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Subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) play a significant role in obesity-associated systemic low-grade inflammation. High-fat diet (HFD) is known to induce inflammatory changes in both scAT and PBMCs. However, the time course of the effect of HFD on these systems is still unknown. The aim of the current study was to determine the time course of the effect of high fat diet (HFD) on PBMCs and scAT. New Zealand white rabbits were fed HFD for 5 or 10 weeks (i.e., HFD-5 and HFD-10), or regular chow (i.e., CNT-5 and CNT-10). Thereafter, metabolic and inflammatory parameters of PBMCs and scAT were quantitated. HFD induced hyperfattyacidemia in HFD-5 and HFD-10 groups, with the development of insulin resistance (IR) in HFD-10, while no changes were observed in scAT lipid metabolism and inflammatory status. HFD activated the inflammatory pathways in PBMCs of HFD-5 group, and induced modified autophagy in that of HFD-10. The rate of fat oxidation in PBMCs was directly associated with the expression of inflammatory markers; and tended to inversely associate with autophagosome formation markers in PBMCs. HFD affected systemic substrate metabolism, and the metabolic, inflammatory, and autophagy pathways in PBMCs in the absence of metabolic and inflammatory changes in scAT. Dietary approaches or interventions to avert HFD-induced changes in PBMCs could be essential in prevention of metabolic and inflammatory complications of obesity, and promote healthier living.
We initiated a long-term and highly frequent monitoring project toward 442 methanol masers at 6.7 GHz (Dec >−30 deg) using the Hitachi 32-m radio telescope in December 2012. The observations have been carried out daily, monitoring a spectrum of each source with intervals of 9–10 days. In September 2015, the number of the target sources and intervals were redesigned into 143 and 4–5 days, respectively. This monitoring provides us complete information on how many sources show periodic flux variations in high-mass star-forming regions, which have been detected in 20 sources with periods of 29.5–668 days so far (e.g., Goedhart et al. 2004). We have already obtained new detections of periodic flux variations in 31 methanol sources with periods of 22–409 days. These periodic flux variations must be a unique tool to investigate high-mass protostars themselves and their circumstellar structure on a very tiny spatial scale of 0.1–1 au.
We report recent investigations of the organic chemistry of relatively nearby cold, dark interstellar clouds. Specifically, we confirm the presence of interstellar tricarbon monoxide (C3O) in Taurus Molecular Cloud1 (TMC-1); report the first detection in such regions of acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), the most complex oxygen-containing organic molecule yet found in dark clouds; report the first astronomical detection of several molecular rotational transitions, including the J=18−17 and 14−13 transitions of cyanodiacetylene (HC5N), the 101−000 transition of acetaldehyde, and the J=5−4 transition of C3O; and set a significant upper limit on the abundance of cyanocarbene (HCCN) as a result of the first reported interstellar search for this molecule.
Documenting past changes in the East Antarctic surface mass balance is important to improve ice core chronologies and to constrain the ice-sheet contribution to global mean sea-level change. Here we reconstruct past changes in the ratio of surface mass balance (SMB ratio) between the EPICA Dome C (EDC) and Dome Fuji (DF) East Antarctica ice core sites, based on a precise volcanic synchronization of the two ice cores and on corrections for the vertical thinning of layers. During the past 216 000 a, this SMB ratio, denoted SMBEDC/SMBDF, varied between 0.7 and 1.1, being small during cold periods and large during warm periods. Our results therefore reveal larger amplitudes of changes in SMB at EDC compared with DF, consistent with previous results showing larger amplitudes of changes in water stable isotopes and estimated surface temperature at EDC compared with DF. Within the last glacial inception (Marine Isotope Stages, MIS-5c and MIS-5d), the SMB ratio deviates by up to 0.2 from what is expected based on differences in water stable isotope records. Moreover, the SMB ratio is constant throughout the late parts of the current and last interglacial periods, despite contrasting isotopic trends.
