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We recently reported Cambrowania ovata Tang and Xiao in Tang et al., 2019, from the early Cambrian Hetang Formation in South China and interpreted it as a problematic animal fossil, possibly related to either sponges or bivalved arthropods (Tang et al., 2019). Slater and Budd (2019) contested our taxonomic identification and phylogenetic interpretation; instead, they claimed that Cambrowania ovata is a large acritarch referable to morphotaxon Leiosphaeridia Eisenack, 1958, and thus is not an animal. Here we refute their criticisms, clarify the differences between Cambrowania and Leiosphaeridia and other acritarchs, and reiterate why an animal affinity for Cambrowania cannot be ruled out.
High-power orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams have distinct advantages in improving capacity and data receiving for free-space optical communication systems at long distances. Utilizing the coherent combination of a beam array technique and helical phase approximation by a piston phase array, we have proposed a generating system for a novel high-power beam carrying OAM, which could overcome the power limitations of a common vortex phase modulator and a single beam. The characteristics of this generating method and the orthogonality of the generated OAM beams with different eigenstates have been theoretically analyzed and verified. Also a high-power OAM beam produced by coherent beam combination (CBC) of a six-element hexagonal fiber amplifier array has been experimentally implemented. Results show that the CBC technique utilized to control the piston phase differences among the array beams has a high efficiency of 96.3%. On the premise of CBC, we have obtained novel vortex beams carrying OAM of
by applying an additional piston phase array modulation on the corresponding beam array. The experimental results agree approximately with the theoretical analysis. This work could be beneficial to areas that need high-power OAM beams, such as ultra-long distance free-space optical communications, biomedical treatments, and powerful trapping and manipulation under deep potential wells.
The lower-middle Hetang Formation (Cambrian Stage 2–3) deposited in slope-basinal facies in South China is well known for its preservation of the earliest articulated sponge fossils, providing an important taphonomic window into the Cambrian Explosion. However, the Hetang Formation also hosts a number of problematic animal fossils that have not been systematically described. This omission results in an incomplete picture of the Hetang biota and limits its contribution to the understanding of the early evolution of animals. Here we describe a new animal taxon, Cambrowania ovata Tang and Xiao, new genus new species, from the middle Hetang Formation in the Lantian area of southern Anhui Province, South China. Specimens are preserved as carbonaceous compressions, although some are secondarily mineralized. A comprehensive analysis using reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and micro-CT reveals that the new species is characterized by a spheroidal to fusoidal truss-like structure consisting of rafter-like crossbars, some of which are secondarily baritized and may have been internally hollow. Some specimens have aperture-like structures that are broadly similar to oscula of sponges, whereas others show evidence of a medial split reminiscent of gaping carapaces. While the phylogenetic affinity of Cambrowania ovata Tang and Xiao, n. gen. n. sp. remains problematic, we propose that it may represent carapaces of bivalved arthropods or more likely sponges in early life stages. Along with other problematic metazoan fossils such as hyolithids and sphenothallids, Cambrowania ovata Tang and Xiao, n. gen. n. sp. adds to the diversity of the sponge-dominated Hetang biota in an early Cambrian deepwater slope-basinal environment.
In this paper, we completely characterize the finite rank commutator and semi-commutator of two monomial-type Toeplitz operators on the Bergman space of certain weakly pseudoconvex domains. Somewhat surprisingly, there are not only plenty of commuting monomial-type Toeplitz operators but also non-trivial semi-commuting monomial-type Toeplitz operators. Our results are new even for the unit ball.
Suicide attempt (SA), which is one of the strongest predictors of completed suicide, is common in major depressive disorder (MDD) but its prevalence across epidemiological studies has been mixed. The aim of this comprehensive meta-analysis was to examine the pooled prevalence of SA in individuals with MDD.
A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Cochrane Library from their commencement date until 27 December 2017. Original studies containing data on prevalence of SA in individuals with MDD were analyzed.
In all, 65 studies with a total of 27 340 individuals with MDD were included. Using the random effects model, the pooled lifetime prevalence of SA was 31% [95% confidence interval (CI) 27–34%], 1-year prevalence was 8% (95% CI 3–14%) and 1-month prevalence was 24% (95% CI 15–34%). Subgroup analyses revealed that the lifetime prevalence of SA was significantly associated with the patient setting, study region and income level, while the 1-month prevalence of SA was associated with only the patient setting.
This meta-analysis confirmed that SA was common in individuals with MDD across the world. Careful screening and appropriate interventions should be implemented for SA in the MDD population.
