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The cosmic evolution of the chemical elements from the Big Bang to the present time is driven by nuclear fusion reactions inside stars and stellar explosions. A cycle of matter recurrently re-processes metal-enriched stellar ejecta into the next generation of stars. The study of cosmic nucleosynthesis and this matter cycle requires the understanding of the physics of nuclear reactions, of the conditions at which the nuclear reactions are activated inside the stars and stellar explosions, of the stellar ejection mechanisms through winds and explosions, and of the transport of the ejecta towards the next cycle, from hot plasma to cold, star-forming gas. Due to the long timescales of stellar evolution, and because of the infrequent occurrence of stellar explosions, observational studies are challenging, as they have biases in time and space as well as different sensitivities related to the various astronomical methods. Here, we describe in detail the astrophysical and nuclear-physical processes involved in creating two radioactive isotopes useful in such studies,
. Due to their radioactive lifetime of the order of a million years, these isotopes are suitable to characterise simultaneously the processes of nuclear fusion reactions and of interstellar transport. We describe and discuss the nuclear reactions involved in the production and destruction of
, the key characteristics of the stellar sites of their nucleosynthesis and their interstellar journey after ejection from the nucleosynthesis sites. This allows us to connect the theoretical astrophysical aspects to the variety of astronomical messengers presented here, from stardust and cosmic-ray composition measurements, through observation of
rays produced by radioactivity, to material deposited in deep-sea ocean crusts and to the inferred composition of the first solids that have formed in the Solar System. We show that considering measurements of the isotopic ratio of
eliminate some of the unknowns when interpreting astronomical results, and discuss the lessons learned from these two isotopes on cosmic chemical evolution. This review paper has emerged from an ISSI-BJ Team project in 2017–2019, bringing together nuclear physicists, astronomers, and astrophysicists in this inter-disciplinary discussion.
For an immiscible oil drop immersed in a stably stratified ethanol–water mixture, a downwards solutal Marangoni flow is generated on the surface of the drop, owing to the concentration gradient, and the resulting propulsion competes against the downwards gravitational acceleration of the heavy drop. In prior work of Li et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 126, issue 12, 2021, 124502), we found that for drops of low viscosity, an oscillatory instability of the Marangoni flow is triggered once the Marangoni advection is too strong for diffusion to restore the stratified concentration field around the drop. Here we experimentally explore the parameter space of the concentration gradient and drop radius for high oil viscosities and find a different and new mechanism for triggering the oscillatory instability in which diffusion is no longer the limiting factor. For such drops of higher viscosities, the instability is triggered when the gravitational effect is too strong so that the viscous stress cannot maintain a stable Marangoni flow. This leads to a critical drop radius above which the equilibrium is always unstable. Subsequently, a unifying scaling theory that includes both the mechanisms for low and for high viscosities of the oil drops is developed. The transition between the two mechanisms is found to be controlled by two length scales: the drop radius $R$ and the boundary layer thickness $\delta$ of the Marangoni flow around the drop. The instability is dominated by diffusion for $\delta < R$ and by viscosity for $R<\delta$. The experimental results for various drops of different viscosities can well be described with this unifying scaling theory. Our theoretical description thus provides a unifying view of physicochemical hydrodynamic problems in which the Marangoni stress is competing with a stable stratification.
Background: The goal of the study was to assess responder rates at various times after initiating atogepant treatment. Methods: A 12-week phase 3 trial evaluated the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of atogepant for preventive treatment of migraine (ADVANCE; NCT03777059) in adult participants with a ≥1-year history of migraine, experiencing 4-14 migraine days/month. Participants were randomized to atogepant 10, 30, or 60mg, or placebo once daily. These analyses evaluated ≥25%, ≥50%, ≥75%, and 100% reductions in mean monthly migraine days (MMDs) across 12 weeks and each 4-week interval. Adverse events (AEs) in ≥5% of participants are reported. Results: The efficacy analysis population included 873 participants: placebo: n=214; atogepant: 10mg: n=214; 30mg: n=223; 60mg: n=222. Atogepant-treated participants were more likely to experience a ≥50% reduction in the 3-month mean MMDs (56-61% vs 29% with placebo; P<0.0001). The proportions of participants experiencing ≥25%, ≥50%, ≥75%, and 100% reductions in mean MMDs significantly increased during each 4-week interval (≥50% reduction: 48-71% vs 27-47% with placebo). The most common AEs for atogepant were constipation (6.9-7.7%) and nausea (4.4-6.1%). Conclusions: Once-daily atogepant 10, 30, and 60mg significantly increased responder rates at all thresholds with approximately 60% achieving a ≥50% reduction in mean MMDs at 12 weeks.
