To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Continuum observation of galaxies in millimeter-wave gives informations on dust emission from molecular clouds, free-free emission from HII region and synchrotron emission from SNR and diffuse component. The free-free emission can be observed only at millimeter-wave frequencies and their emission is optically thin, it can be a good indicator of their star-formation activities.
We report first results from a multiwavelength campaign to measure the simultaneous spectrum of Sgr A* from cm to mm wavelengths. The observations confirm that the previously detected submm-excess is not due to variability; the presence of an ultracompact component with a size of a few Schwarzschild radii is inferred. In a VLA survey of LINER galaxies, we found Sgr A*-like nuclei in one quarter of the galaxies searched, suggesting a link between those low-power AGN and the Galactic Center.
We report a recent result of the FUGIN project, a Galactic plane CO survey using the Nobeyama 45-m Telescope and the FOREST receiver. In the third galactic quadrant, 42 square degrees are observed and 4752 molecular clouds are detected. Among them, 12 clouds are located at R (distance from the Galactic center) > 16 kpc. Molecular clouds at R < 16 kpc trace the Local, Perseus, and Outer arms.
Using a newly developed rapid test, an outbreak of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) infection in a long-term care facility was detected within only 2 days after the onset of symptoms in a putative index case. The outbreak was almost under control within 8 days mainly by zoning patients, with the exception of two cases of HMPV that were diagnosed 16 and 17 days after the onset of the outbreak. According to an immunological diagnosis as well as the rapid test, it was eventually proven that 18 patients had HMPV infections. We suspected that even asymptomatic residents, who had not been completely separated from the facility population, were a source of infection. That suggested that all asymptomatic residents should be tested and that the separation of the infected patients should be absolute, if an outbreak of HMPV infection is suspected in such a facility.
The charge transport properties critically depend on the degree of ordering of the chains in the solid state as well as on the density of chemical or structural defects. In general, goodelectronic performance requires strong electronic coupling between adjace nt molecules in the solid-state that yield strong intermolecular π-overlap. Herein, we newly designed and synthesized organic semiconducting materials having both aryl (Ar) and perfluoroaryl (FAr) as substituents for organic electronics along with molecular packing control. Regarding this molecular design, we hypothesized and expected that the Ar and FAr substituents would induce well-defined π-π stacking structure of charge transport units for high performance organic electronics devices.
In this paper, we first propose an improved CVD-WSix metal gate suitable for use with nMOSFETs. Work function of CVD-WSi3.9 gate estimated from C-V measurements was 4.3eV. The nMOSFET using CVD-WSi3.9 gate electrode showed that Vth variation of L/W=1 μm/10μm nMOSFETs can be suppressed to be lower than 8mV in 22chip. In CVD-WSi3.9 gate MOSFETs with gate length of 50nm, a drive current of 636μA/μm was achieved for off-state leakage current of 35nA/μm at 1.0V of power supply voltage. By using CVD-WSi3.9 gate electrode, highly reliable metal gate nMOSFETs can be realized.
The method of ion implantation and spike annealing for preparing shallow junctions suitable for the extension regions bridging the channel and source/drain contacts of CMOS transistors are studied by annealing blanket implants. Junction depths at a given sheet resistance for low energy B implants are minimized for the combination of a fast ramp with a sharp-spike anneal. This is shown to be physically based on activation energy phenomenology. The fraction of electrically activated B is insensitive to implant dose, unlike the case of transient enhanced diffusion. Arsenic implants show higher activation fraction than comparably annealed P implants, without the large transient enhanced diffusion which is attributed to P and Si-interstitial coupled diffusion. For targeted sheet resistance and junction depth, spiking temperature trends lower with implant dose, concomitant with decreasing fraction of activated dopant.
The point defect injection from arsenic precipitation was studied using boron marker layers and antimony doped superlattices. Comparisons of arsenic and germanium amorphizing implants showed similar boron marker layer diffusion enhancements after spike annealing. The results indicate that the end of range damage caused by the implants was the source of the diffusion enhancement. Additional annealing cycles showed that there was retardation in the diffusion enhancement of the boron marker layers for precipitation range arsenic implants. Antimony marker layers showed no diffusion enhancement due to vacancy injection. The results of the experiments indicate that arsenic-interstitial complexes are the cause of the decrease flux of interstitials to the bulk.