Cellulose was selectively converted to sugar alcohols (sorbitol and mannitol) over a supported-metal catalyst ruthenium on carbon (Ru/C) by the application of plasma in cellulose aqueous suspension. Generally, conversion of cellulose to sugar alcohol should be done under H2 pressure and high temperature. The goal of using solution plasma process (SPP) in this study is to initiate “self-hydrogenation” by reactive hydrogen species generated from the plasma due to dissociation of water medium. The sugar alcohols were produced at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric analysis indicates that the SPP is a potent tool to promote the conversion of cellulose to sugar alcohols.
Evidence is lacking on the preventive effect of oral care on healthcare-associated pneumonia in hospitalized patients and nursing home residents who are not mechanically ventilated. The primary aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of oral care on the incidence of pneumonia in nonventilated patients.
We searched 8 databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Web of Science, LILACS, ICHUSHI, and CiNii), in addition to trial registries and a manual search. Eligible studies were published and unpublished randomized controlled trials examining the effect of any method of oral care on reported incidence of pneumonia and/or fatal pneumonia. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Risk of bias was assessed for eligible studies.
We identified 5 studies consisting of 1,009 subjects that met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 2 trials assessed the effect of chlorhexidine in hospitalized patients; 3 studies examined mechanical oral cleaning in nursing home residents. A meta-analysis could only be done on 4 trials; this analysis showed a significant risk reduction in pneumonia through oral care interventions (RRfixed, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40–0.91; P=.02). The effects of mechanical oral care alone were significant when pooled across studies. (RRfixed, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40–0.92; P=.02). Risk reduction for fatal pneumonia from mechanical oral cleaning was also significant (RRfixed, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.23–0.71; P=.002). Most studies had a high risk of bias.
This analysis suggests a preventive effect of oral care on pneumonia in nonventilated individuals. This effect, however, should be interpreted with caution due to risk of bias in the included trials.
We fabricated ferroelectric (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 (PLZT) capacitors with Sn:In2O3 (ITO) top electrodes using chemical solution deposition. Then, the effects of a thin conductive ITO buffer layer between the Pt bottom electrode and PLZT thin film were investigated in combination with top electrode (ITO/PLZT/ITO/Pt). The H2 degradation resistance of ITO/PLZT/ITO/Pt capacitors with a 3- and 28-nm-thick buffer layer was improved to 78 and 85%, respectively, from 60% without a buffer layer. The time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry profiles indicated the intensity of H ion increased after 45 min forming gas (3% H2/balance N2) annealing.
A reassortant swine-origin A(H3N2) virus (A/swine/BinhDuong/03-9/2010) was detected through swine surveillance programmes in southern Vietnam in 2010. This virus contains haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes from a human A(H3N2) virus circulating around 2004–2006, and the internal genes from triple-reassortant swine influenza A viruses (IAVs). To assess population susceptibility to this virus we measured haemagglutination inhibiting (HI) titres to A/swine/BinhDuong/03-9/2010 and to seasonal A/Perth/16/2009 for 947 sera collected from urban and rural Vietnamese people during 2011–2012. Seroprevalence (HI ⩾ 40) was high and similar for both viruses, with 62·6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 59·4–65·7] against A/Perth/16/2009 and 54·6% (95% CI 51·4–57·8%) against A/swine/BinhDuong/03-9/2010, and no significant differences between urban and rural participants. Children aged <5 years lacked antibodies to the swine origin H3 virus despite high seroprevalence for A/Perth/16/2009. These results reveal vulnerability to infection to this contemporary swine IAV in children aged <5 years; however, cross-reactive immunity in adults would likely limit epidemic emergence potential.
We present the detection of molecular gas using CO(1–0) line emission and followup Hα imaging observations of galaxies located in nearby voids. The CO(1–0) observations were done using the 45m telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO) and the optical observations were done using the Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT). Although void galaxies lie in the most underdense parts of our universe, a significant fraction of them are gas rich, spiral galaxies that show signatures of ongoing star formation. Not much is known about their cold gas content or star formation properties. In this study we searched for molecular gas in five void galaxies using the NRO. The galaxies were selected based on their relatively higher IRAS fluxes or Hα line luminosities. CO(1–0) emission was detected in four galaxies and the derived molecular gas masses lie between (1 - 8)×109M⊙. The Hα imaging observations of three galaxies detected in CO emission indicates ongoing star formation and the derived star formation rates vary between from 0.2 – 1.0 M7odot; yr-1, which is similar to that observed in local galaxies. Our study shows that although void galaxies reside in underdense regions, their disks may contain molecular gas and have star formation rates similar to galaxies in denser environments.