Background: Susac Syndrome (SuS) is a rare autoimmune disorder of the cerebral, retinal, and inner ear microvasculature. One of the cardinal manifestations of central nervous system (CNS) involvement is encephalopathy, however the cognitive profile in SuS is poorly characterized in the literature. Methods: In this cross-sectional case series of seven participants diagnosed with Susac Syndrome in remission in British Columbia, we use a battery of neuropsychological testing, subjective disease scores, and objective markers of disease severity to characterize the affected cognitive domains and determine if any disease characteristics predict neuropsychological performance. We also compare this battery of tests to neuroimaging markers to determine if correlation exists between radiographic markers of CNS disease and clinical evaluation of disease severity. Results: There were a variety of cognitive deficits, with memory and language dysfunction being the most common. Despite the variability, performance on some neuropsychological tests (MoCA) correlated to markers of functional disability (EDSS). Additionally, MoCA and EDSS scores correlated with neuroimaging findings of both corpus callosum and white matter changes. Finally, psychiatric scores correlated with participant reported scores of disease severity. Conclusions: There is a relationship between cognitive deficits, subjective and objective disease disability, and neuroimaging findings in Susac Syndrome.
Hot-point drills have been widely used for drilling boreholes in glaciers, ice caps and ice sheets. A hot-point drill melts ice through the thermal head at its bottom end. Penetration occurs through a close-contact melting (CCM) process, in which the ice is melted, and the meltwater is squeezed out by the exerted force applied on the thermal head. During the drilling, a thin water film is formed to separate the thermal head from the surrounding ice. For the hot-point drill, the rate of penetration (ROP) is influenced by several variables, such as thermal head shape, buoyancy corrected force (BCF), thermal head power (or temperature) and ice temperature. In this study, we developed a model to describe the CCM process, where a constant power or temperature on the working surface of a thermal head is assumed. The model was developed using COMSOL Multiphysics 5.3a software to evaluate the effects of different variables on the CCM process. It was discovered that the effect of thermal head shape and the cone angle of conical thermal head on ROP is less significant, whereas the increase in the BCF and the power (or temperature) of the thermal head can continuously enhance the ROP.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
Iron deficiency (ID) in early life is associated with morbidities. Most fetal iron required for infant growth is acquired in the third trimester from maternal iron store. However, how prenatal iron level affects ferritin level in early infancy remains controversial. This study aimed to examine the associations between maternal ferritin levels and cord blood serum ferritin (CBSF) and to compare the ferritin levels between different feeding practices in early infancy. Healthy Chinese mothers with uncomplicated pregnancy and their infants were followed up at 3 months post-delivery for questionnaire completion and infant blood collection. Infants who were predominantly breastfed and those who were predominantly formula fed were included in this analysis. Serum ferritin levels were measured in maternal blood samples collected upon delivery, cord blood and infant blood samples at 3 months of age. Ninety-seven mother–baby dyads were included. Maternal ID is common (56 %) while the CBSF levels were significantly higher than maternal ferritin levels. Only three infants (3 %) had ID at 3 months of age. There were no significant correlations between maternal ferritin levels with CBSF (r 0·168, P = 0·108) nor with infant ferritin levels at 3 months of age (r 0·023, P = 0·828). Infant ferritin levels at 3 months were significantly and independently associated with CBSF (P = 0·007) and birth weight (P < 0·001) after adjusting for maternal age, parity, maternal education, infant sex and feeding practice. In conclusion, maternal ID was common upon delivery. However, maternal ferritin levels were not significantly associated with CBSF concentrations nor infant ferritin concentrations at 3 months of age.
