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In recognition of its special interdisciplinary character, IAU Commission 14 is linked directly to the Executive Committee. The Commission’s role is to inform the astronomical community of new developments in the diverse fields of research which involve atoms and molecules. Conversely it endeavors to sensitize the research community active in those fields to the specific needs of astronomy, especially concerning basic data and modeling tools. More generally, Commission 14 tries to foster long term relations and collaborations between the two communities and, when necessary, to alert funding authorities to the specific needs of ground and space based astronomy for specific atomic and molecular data. This report is one of the main contributions of Commission 14 to the information of the astronomical community. Several meetings concerned, at least in part, with the need and availability of atomic and molecular data for astrophysics were also sponsored or co-sponsored. In the last triennium, Commission 14 cosponsored IAU Symposium 194 “Astrochemistry: From Molecular Cloud to Planetary Systems” held in Sogwipo (Korea) from Aug. 23 to 27, 1999 and organized by Commission 34. A Joint Discussion: JD1 on “Atomic and Molecular Data for Astrophysics, New Developments, Case Studies and Future Needs” has been planned for the XXIVth IAU General Assembly in Manchester (Aug. 7-19, 2000) and cosponsored by Commissions 15, 16, 29, 34, 36, 40 and 44. Several other Joint Discussions to be held at the Manchester General Assembly are co-sponsored by this commission.
Helicobacter pylori infection is a major cause of peptic ulcer and is also associated with chronic gastritis, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Guidelines have been developed in the United States and Europe (areas with low prevalence) for the diagnosis and management of this infection, including the recommendation to ‘test and treat’ those with dyspepsia. A group of international experts performed a targeted literature review and formulated an expert opinion for evidenced-based benefits and harms for screening and treatment of H. pylori in high-prevalence countries. They concluded that in Arctic countries where H. pylori prevalence exceeds 60%, treatment of persons with H. pylori infection should be limited only to instances where there is strong evidence of direct benefit in reduction of morbidity and mortality, associated peptic ulcer disease and MALT lymphoma and that the test-and-treat strategy may not be beneficial for those with dyspepsia.
We performed a study to determine rates of reinfection in three groups followed for 2 years after successful treatment: American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons living in urban (group 1) and rural (group 2) communities, and urban Alaska non-Native persons (group 3). We enrolled adults diagnosed with H. pylori infection based on a positive urea breath test (13C-UBT). After successful treatment was documented at 2 months, we tested each patient by 13C-UBT at 4, 6, 12 and 24 months. At each visit, participants were asked about medication use, illnesses and risk factors for reinfection. We followed 229 persons for 2 years or until they became reinfected. H. pylori reinfection occurred in 36 persons; cumulative reinfection rates were 14·5%, 22·1%, and 12·0% for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Study participants who became reinfected were more likely to have peptic ulcer disease (P = 0·02), low education level (P = 0·04), or have a higher proportion of household members infected with H. pylori compared to participants who did not become reinfected (P = 0·03). Among all three groups, reinfection occurred at rates higher than those reported for other US populations (<5% at 2 years); rural AI/AN individuals appear to be at highest risk for reinfection.
A heuristic greedy algorithm is developed for efficiently tiling spatially dense redshift surveys. In its first application to the Galaxy and MassAssembly (GAMA) redshift survey we find it rapidly improves the spatial uniformity of our data, and naturally corrects for any spatial bias introduced by the 2dF multi-object spectrograph. We make conservative predictions for the final state of the GAMA redshift survey after our final allocation of time, and can be confident that even if worse than typical weather affects our observations, all of our main survey requirements will be met.
The growth of copper, silver and gold thin films on tungsten disulfide has been examined as a model of metal contacts on a layered semiconductor. All three metals were found to grow epitaxially on the WS2. However, Cu appears to form a discontinuous film while Au and Ag grow layer by layer. Such epitaxial growth is somewhat surprising since there is a large lattice mismatch between the metals and the WS2.