Unidirectional solidification of Ti-48Al binary alloy using γ-TiAl single-phase seed crystals has been carried out by an optical floating zone method. The lamellar orientation of the grown PST crystal follows the orientation of the Ti-57Al seed crystal, while it fails to follow that in the case of the Ti-53Al seed. Microstructure analysis reveals that the seed crystal of Ti-57Al exhibits a flat liquid/solid interface in melting (γ→+L) even after making contact with 48Al to grow, whereas the seed of Ti-53Al shows a cellular interface due to the peritectic reaction in melting (γ→α+L). At the 57/48 interface, an abrupt change of Al concentration was detected from the seed to the grown crystal, indicating an occurrence of composition travel to skip the peritectic reaction, which is responsible for the control of lamellar orientation of the grown PST crystals. The same attempt has been made by using the 57Al single crystal seed with a different orientation, and the lamellar orientation of the grown PST crystal was confirmed to follow the orientation of the seed.
Preamorphization is commonly used to form shallow junction in silicon CMOS devices. The purposeof this experiment was to study the effect of the preamorphizing species' mass on the interstitial concentration at the end-of-range (EOR). Isovalent species of Si, Ge, Sn and Pb were compared. Silicon wafers with a buried boron marker layer (4700 Å deep) were amorphized using implants of 22 keV 28Si+, 32 keV73Ge+, 40 keV 119Sn+ or 45 keV 207Pb+, which resulted in similar amorphous layer depths. All species were implanted at a dose of 5×1014 /cm2. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) was used tomeasure amorphous layer depths (approximately 400 Å). Post-implantation anneals were performed at 750 °C for 15 minutes. Plan-view transmission electron microscopy (PTEM) was used to observe and quantify the EOR defect population upon annealing. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to monitor the transient enhanced diffusion (TED) of the buried boron marker layer resulting from the EOR damage introduced by the amorphizing implants. Based upon the SIMS results Florida Object Oriented Process Simulator (FLOOPS) calculated the resulting time average diffusivity enhancements. Results showed that increasing the ion mass over a significant range (28 to 207 AMU) not only affects the quantity and type of damage that occurs at the EOR, but results in a reduced diffusivity enhancement.
Phosphorus diffusion has been studied in both pure epitaxially grown silicon and Cz silicon, with a substantial amount of impurities like oxygen and carbon. Anneals have been performed in different atmospheres, N2 and dry O2, as well as in vacuum, at temperatures between 810 – 1100°C. Diffusion coefficients extracted from these anneals show no difference for the P diffusion in the epitaxially grown or the Cz silicon. The diffusion coefficients follow an Arrhenius dependence with the activation energy Ea=2.74±0.07 eV and a prefactor D0 = (8±5)×10−4 cm2/s. These parameters differ considerably from the previously reported and widely accepted values (3.66 eV and 3.84 cm2/s, respectively). However, vacuum anneals of the same samplesresult in values close to this 3.6 eV diffusion mode. Furthermore, control anneals of boron doped samples, with similar design as the phosphorus samples, suggest the same trend for boron diffusion in silicon – lower versus higher values of activation energies for nitrogen and vacuum anneals, respectively. These results are discussed in terms of the concentration of Si self-interstitials mediating the diffusion of phosphorus and boron.
We discuss atomistic simulations of ion implantation and annealing of Si over a wide range of ion dose and substrate temperatures. The DADOS Monte Carlo model has been extended to include the formation of amorphous regions, and this allows simulations of dopant diffusion at high doses. As the dose of ions increases, a continuous amorphous layer may be formed. In that case, most of the excess interstitials generated by the implantation may be swept to the surface as the amorphous layer regrows, instead of diffusing through the crystalline region. This process reduces the amount of transient enhanced diffusion during annealing. This model also reproduces the dynamic annealing during high temperature implants.