With further climate change still expected, it is predicted to increase the frequency with plants will be water stressed, which subsequently influences phytophagous insects, particularly Lepidoptera with limited mobility of larvae. Previous studies have indicated that oviposition preference and offspring performance of Lepidoptera insects are sensitive to drought separately. However, the integration of their two properties is not always seen. Here, we evaluated changes in oviposition selection and offspring fitness of a Lepidoptera insect under three water-stressed treatments using a model agroecosystem consisting of maize Zea mays, and Asian corn borer Ostrinia furnacalis. Results found that female O. furnacalis preferred to laying their eggs on well-watered maize, and then their offspring tended to survive better, attained bigger larvae mass, and developed more pupae and adults on the preferred maize. Oviposition selection of O. furnacalis positively correlated with height and leaf traits of maize, and offspring fitness positively related with water content and phytochemical traits of hosts. Overall, these results suggest that oviposition choice performed by O. furnacalis reflects the maximization of offspring fitness, supporting preference–performance hypothesis. This finding further highlights that the importance of simultaneous evaluation of performance and performance for water driving forces should be involved, in order to accurately predict population size of O. furnacalis under altered precipitation pattern.
To assess the potential for contamination of personnel, patients, and the environment during use of contaminated N95 respirators and to compare the effectiveness of interventions to reduce contamination.
Simulation study of patient care interactions using N95 respirators contaminated with a higher and lower inocula of the benign virus bacteriophage MS2.
In total, 12 healthcare personnel performed 3 standardized examinations of mannequins including (1) control with suboptimal respirator handling technique, (2) improved technique with glove change after each N95 contact, and (3) control with 1-minute ultraviolet-C light (UV-C) treatment prior to donning. The order of the examinations was randomized within each subject. The frequencies of contamination were compared among groups. Observations and simulations with fluorescent lotion were used to assess routes of transfer leading to contamination.
With suboptimal respirator handling technique, bacteriophage MS2 was frequently transferred to the participants, mannequin, and environmental surfaces and fomites. Improved technique resulted in significantly reduced transfer of MS2 in the higher inoculum simulations (P < .01), whereas UV-C treatment reduced transfer in both the higher- and lower-inoculum simulations (P < .01). Observations and simulations with fluorescent lotion demonstrated multiple potential routes of transfer to participants, mannequin, and surfaces, including both direct contact with the contaminated respirator and indirect contact via contaminated gloves.
Reuse of contaminated N95 respirators can result in contamination of personnel and the environment even when correct technique is used. Decontamination technologies, such as UV-C, could reduce the risk for transmission.
This study evaluated the effects of dietary myo-inositol (MI) on growth performance, antioxidant status and lipid metabolism of juvenile Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) fed different percentage of lipid. Crabs (4·58 (sem 0·05) g) were fed four diets including a normal lipid diet (N, containing 7 % lipid and 0 mg/kg MI), N with MI supplementation (N + MI, containing 7 % lipid and 1600 mg/kg MI), a high lipid diet (H, containing 13 % lipid and 0 mg/kg MI) and H with MI supplementation (H + MI, containing 13 % lipid and 1600 mg/kg MI) for 8 weeks. The H + MI group showed higher weight gain and specific growth rate than those in the H group. The dietary MI could improve the lipid accumulations in the whole body, hepatopancreas and muscle as a result of feeding on the high dietary lipid (13 %) in crabs. Besides, the crabs fed the H + MI diets increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes but reduced the malondialdehyde content in hepatopancreas compared with those fed the H diets. Moreover, dietary MI enhanced the expression of genes involved in lipid oxidation and exportation, yet reduced lipid absorption and synthesis genes expression in the hepatopancreas of crabs fed the H diet, which might be related to the activation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β (CaMKKβ)/adenosine 5’-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signalling pathway. This study demonstrates that MI could increase lipid utilisation and reduce lipid deposition in the hepatopancreas of E. sinensis fed a high lipid diet through IP3R/CaMKKβ/AMPK activation. This work provides new insights into the function of MI in the diet of crustaceans.
Anxiety is common in older adults with cancer (OACs) and their caregivers and is associated with poor outcomes including worse physical symptoms, poor treatment adherence and response, and longer hospitalizations. This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, adherence, and preliminary efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention for OACs and their caregivers.