The tube-length distribution in the semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotube (s-SWCNT) ink extracted by the electric-field-induced layer formation (ELF) method was characterized by atomic force microscopy, which revealed that the nonionic surfactant Brij 700 adopted in ELF causes the significant and homogeneous shortening of SWCNTs compared with sodium cholate that is frequently used for the dispersion of SWCNTs as an ionic surfactant. It was found that the shortened s-SWCNTs in the semiconducting ink positively effect on the uniformity of performance among the s-SWCNT thin-film transistors.
The Vista Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) ESO Public Survey is an ongoing time-series, near-infrared (IR) survey of the Galactic bulge and an adjacent portion of the inner disk, covering 562 square degrees of the sky, using ESO's VISTA telescope. The survey has provided superb multi-color photometry in 5 broadband filters (Z, Y, J, H, and Ks), leading to the best map of the inner Milky Way ever obtained, particularly in the near-IR. The main part of the survey, which is focused on the variability in the Ks-band, is currently underway, with bulge fields observed between 34 and 73 times, and disk fields between 34 and 36 times. When the survey is complete, bulge (disk) fields will have been observed up to a total of 100 (60) times, providing unprecedented depth and time coverage in the near-IR. Here we provide a first overview of stellar variability in the VVV data.
We report drain-current (Id) deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) spectra and liquid-encapsulated-Czochralski-technique (LEC) GaAs crystal effect on low-frequency-oscillation (LFO) of wide gate (400-μm) Si-implanted GaAs metal- semiconductor field- effect- transistors (MESFETs). In the range of this experiment we could not find distinguishing DLTS peaks surely to be linked with Id-LFO of the MESFETs. Stoichiometric-melt growth LEC-boules showed relatively large Id-LFO phenomena. As-rich-melt growth LEC-boules showed tolerance to Id-LFO. We conclude that Id-LFO is not directly linked to deep centers themselves but interaction between deep centers and potential profiles and electrons. Stability of potential profile or band profile depends on “pinning’ center, which affects Fermi-level or quasi-Fermi-level stability. ‘Pinning’ center such as EL2s of ‘LEC GaAs crystals” is essential.
This paper reports the variation of carrier concentration depth profile in Si-implanted channel conductive layers of liquid- encapsulated-Czochralski- technique (LEC) grown GaAs crystals, the Vth scattering amplitude variation and the averaged Vth variation before and after phospho-silicate-glass (PSG) cap annealing of high-dose-Si-ion implanted crystal layers. Furthermore, the PSG-cap-annealing Vth variation difference between the As-rich LEC crystal and the near-stoichiometric LEC crystal is presented. These results, and carrier depth profile of Si-implanted active layers in LEC GaAs crystals through model of implanted Si atom move (like diffusion) and Si atom capture of a crystal lattice and siteing on lattice are discussed.
It is difficult to get a real scale image of the solar system through lecture. A scale model is a classical and one of good solutions (e.g. Handa et al.2003, Handa et al.2008). Through this model, people living in or visiting to the city can physically understand the scale of the solar system. This scale gives 1 cm for Earth's diameter and 115 m for 1 AU. However, some gadget is required to make it attractive for public citizens.
Comparative study of boron doped micro/nanocrystalline diamond (BDD/BDND) electrodes was performed using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements (EIS). The morphological and structural characterizations of BDD/BDND films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The films were grown with different boron amounts added in the feed gas. The boron source for BDND was smaller in concentration than that for BDD sample. Nonetheless, differential capacitance (Mott-Schottky plots) and heterogeneous charge transfer constant results showed similar doping level for both electrodes. This behavior indicated the high efficiency to dope nanocrystalline diamond films.
