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Higher fiber intake reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among healthy population, but such data in dialysis patients are limited. We aimed to examine these associations in patients on peritoneal dialysis. This single-center prospective cohort study enrolled 881 incident PD patients between October 2002 and August 2014. All patients were followed until death, transfer to hemodialysis, renal transplantation or until being censored in June 2018. Demographic data were collected at baseline. Biochemical, dietary, and nutrition data were examined at baseline and thereafter at regular intervals to calculate the average values throughout the study. The outcomes were defined as all-cause and cardiovascular death. Cox proportional regression models were applied to explore the relationship between fiber intake and outcomes. Participants with higher fiber intake were more likely to be younger, male, and having better residual renal function and serum lipids at baseline. They were prone to maintain better nutrient status, higher blood pressure and lower inflammatory status at baseline and afterward. Neither baseline nor time-averaged fiber intake did show protective effects on all-cause mortality after multivariate adjustment in the whole cohort. Among non-diabetic PD patients, an independent association between fiber intake and all-cause mortality was found, in which each 1g/day of increase in time-averaged fiber intake correlated to 13% of reduction in all-cause mortality. We did not observe any benefits of fiber intake in the CVD mortality for both whole cohort and subgroups. This study revealed that higher dietary fiber intake appeared to have a protective effect on all-cause mortality in non-diabetic PD patients, which suggest that PD patients should be encouraged to eat a diet rich in fibers.
The secondary instabilities of stationary cross-flow vortices in a Mach 6 swept wing flow are studied using Floquet theory. High-frequency secondary instability modes of ‘y’ mode on top of stationary cross-flow vortices, and ‘z’ mode concentrating on the shoulder of the stationary cross-flow vortex are found. The most unstable secondary instability mode is always the ‘z’ mode as in incompressible swept wing flows. A new secondary instability mode concentrating on the trough of the stationary cross-flow vortex is found. The balance analysis of disturbance kinetic energy shows that the new mode belongs to the class of ‘y’ mode. The growth rate of the new ‘y’ mode located on the trough of the stationary cross-flow vortex is significantly larger than that of the ‘y’ mode on top of the stationary cross-flow vortex, and is comparable with the growth rate of the ‘z’ mode. It is also found that the new ‘y’ mode with higher frequency can evolve into the ‘z’ mode further downstream. The role of the pressure fluctuation term, including the pressure diffusion and pressure dilatation, in the energy production of secondary instability modes, is also investigated. It is shown that the pressure diffusion will only enhance the growth rate of the ‘z’ mode with higher frequency, but has little influence on other types of secondary instability mode. However, the pressure dilatation term arising from non-vanishing velocity divergence will reduce the growth rates of all secondary instability modes.
The continental shelf strata provide information regarding sea-level fluctuation and climate changes in the Quaternary period. A 5831.47-km-long high-resolution seismic profile and borehole core (YS01) were acquired to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the strata in South Yellow Sea (SYS) during the late Pleistocene. The strata recorded three transgression events (HI, HII, and HIII) and three stages of paleochannel development (LI, LII, and LIII). Based on the distribution, thickness, and volume of the strata formed in the three transgressions, we concluded that the scale of the three transgressions during the late Pleistocene was HIII, HI, and HII, in descending order. In addition, our data show that the Yellow River extended to the Yellow Sea Trough during the last glacial maximum. The influence of the tectonic framework on sedimentation in the SYS was completely concealed by sea-level changes and sediment supply in the late Pleistocene (~Marine Isotope Stage 5). Since then, the accommodation space, a crucial prerequisite for sedimentation, has been controlled solely by sea-level changes in the SYS. Furthermore, two “source to sink” models of the neritic shelf in the marine and terrestrial environments were established, including high sea-level and shelf-exposure models.