Patients with active cancer age 65 years and older and their caregivers were randomized to Managing Anxiety from Cancer (MAC), a seven-session CBT-based psychotherapy intervention delivered over the telephone or usual care. Patients and caregivers completed the intervention separately with licensed social workers. Self-report measures of anxiety, depression, and quality of life were administered after randomization and following intervention completion. Analyses were conducted separately for patients and caregivers and at the dyad level. Hierarchical Linear Modeling accounted for the within-dyad intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) by random intercepts associated with the dyads.
Twenty-nine dyads were randomized; 28 (96.6%) patients and 26 (89.7%) caregivers completed all study procedures. Of dyads randomized to MAC, 85.7% (n = 12) of patients and caregivers completed all seven sessions. Most patients (≥50%) and over 80% of caregivers rated the overall intervention and intervention components as “moderately” to “very” helpful. MAC was associated with a greater reduction in anxiety among dyads than usual care, the effect of MAC was greater in caregivers than in patients, and improvement in patient anxiety was associated with the reduction in caregiver anxiety. However, these results did not reach statistical significance.
Significance of results
This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of MAC and suggests strategies for improving acceptability, with a focus on adherence. Furthermore, these results indicate that MAC is promising for the reduction of anxiety in OAC–caregiver dyads and may be particularly beneficial for OAC caregivers. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy of MAC.
Supraglacial lakes and rivers dominate the storage and transport of meltwater on the southwest Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface. Despite functioning as interconnected hydrologic networks, supraglacial lakes and rivers are commonly studied as independent features, resulting in an incomplete understanding of their collective impact on meltwater storage and routing. We use Landsat 8 satellite imagery to assess the seasonal evolution of supraglacial lakes and rivers on the southwest GrIS during the 2015 melt season. Remotely sensed meltwater areas and volumes are compared with surface runoff simulations from three climate models (MERRA-2, MAR 3.6 and RACMO 2.3), and with in situ observations of proglacial discharge in the Watson River. We find: (1) at elevations >1600 m, 21% of supraglacial lakes and 28% of supraglacial rivers drain into moulins, signifying the presence of high-elevation surface-to-bed meltwater connections even during a colder-than-average melt season; (2) while supraglacial lakes dominate instantaneous surface meltwater storage, supraglacial rivers dominate total surface meltwater area and discharge; (3) the combined surface area of supraglacial lakes and rivers is strongly correlated with modeled surface runoff; and (4) of the three models examined here, MERRA-2 runoff yields the highest overall correlation with observed proglacial discharge in the Watson River.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This study will provide the essential characterization of intrinsic neural activity in human brain organoids, both at the single cell and network levels, to harness for translational purposes. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Brain organoids are 3D, stem cell-derived neural tissues that recapitulate neurodevelopment. However, to levy their full translational potential, a deeper understanding of their intrinsic neural activity is essential. Here, we present our preliminary analysis of maturing neural activity in human forebrain organoids. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Forebrain organoids were generated from human iPSC lines derived from healthy volunteers. Linear microelectrode probes were employed to record spontaneous electrical activity from day 77, 100, and 130 organoids. Single unit recordings were collected during hour-long recordings, involving baseline recordings followed by glutamatergic blockade. Subsequently, tetrodotoxin, was used to abolish action potential firing. Single units were identified via spike sorting, and the spatiotemporal evolution of baseline neural properties and network dynamics was characterized. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Nine organoids were recorded successfully (n=3 per timepoint). A significant difference in number of units was seen across age groups (F (2,6) = 6.4178, p = 0.0323). Post hoc comparisons by the Tukey HSD test showed significantly more units in day 130 (51.67 ±14.15) than day 77 (16.33 ±14.98) organoids. Mean firing rates were significantly different in organoids based on age, with drug condition also trending toward significance (F (6,12) = 9.97; p = 0.0028 and p = 0.08 respectively). Post hoc comparisons showed a higher baseline firing rate in day 130 (0.99Hz ±0.30) organoids than their day 77 counterparts at baseline (0.31Hz ±0.066) and glutamate blockade (0.31Hz ±0.045). Preliminary network analysis showed no modularity or small-world features; however, these features are expected to emerge as organoids mature. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Initial analysis of brain organoid activity demonstrates changes in single unit properties as they mature. Additional work in this area, as well as further network analyses, will confer better sense of how to rationally utilize brain organoids for translational purposes.