Mastery of strengthening strategies to achieve high-capacity anodes for lithium-ion batteries can shed light on understanding the nature of diffusion-induced stress and offer an approach to use submicro-sized materials with an ultrahigh capacity for large-scale batteries. Here, we report solute strengthening in a series of silicon (Si)–germanium (Ge) alloys. When the larger solute atom (Ge) is added to the solvent atoms (Si), a compressive stress is generated in the vicinity of Ge atoms. This local stress field interacts with resident dislocations and subsequently impedes their motion to increase the yield stress in the alloys. The addition of Ge into Si substantially improves the capacity retention, particularly in Si0.50Ge0.50, aligning with literature reports that the Si/Ge alloy showed a maximum yield stress in Si0.50Ge0.50. In situ X-ray diffraction studies on the Si0.50Ge0.50 electrode show that the phase change undergoes three subsequent steps during the lithiation process: removal of surface oxide layer, formation of cluster-size Lix(Si,Ge), and formation of crystalline Li15(Si,Ge)4. Furthermore, the lithiation process starts from higher index facets, i.e., (220) and (311), then through the low index facet (111), suggesting the orientation-dependence of the lithiation process in the Si0.50Ge0.50 electrode.
In high power laser facility for inertial confinement fusion research, final optics assembly (FOA) plays a critical role in the frequency conversion, beam focusing, color separation, beam sampling and debris shielding. The design and performance of FOA in SG-II Upgrade laser facility are mainly introduced here. Due to the limited space and short focal length, a coaxial aspheric wedged focus lens is designed and applied in the FOA configuration. Then the ghost image analysis, the focus characteristic analysis, the B integral control design and the optomechanical design are carried out in the FOA design phase. In order to ensure the FOA performance, two key technologies are developed including measurement and adjustment technique of the wedged focus lens and the stray light management technique based on ground glass. Experimental results show that the design specifications including laser fluence, frequency conversion efficiency and perforation efficiency of the focus spot have been achieved, which meet the requirements of physical experiments well.
The Shen-Guang II Upgrade (SG-II-U) laser facility consists of eight high-power nanosecond laser beams and one short-pulse picosecond petawatt laser. It is designed for the study of inertial confinement fusion (ICF), especially for conducting fast ignition (FI) research in China and other basic science experiments. To perform FI successfully with hohlraum targets containing a golden cone, the long-pulse beam and cylindrical hohlraum as well as the short-pulse beam and cone target alignment must satisfy tight specifications (30 and
rms for each case). To explore new ICF ignition targets with six laser entrance holes (LEHs), a rotation sensor was adapted to meet the requirements of a three-dimensional target and correct beam alignment. In this paper, the strategy for aligning the nanosecond beam based on target alignment sensor (TAS) is introduced and improved to meet requirements of the picosecond lasers and the new six LEHs hohlraum targets in the SG-II-U facility. The expected performance of the alignment system is presented, and the alignment error is also discussed.
Salt, promoting oxidative stress, contributes to insulin resistance, whereas K, inhibiting oxidative stress, improves insulin sensitivity. Oxidative stress activation of NLRP3 inflammasome is a central player in the induction of insulin resistance. Therefore, we hypothesised that NLRP3 inflammasome may mediate the effects of salt and K on insulin resistance. In all, fifty normotensive subjects were recruited from a rural community of Northern China. The protocol included a low-salt diet for 7 d, then a high-salt diet for 7 d and a high-salt diet with K supplementation for another 7 d. In addition, THP-1 cells were cultured in different levels of Na with and without K. The results showed that salt loading elevated fasting blood glucose, insulin and C-peptide levels, as well as insulin resistance, whereas K supplementation reversed them. Meanwhile, additional K reversed the active effects of high salt on NLRP3 inflammasome in both the subjects and THP-1 cells, and the change of insulin resistance index notably related with the alteration of plasma IL-1β, the index of NLRP3 inflammasome activation, during intervention in the subjects. Additional K ameliorated oxidative stress induced by high salt in both the subjects and cultured THP-1 cells, and the change of oxidative stress related with the alteration of plasma IL-1β during intervention in the subjects. In vitro, antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine significantly prevented the active effects of high Na or oxidant Rosup on NLRP3 inflammasome, so did K. Our study indicates that oxidative stress modulation of NLRP3 inflammasome may be involved in the impacts of Na and K on insulin resistance.
To examine and quantify the potential dose–response relationship between green tea intake and the risk of gastric cancer.
We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, CBM, CNKI and VIP up to December 2015 without language restrictions.
A systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of observational studies.
Five cohort studies and eight case–control studies.