We proposed the magnetoelectric (ME) effect as a new function of oxides electronic devices. The ME effect is characterized by the appearance of an induced magnetization with electric field applied and also is true in the opposite way. As one of the oxides devices we proposed a new type of Josephson field effect transistor (JFET) as adopting the ME materials to a gate insulator. In such the device, considering the Fraunhofer pattern, large IC modulation was expected by the induced magnetic field. Representative ME material, Cr2O3 films were deposited on Josephson junctions which were formed bygrain boundaries in YBa2Cu3OX (YBCO) films grown on MgO substrates. The multilayered films, Cr2O3 /YBCO and Cr2O3 / Y2O3 / YBCO were studied as the model of JFET.
New surface modification processes have been demonstrated using gas cluster
ion irradiations because of their unique interaction between cluster ions
and surface atoms. For example, high quality ITO films could be obtained by
O2 cluster ion assisted deposition at room temperature. It is
necessary to understand the role of cluster ion bombardment during film
formation for the further developments of this technology. Variable
Temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscope (VT-STM) in Ultra High Vacuum
(UHV) allows us to study ion bombardment effects on surfaces and nucleation
growth at various temperatures.
The irradiation effects between Ar cluster ion and Xe monomer ion were
compared. When a Si(111) surface with Ge deposited to a few Å was annealed
to 400°C, it was observed that many islands of Ge were formed. The surface
with the Ge islands was irradiated by these ions. In the STM image of
cluster-irradiated surface, large craters with diameter of about 100 Å were
observed, while only small traces with diameter of about 20 Å were observed
in monomer-irradiated surface. The number of Ge atoms displaced by one Ar
cluster ion impact was much larger than that by one Xe ion impact. This
result indicates that Ar cluster ion impacts can enhance the physical
modification of Ge islands. When the sample irradiated with Ar cluster was
annealed at 600°C, the hole remained, but the outer rim of the crater
disappeared and the surface structure was reconstructed at the site of the
rim. The depth of damage region in the target became shallower with decrease
of the impact energy. These results indicate that low damage and useful
surface modification can be realized using the cluster ion beam.
Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) with Gas Cluster Ion Beams (GCIB) was
studied with experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to achieve
a high-resolution depth profiling. For this purpose, it is important to
prevent both ion-mixing and the surface roughening due to energetic ions. As
the Ar cluster ion beam shows surface smoothing effects and high
secondary-ion yield in the low-energy regime, the cluster ion beam would be
suitable for the primary ion beam of SIMS. From MD simulations of Ar cluster
ion impact on a Si substrate, the ion-mixing is heavier than for Ar monomer
ions at the same energy per atom, because the energy density at the impact
point by clusters is extremely high. However, the sputtering yields with Ar
cluster ions are one or two orders of magnitude higher than that with Ar
monomer ions at the same energy per atom. Comparing at the ion energy where
the ion-mixing depths are the same by both cluster and monomer ion impacts,
cluster ions show almost ten times higher sputtering yield than Ar monomer
ions. Preliminary experiment was done with a conventional SIMS detector and
a mass resolution of several nm was achieved with Ar cluster ions as a
primary ion beam.
We report the fabrication of complex 3D microstructures in silica and polymethyl- methacrylate glass by a combination of femtosecond laser microfabrication and chemical wet etching techniques. It is demonstrated that fabrication of interconnected network of channels having lengths of about 200 νm, and diameters as small as 10 νm is possible due to the enhanced etching selectivity (typically 20 - 60) in the laser-irradiated regions. Thus, it becomes feasible to form 3D micro-fluidic and photonic crystal structures in transparent glass-like materials using this approach. In addition, preliminary results on microstructuring of rubber are presented.