Very few zircon-bearing, kimberlite-hosted mantle eclogite xenoliths have been identified to date; however, the zircon they contain is crucial for our understanding of subcratonic lithospheric mantle evolution and eclogite genesis. In this study, we constrain the characteristics of zircon from mantle eclogite xenoliths based on existing mineralogical and geochemical data from zircons from different geological settings, and on the inferred origin of mantle eclogites. Given the likely origin and subsequent evolution of mantle eclogites, we infer that the xenoliths can contain zircons with magmatic, metamorphic and xenogenic (i.e. kimberlitic zircon) origins. Magmatic zircon can be inherited from low-pressure mafic oceanic crust precursors, or might form during direct crystallization of eclogites from primary mantle-derived melts at mantle pressures. Metamorphic zircon within mantle eclogites has a number of possible origins, ranging from low-pressure hydrothermal alteration of oceanic crustal protoliths to metasomatism related to kimberlite magmatism. This study outlines a possible approach for the identification of inherited magmatic zircon within subduction-related mantle eclogites as well as xenogenic kimberlitic zircon within all types of mantle eclogites. We demonstrate this approach using zircon grains from kimberlite-hosted eclogite xenoliths from the Kasai Craton, which reveals that most, if not all, of these zircons were most likely incorporated as a result of laboratory-based contamination.
In glaciology, snow–firn temperature at 10 m is considered a representation of the mean annual air temperature at the surface (MAAT) of the studied site. Although MAAT is an important parameter in ice-sheet investigations, it has not been widely measured in Antarctica. To measure the 10 m snow–firn temperature in Antarctica, a shallow hot-point drill system is designed. In this simple and lightweight system, a hot-point drill can melt boreholes with a diameter of 34 mm in the snow–firn to a depth of 30 m and a temperature sensors string can measure the borehole temperature precisely. In the 2018/19 field season, 16 boreholes along the Zhongshan–Dome A traverse were drilled, and the borehole temperature was measured. Although certain problems existed pertaining to the hot-point drill, a total depth of ~244 m was successfully drilled at an average penetration rate of ~10 m h−1. After borehole drilling, ~12–15 h were generally required for the borehole to achieve thermal equilibrium with the surroundings. Preliminary results demonstrated that the 10 m snow–firn temperature along the traverse route was affected by the increasing altitude and latitude, and it decreased gradually with an increase in the distance from Zhongshan station.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in China. However, early identification of patients with COPD in the community is challenging. This study used a real-world survey of the Chinese urban adult population to estimate the prevalence of COPD diagnosis or COPD-risk, examine the health outcomes and healthcare resource use of these groups, and investigate the sociodemographic factors associated with these statuses.
Respondents to the 2017 National Health and Wellness Survey in China (n = 19,994) were classified into: COPD (diagnosed), COPD-risk (undiagnosed), and control (undiagnosed, not at-risk) using their self-reported diagnosis and Lung Function Questionnaire (LFQ) score. These groups were compared by healthcare resource use and health outcomes (EuroQol [EQ-5D] and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaires). Factors associated with being in these groups were investigated using pairwise comparisons (t-tests and chi-square tests) and multivariable logistic regression.
In total, 3,320 respondents (16.6%) had a suspected risk of COPD but did not report receiving a diagnosis. This was projected to 105.3 million people (16.9% of urban adults). Relative to the controls, COPD-risk and COPD-diagnosed respondents had higher healthcare resource use, lower productivity, and lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) (p < 0.05). Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, weight, exercise, comorbidities, gender, education, employment, and air pollution were associated with increased odds of COPD-risk relative to the controls (p < 0.05).
A substantial group of individuals, undiagnosed, but with a risk of COPD, have impaired HRQoL, lower productivity, and elevated healthcare resource use. A range of sociodemographic factors are predictive of COPD risk, which may support targeted screening. Case-detection tools such as the LFQ may offer a convenient approach for identifying individuals for further definitive testing and appropriate treatment in China.