Compared with the lowest level of green tea intake, the pooled relative risk (95 % CI) of gastric cancer was 1·05 (0·90, 1·21, I2=20·3 %) for the cohort studies and the pooled OR (95 % CI) was 0·84 (0·74, 0·95, I2=48·3 %) for the case–control studies. The pooled relative risk of gastric cancer was 0·79 (0·63, 0·97, I2=63·8 %) for intake of 6 cups green tea/d, 0·59 (0·42, 0·82, I2=1·0 %) for 25 years of green tea intake and 7·60 (1·67, 34·60, I2=86·5 %) for drinking very hot green tea.
Drinking green tea has a certain preventive effect on reducing the risk of gastric cancer, particularly for long-term and high-dose consumption. Drinking too high-temperature green tea may increase the risk of gastric cancer, but it is still unclear whether high-temperature green tea is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Further studies should be performed to obtain more detailed results, including other gastric cancer risk factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption and the dose of the effective components in green tea, to provide more reliable evidence-based medical references for the relationship between green tea and gastric cancer.
Previous studies have demonstrated that individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) showed attentional bias toward gaming-related cues and exhibited impaired executive functions. The purpose of this study was to explore the alternations in related functional brain networks underlying attentional bias in IGD subjects.
Eighteen IGD subjects and 19 healthy controls (HC) were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they were performing an addiction Stroop task. Networks of functional connectivity were identified using group independent component analysis (ICA).
ICA identified 4 functional networks that showed differences between the 2 groups, which were related to the right executive control network and visual related networks in our study. Within the right executive control network, in contrast to controls, IGD subjects showed increased functional connectivity in the temporal gyrus and frontal gyrus, and reduced functional connectivity in the posterior cingulate cortex, temporal gyrus, and frontal gyrus.
These findings suggest that IGD is related to abnormal functional connectivity of the right executive control network, and may be described as addiction-related abnormally increased cognitive control processing and diminished response inhibition during an addiction Stroop task. The results suggest that IGD subjects show increased susceptibility towards gaming-related cues but weakened strength of inhibitory control.
This study aimed to investigate the impacts of dietary threonine on intestinal immunity and inflammation in juvenile grass carp. Six iso-nitrogenous semi-purified diets containing graded levels of threonine (3·99–21·66 g threonine/kg) were formulated and fed to fishes for 8 weeks, and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 d. Results showed that, compared with optimum threonine supplementation, threonine deficiency (1) decreased the ability of fish against enteritis, intestinal lysozyme activities (except in the distal intestine), acid phosphatase activities, complement 3 (C3) and C4 contents and IgM contents (except in the proximal intestine (PI)), and it down-regulated the transcript abundances of liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP)-2A, LEAP-2B, hepcidin, IgZ, IgM and β-defensin1 (except in the PI) (P<0·05); (2) could up-regulate intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17D mRNA levels partly related to NF-κB signalling; (3) could down-regulate intestinal anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2, IL-4/13A (not IL-4/13B) and IL-10 mRNA levels partly by target of rapamycin signalling. Finally, on the basis of the specific growth rate, against the enteritis morbidity and IgM contents, the optimum threonine requirements were estimated to be 14·53 g threonine/kg diet (4·48 g threonine/100 g protein), 15.05 g threonine/kg diet (4·64 g threonine/100 g protein) and 15·17 g threonine/kg diet (4·68 g threonine/100 g protein), respectively.
The origin and characteristics of near-microcoulomb multi-MeV electrons accelerated by short pulse lasers interacting with near-critical density plasma in self-formed channels are studied using three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. According to the analysis on interaction phenomena and electron dynamics, the dominant mechanism turns out to be direct laser acceleration, which ensures the outstanding energy coupling. Additionally, self-channeling is found to be a decisive factor for the acceleration performance, as electrons obtain ultra-high energy through betatron resonance inside the channels. In our findings, by using a relativistic short laser pulse and near-critical plasma, a large amount of energetic electrons can be generated, presenting a promising and accessible route to ultraintense, high-spatial-resolution radiation pulses.
Non-biomineralizing Ediacaran macrofossils are rare in carbonate facies, but they offer valuable information about their three-dimensional internal anatomy and can broaden our view about their taphonomy and palaeoecology. In this study, we report a new Ediacaran fossil, Curviacus ediacaranus new genus and species, from bituminous limestone of the Shibantan Member of the Dengying Formation in the Yangtze Gorges area of South China. Curviacus is reconstructed as a benthic modular organism consisting of serially arranged and crescent-shaped chambers. The chambers are confined by chamber walls that are replicated by calcispars, and are filled by micritic sediments. Such modular body construction is broadly similar to the co-occurring Yangtziramulus zhangii and other Ediacaran modular fossils, such as Palaeopascichnus. The preservation style of Curviacus is similar to Yangtziramulus, although the phylogenetic affinities of both genera remain unresolved. The new fossil adds to the diversity of Ediacaran modular organisms.