We present new, wide, and deep images in the AzTEC/ASTE 1.1 mm continuum and the 12 CO (J = 1–0) emission toward the northern part of the Orion-A GMC. We have found evidence for interactions between molecular clouds and the external forces that may trigger star formation. Two types of possible triggers were revealed: (1) Collisions of the diffuse gas on the cloud surface, particularly at the eastern side of the OMC-2/3 region, and (2) Irradiation of UV on the pre-existing filaments and dense molecular cloud cores. Our wide-field and high-sensitivity imaging has provided the first comprehensive view of the potential sites of triggered star formation in the Orion-A GMC.
Population data on conduct disorder (CD) symptoms can help determine whether hypothesized subtypes of CD are sufficiently disparate in their familial, psychiatric and life course correlates to distinguish separate diagnostic entities.
Latent class analysis (LCA) of CD symptoms occurring before age 15 was conducted in a national sample of adults aged 18–44 years from the National Epidemiological Study of Alcohol and Related Conditions. Associations of latent class membership with parental behavior problems, onset of psychiatric disorders and anti-social behaviors after age 15, adolescent life events (e.g. high school drop-out), and past-year life events (e.g. divorce/separation, bankruptcy) were estimated.
LCA identified a no-CD class with low prevalence of all symptoms, three intermediate classes – deceit/theft, rule violations, aggression – and a severe class. The prevalence of CD, according to DSM-IV criteria, was 0% in the no-CD class, between 13.33% and 33.69% in the intermediate classes and 62.20% in the severe class. Latent class membership is associated with all the familial, psychiatric and life course outcomes examined. Among the intermediate classes, risk for subsequent mood/anxiety disorders and anti-social behavior was higher in the deceit/theft and aggressive classes than in the rule violations class. However, risk for adolescent life events is highest in the rule violations class.
CD symptoms tend to occur in a partially ordered set of classes in the general population. Prognostically meaningful distinctions can be drawn between classes, but only at low levels of symptoms.
Recent epidemiological data suggest a link between the consumption of bovine offal products and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection in Japan. This study thus examined the prevalence of STEC in various types of these foods. PCR screened 229 bovine offal products for the presence of Shiga toxin (stx) gene. Thirty-eight (16·6%) samples were stx positive, of which eight were positive for rfbEO157 and three were positive for wzyO26. Four O157 and one O26 STEC isolates were finally obtained from small-intestine and omasum products. Notably, homogenates of bovine intestinal products significantly reduced the extent of growth of O157 in the enrichment process compared to homogenates of beef carcass. As co-incubation of O157 with background microbiota complex from bovine intestinal products in buffered peptone water, in the absence of meat samples, tended to reduce the extent of growth of O157, we reasoned that certain microbiota present in offal products played a role. In support of this, inoculation of generic E. coli from bovine intestinal products into the homogenates significantly reduced the extent of growth of O157 in the homogenates of bovine intestinal and loin-beef products, and this effect was markedly increased when these homogenates were heat-treated prior to inoculation. Together, this report provides first evidence of the prevalence of STEC in a variety of bovine offal products in Japan. The prevalence data herein may be useful for risk assessment of those products as a potential source of human STEC infection beyond the epidemiological background. The growth characteristic of STEC O157 in offal products also indicates the importance of being aware when to test these food products.
Poly(2,5-thienylene vinylene), PTV, can be conveniently prepared via a precursor route to give coherent films suitable for optical measurements. Photoexcitation above the band gap at 1.8 eV gives rise to two transient absorption peaks at 0.44 eV and 1.0 eV that are associated with bipolarons that live for times of order a few ms at 80 K. Photoluminescence, comparable in intensity to the Raman scattering, is found at energies above the band edge, and we assign this to a hot recombination process. Pump and probe measurements of the induced bleaching at 2 eV show a very fast rise and initial fall time, which are within the 100 fsec resolution of the measurement.
Porous silicon nitride ceramics with open porosity fraction of about 0.25 were obtained by capsule-free hot isostatic pressing from as-received and aqueous Soxlet washed powders. Particle surface modification by aqueous washing increases green density of cold isostatically pressed bodies and leads to a decrease in open pore fraction. At the same time, the α–β transition rate of the treated powder decreases.