I of the PST crystal with ø of 31° is half that of the PST crystal with ø of 34°. By analyzing the inverse pole figures of the creep interrupted PST crystals, it was confirmed that the angle from the initial stress axis to the - line is correlated with the strain of the transient stage.
In this paper, we first propose an improved CVD-WSix metal gate suitable for use with nMOSFETs. Work function of CVD-WSi3.9 gate estimated from C-V measurements was 4.3eV. The nMOSFET using CVD-WSi3.9 gate electrode showed that Vth variation of L/W=1 μm/10μm nMOSFETs can be suppressed to be lower than 8mV in 22chip. In CVD-WSi3.9 gate MOSFETs with gate length of 50nm, a drive current of 636μA/μm was achieved for off-state leakage current of 35nA/μm at 1.0V of power supply voltage. By using CVD-WSi3.9 gate electrode, highly reliable metal gate nMOSFETs can be realized.
Phase equilibria in Fe-Ni-Nb ternary system at elevated temperatures have been examined, in order to identify the two-phase region of γ-Fe (austenite) and ε-Fe2Nb (C14). The ε single phase region exists in the range of 27.5 to 35.5 at.% Nb in the Fe-Nb binary system, and it extends toward the equi-niobium concentration direction up to 44 at.% Ni in the ternary system at 1473 K, indicating that more than half of the Fe atoms in Fe2Nb can be replaced with Ni. Thus, the γ+ε two-phase region exists extensively, and the solubility of Nb in γ phase increases from 1.5 to 6.0 at.% with increase in Ni content. The lattice parameters of a and c in the C14 Laves phase decrease with increasing Ni content. The change in a axis is in good agreement with calculation based on Vegard's law, whereas that of c axis is much larger than the calculated value. The result suggests that atomic size effect is responsible for a-axis change and the binding energy is dominant factor for the c-axis change. To extend these findings to development of new class of austenitic steels strengthened by Laves phase, an attempt has been made to control the c/a ratio by alloying. The addition of Cr is effective to make the c/a ratio close to the cubic symmetry value (1.633).
We proposed the magnetoelectric (ME) effect as a new function of oxides electronic devices. The ME effect is characterized by the appearance of an induced magnetization with electric field applied and also is true in the opposite way. As one of the oxides devices we proposed a new type of Josephson field effect transistor (JFET) as adopting the ME materials to a gate insulator. In such the device, considering the Fraunhofer pattern, large IC modulation was expected by the induced magnetic field. Representative ME material, Cr2O3 films were deposited on Josephson junctions which were formed bygrain boundaries in YBa2Cu3OX (YBCO) films grown on MgO substrates. The multilayered films, Cr2O3 /YBCO and Cr2O3 / Y2O3 / YBCO were studied as the model of JFET.
Non-pathogenic trypanosomes of the subgenus Herpetosoma are normally host specific, and laboratory models include Trypanosoma lewisi in rats and Trypanosoma musculi in mice. Two isolates of Trypanosoma grosi, originating from Apodemus agrarius and Apodemus peninsulae, grew well in Mongolian jirds, Meriones unguiculatus, after intraperitoneal inoculation of 2×105 or a minimum 500 bloodstream forms. The course of T. grosi infection in jirds resembled T. musculi infection in mice, rather than T. lewisi infection in rats. At week 2 to 3 p.i. trypanosomes disappeared from the bloodstream, and neither prednisolone treatment nor splenectomy prevented parasite elimination from the bloodstream. However, these treatments induced a marked increase in peak parasite counts. Regardless of prednisolone treatment or splenectomy, all jirds after day 21 p.i. became resistant to the reinfection. Although no trypanosomes were detected in the bloodstream of recovered jirds, dividing parasites persisted in the medullary capillaries of the kidney, like T. musculi infection in mice. We propose the T. grosi infection in jirds as an additional laboratory model for the study of non-pathogenic trypanosomes.
Cluster ion beam processes can produce high rate sputtering with low damage in comparison with monomer ion beam processes. Especially, it is expected that extreme high rate sputtering can be obtained using reactive cluster ion beams. High current SF6 cluster ion beams were recently obtained with new modifications in the basic cluster ion beam technique. The cluster size distribution was measured with Time-of-Flight (TOF) method and the mean size of cluster was about 500 molecules. Si substrates were irradiated with SF6 cluster ions at the acceleration energy of 5–45 keV. Sputtering yield with SF6 cluster ions was increased with acceleration energy and was about 2300 atoms/ion at 45 keV. The sputtering yield was about 1000 times higher than that of Ar monomer ions and was also higher than that of Ar cluster ions. It was found that reactive sputtering occurred with SF6 cluster ion irradiation. These results indicate that high-speed fabrication can be realized with reactive cluster ion irradiation at high energy.