In the paper, a new time second-order mass-conserved implicit/explicit domain decomposition method (DDM) for the diffusion equations is proposed. In the scheme, firstly, we calculate the interface fluxes of sub-domains from the obtained solutions and fluxes at the previous time level, for which we apply high-order Taylor’s expansion and transfer the time derivatives to spatial derivatives to improve the accuracy. Secondly, the interior solutions and fluxes in sub-domains are computed by the implicit scheme and using the relations between solutions and fluxes, without any correction step. The mass conservation is proved and the convergence order of the numerical solutions is proved to be second-order in both time and space steps. The super-convergence of numerical fluxes is also proved to be second-order in both time and space steps. The scheme is stable under the stable condition r≤3/5. The important feature is that the proposed domain decomposition scheme is mass-conserved and is of second order convergence in time. Numerical experiments confirm the theoretical results.
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is the common cause of cognitive decline in the old population. MRI can be used to clarify its mechanisms. However, the surrogate markers of MRI for early cognitive impairment in SVD remain uncertain to date. We investigated the cognitive impacts of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and brain volumetric measurements in a cohort of post-stroke non-dementia SVD patients.
Fifty five non-dementia SVD patients were consecutively recruited and categorized into two groups as no cognitive impairment (NCI) (n = 23) or vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI) (n = 32). Detailed neuropsychological assessment and multimodal MRI were completed.
The two groups differed significantly on Z scores of all cognitive domains (all p < 0.01) except for the language. There were more patients with hypertension (p = 0.038) or depression (p = 0.019) in the VaMCI than those in the NCI group. Multiple regression analysis of cognition showed periventricular mean diffusivity (MD) (β = −0.457, p < 0.01) and deep CMBs numbers (β = −0.352, p < 0.01) as the predictors of attention/executive function, which explained 45.2% of the total variance. Periventricular MD was the independent predictor for either memory (β = −0.314, p < 0.05) or visuo-spatial function (β = −0.375, p < 0.01); however, only small proportion of variance could be accounted for (9.8% and 12.4%, respectively). Language was not found to be correlated with any of the MRI parameters. No correlation was found between brain atrophic indices and any of the cognitive measures.
Arteriosclerotic CMBs and periventricular white matter disintegrity seem to be independent MRI surrogated markers in the early stage of cognitive impairment in SVD.
Animal studies have suggested that Mn might be associated with some components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). A few epidemiological studies have assessed dietary Mn intake and its association with the risk of the MetS and its components among Chinese adults. In this study, we assessed daily dietary Mn intake and its relationship with MetS risk among Chinese adults in Zhejiang Province using data from the 5th Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey (2010–2012). A total of 2111 adults were included. Dietary Mn intake was assessed using 3-d 24-h dietary recalls; health-related data were obtained by questionnaire surveys, physical examinations and laboratory assessments. The mean intake of Mn was 6·07 (sd 2·94) mg/d for men (n 998) and 5·13 (sd 2·65) mg/d for women (n 1113). Rice (>42 %) was the main food source of Mn. The prevalence of the MetS was 28·0 % (590/2111). Higher Mn intake was associated with a decreased risk of the MetS in men (Q4 v. Q1 OR 0·62; 95 % CI 0·42, 0·92; Ptrend=0·043) but an increased risk in women (Q4 v. Q1 OR 1·56; 95 % CI 1·02, 2·45; Ptrend=0·078). In addition, Mn intake was inversely associated with abdominal obesity (Ptrend=0·016) and hypertriacylglycerolaemia (Ptrend=0·029) in men, but positively associated with low HDL-cholesterol in both men (Ptrend=0·003) and women (Ptrend<0·001). Our results suggest that higher Mn intakes may be protective against the MetS in men. The inverse association between Mn intake and the MetS in women might be due to the increased risk for low HDL-cholesterol.
The influence of temperature and strain rate on hot deformation behavior and microstructure of Cu–10Ni–3Al–0.8Si alloy was investigated. The true stress increased rapidly initially until it approached the peak values. The peak value of true stress and the Zener–Hollomon parameter decreased with the increase of temperature and the decrease of strain rate. The thermal activation energy of the alloy was about 396.57 kJ/mol, the processing map was established and the appropriate compression temperature was between 900 and 950 °C. The 〈001〉 and 〈011〉 fiber texture was the main type of texture. The increase of temperature or strain rate accelerated the formation of 〈001〉 fiber texture. Dynamic recrystallization nucleated and deformation bands formed at 750 °C. Recrystallization was accelerated with the increase of temperature and the decrease of Zener–Hollomon parameter. Both continuous recrystallization resulting from dynamic recovery and dynamic discontinuous recrystallization were softening mechanisms.