Based on our analysis of a lot of creep rate-strain curves of PST crystals with the different angles between the lamellar plate and the stress axis, designated as ø, it was confirmed that the creep rate and the creep deformation manner strongly depend on the ø. It was supposed that the predominant creep deformation using γ plate during the transient stage is derived by the fully suppression of the operation of another slip systems not parallel to γ plate through α2 plate. It was also confirmed that the initial stress axes of the PST crystals within the standard stereographic triangle move for the - line, and then turn their directions for  pole during the transient stage. This moving manner of the stress axis indicated that the first slip system of (111) continues to the area near the - line in the standard stereographic triangle, and then, the second slip system of (111) operates. By comparing this moving manner to the creep rate-strain curve, it is suggested that the first slip system of (111) operates during the Stage I where the light decrease in the creep rate remains, after that, the second slip system of (111) appears and leads to steep decrease in the creep rate. This stage was designated as the Stage II. According to this conception, it is supposed that the strain at the end of the Stage I is directly correlated with the angle from the initial stress axis to the - line in the standard stereographic triangle. In this study, this supposition was confirmed by conducting the creep tests at 1148 K/68.6 MPa using two PST crystals with ø of 31° and 34°. The initial stress axis of the PST crystal with ø of 31° locates nearer to the -[-111] line than that of the PST crystal with ø of 34°. The strain at the end of the Stage I of the PST crystal with ø of 31° is half that of the PST crystal with ø of 34°. By analyzing the inverse pole figures of the creep interrupted PST crystals, it was confirmed that the angle from the initial stress axis to the - line is correlated with the strain of the transient stage.
Phase equilibria in Fe-Ni-Nb ternary system at elevated temperatures have been examined, in order to identify the two-phase region of γ-Fe (austenite) and ε-Fe2Nb (C14). The ε single phase region exists in the range of 27.5 to 35.5 at.% Nb in the Fe-Nb binary system, and it extends toward the equi-niobium concentration direction up to 44 at.% Ni in the ternary system at 1473 K, indicating that more than half of the Fe atoms in Fe2Nb can be replaced with Ni. Thus, the γ+ε two-phase region exists extensively, and the solubility of Nb in γ phase increases from 1.5 to 6.0 at.% with increase in Ni content. The lattice parameters of a and c in the C14 Laves phase decrease with increasing Ni content. The change in a axis is in good agreement with calculation based on Vegard's law, whereas that of c axis is much larger than the calculated value. The result suggests that atomic size effect is responsible for a-axis change and the binding energy is dominant factor for the c-axis change. To extend these findings to development of new class of austenitic steels strengthened by Laves phase, an attempt has been made to control the c/a ratio by alloying. The addition of Cr is effective to make the c/a ratio close to the cubic symmetry value (1.633).
Phase equilibria among the bcc Fe(α), fcc Fe(γ) and Fe2Mo(λ)_phases in Fe-Mo-Ni ternary system, particularly paying attention to the existence of the γ+λ two-phase region, have been examined at elevated temperatures below Tc (1200 K), the peritectoid reaction temperature in Fe-Mo binary system: λ?α+Fe7Mo6 (μ). At 1173 K the α+γ+μ three-phase coexisting region exists near the Fe-Mo binary edge and no λ phase region was identified. At 1073 K the λ phase in equilibrium with α and γ phases exists, although the composition homogeneity region of the ternary λ phase was limited to its binary edge toward the equi-nickel concentration direction up to about 3at % Ni. Instead, large two-phase region of γ+μ was extended along the same direction up to 20 at% Ni. The γ+λ two-phase region appears below Tc through a transition peritectoid reaction: α+μ¨γ+λ. The γ phase in equilibrium with λ phase is stable only at elevated temperatures, and it transforms martensitically to α phase during cooling. The addition of Ni stabilizes γ and μ phases against α and λ phases, thereby decreasing the relative stability of the λ phase.
A Microstructurally controlled γ(TiAl)-based alloy containing β(bcc) has shown remarkable tensile properties at high temperatures. It exhibits over 450% tensile elongation at 1473K. The strain rate sensitivity factors are calculated to be over 0.3 above 1273K. A specific texture is not observed from transmission X-ray photograph. TEM observation reveals that the precipitated β phase located at grain boundaries elongates uniformly along γ grain boundaries and causes large ductility. We propose β/γ dual phase alloys as high temperature deformable materials.