While the demand for economic development by underdeveloped countries has a long history, two landmarks call for brief comment: 1960, when a massinflux of newly-independent underdeveloped countries lent political strength to their clamours; and 1973, when the spectacular rise in oil prices became a potential weapon of the developing countries. The chief political forum of the latter has been the General Assembly of the United Nations, but battle has also been done in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), chief forum on international trade. Some concessions have been wrested from the developed countries, but progress in the two chief fora of public international finance, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, has been slow. Both of these international institutions have become the focus of manoeuvre between the developing and the developed countries.
Twenty-three chronic nonfluent aphasia patients with moderate or
severe word-finding impairments and 11 with profound word-finding
impairments received two novel picture-naming treatments. The intention
treatment initiated picture-naming trials with a complex left-hand
movement and was designed to enhance right frontal participation during
word retrieval. The attention treatment required patients to view visual
stimuli for picture-naming trials in their left hemispace and was designed
to enhance right posterior perisylvian participation during word
retrieval. Because the intention treatment addressed action mechanisms and
nonfluent aphasia reflects difficulty initiating or maintaining action
(i.e., language output), it was hypothesized that intention component of
the treatment would enhance re-acquisition of picture naming more than the
attention component. Patients with moderate and severe word-finding
impairment showed gains with both treatments but greater incremental
improvement from one treatment phase to the next with the intention than
the attention treatment. Thus, the hypothesis that intention component
would be a more active constituent than the attention component was
confirmed for these patients. Patients with profound word-finding
impairment showed some improvement with both treatments but no
differential effects for the intention treatment. Almost all patients who
showed treatment gains on either treatment also demonstrated
generalization from trained to untrained items. (JINS, 2007,
Psoroptes ovis, the causative agent of sheep scab, is an important ectoparasitic mite infecting sheep, goats and cattle. Infection is characterized by an extensive dermatitis, scab formation and intense itching. Initial focal lesions spread outwards, coalesce and may extend over the whole body. The host response to infestation has all the characteristics of an immediate-type hypersensitivity reaction but the mite antigens and allergens which initiate this response are almost completely undefined. Here, 507 randomly selected cDNAs derived from a mixed population of P. ovis were sequenced and the resultant nucleotide sequences subjected to Cluster analysis and Blast searches. This analysis yielded 280 clusters of which 49 had >1 sequence with 24 showing significant Blast X homology to another protein in the databases. There were 231 sequences which appeared on one occasion and 109 of these showed significant Blast X homology to other sequences in the databases. This analysis identified homologues of 9 different types of allergens which have been characterized in other allergic conditions such as responses to house dust mites. It also identified a number of cysteine proteases which may contribute to lesion development as well as several free-radical scavenging enzymes which may protect the mite from host immune effector responses.
Feeding behaviour in the weaning period is important theoretically and practically. The aim of the study was to develop appropriate observational codes for its description, to assess their reliability, and to examine the relationships between feeding behaviour, meal duration, and food intake. One hundred children aged 12–14 months were visited in their own homes, and two of each child's usual meals video-recorded and analysed using direct observation. Codes were developed that distinguished between the mother feeding her child directly and assisting her child's self-feeding, and between the child's behaviour when responding to being fed by the mother and when feeding themselves. All-occurrence sampling was used to record counts of these feeding acts during the meals. Two observers replicated coding of 40 randomly chosen meals to determine the reliability of these counts. Except for three codes which were used very infrequently (median counts of zero over the 200 meals), reliability was high with ρ > ·80. There was wide variation in the extent to which individual children fed themselves during meals, with only moderate consistency from meal to meal. Food intake was uncorrelated with meal duration, but correlated with the number of bites of food taken. Adjusted for the number of bites, longer meals were associated with a lower intake. When fed by the mother the child's food intake was greater than when they fed themselves, but the duration of the meals was little affected. The coding scheme is simple to use and generally reliable, and provides a means for relating more global measures of emotional or other characteristics of mealtime behaviour to feeding behaviour and nutritional intake.