The lower-middle Hetang Formation (Cambrian Stage 2–3) deposited in slope-basinal facies in South China is well known for its preservation of the earliest articulated sponge fossils, providing an important taphonomic window into the Cambrian Explosion. However, the Hetang Formation also hosts a number of problematic animal fossils that have not been systematically described. This omission results in an incomplete picture of the Hetang biota and limits its contribution to the understanding of the early evolution of animals. Here we describe a new animal taxon, Cambrowania ovata Tang and Xiao, new genus new species, from the middle Hetang Formation in the Lantian area of southern Anhui Province, South China. Specimens are preserved as carbonaceous compressions, although some are secondarily mineralized. A comprehensive analysis using reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and micro-CT reveals that the new species is characterized by a spheroidal to fusoidal truss-like structure consisting of rafter-like crossbars, some of which are secondarily baritized and may have been internally hollow. Some specimens have aperture-like structures that are broadly similar to oscula of sponges, whereas others show evidence of a medial split reminiscent of gaping carapaces. While the phylogenetic affinity of Cambrowania ovata Tang and Xiao, n. gen. n. sp. remains problematic, we propose that it may represent carapaces of bivalved arthropods or more likely sponges in early life stages. Along with other problematic metazoan fossils such as hyolithids and sphenothallids, Cambrowania ovata Tang and Xiao, n. gen. n. sp. adds to the diversity of the sponge-dominated Hetang biota in an early Cambrian deepwater slope-basinal environment.
The influence of the nozzle aspect ratio (
, 2 and 4), stroke length (
, 3.7 and 5.55) and Reynolds number (
, 158, 316 and 632) on the behaviour of elliptic synthetic jets is studied experimentally. Laser-induced fluorescence and two-dimensional and stereoscopic particle image velocimetry are used to analyse the vortex dynamics and evolution mechanism. It is found that the fluid elements around the major axis of an elliptic vortex ring move downstream faster and tend to approach the centreline, while the fluid elements around the minor axis move downstream at a slower speed and away from the centreline, thereby resulting in the occurrence of the well-known axis-switching phenomenon for elliptic synthetic jets. During this process, a pair of arc-like vortices forms ahead of the primary vortex ring, and they are constituted by streamwise vortices in the leg part and spanwise vortices in the head part; two pairs of streamwise vortices form from the inside of the primary vortex ring and develop in the tails. The streamwise vortices are pushed away progressively from the centreline by the synthetic jet vortex rings that are formed during the subsequent periods. These additional vortical structures for non-circular synthetic jets show regular and periodic characteristics, which are quite different from the previous findings for non-circular jets. Their mutual interaction with the vortex ring causes significant changes in the topology of elliptic synthetic jets, which further results in the variation of the statistical characteristics. Increasing the aspect ratio, stroke length and Reynolds number will make the evolution of the synthetic jet become more unstable and complex. In addition, the entrainment rate of an elliptical synthetic jet is larger than that of a circular synthetic jet and it increases with the nozzle aspect ratio (
) and Reynolds number. It is indicated that the formation of streamwise vortices could enhance the entrainment rate. This finding provides substantial evidence for the potential application of elliptic synthetic jets for effective flow control.
Toxigenic Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) carriers represent an important source in the transmission of C. difficile infection (CDI) during hospitalisation, but its prevalence and mode in patients with hepatic cirrhosis are not well established. We investigated longitudinal changes in carriage rates and strain types of toxigenic C. difficile from admission to discharge among hepatic cirrhosis patients. Toxigenic C. difficile was detected in 104 (19.8%) of 526 hepatic cirrhosis patients on admission, and the carriage status changed in a portion of patients during hospitalisation. Approximately 56% (58/104) of patients lost the colonisation during their hospital stay. Among the remaining 48 patients who remained positive for toxigenic C. difficile, the numbers of patients who were positive at one, two, three and four isolations were 10 (55.6%), three (16.7%), two (11.1%) and three (16.7%), respectively. Twenty-eight patients retained a particular monophyletic strain at multiple isolations. The genotype most frequently identified was the same as that frequently identified in symptomatic CDI patients. A total of 25% (26/104) of patients were diagnosed with CDI during their hospital stay. Conclusions: Colonisation with toxigenic C. difficile strains occurs frequently in cirrhosis patients and is a risk factor for CDI.
To examine urban–rural disparity in childhood stunting, wasting and malnutrition at national and subnational levels in Chinese primary-school children in 2010 and 2014.
Data were obtained from two nationwide cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2010 and 2014. Malnutrition was classified using the Chinese national ‘Screening Standard for Malnutrition of Children’.
All twenty-seven mainland provinces and four municipalities of mainland China.
Children aged 7–12 years (n 215 214; 107 741 in 2010 and 107 473 in 2014) from thirty-one provinces.
Stunting, wasting and malnutrition prevalence were 1·9, 12·3 and 13·7 % in 2010, but decreased to 1·0, 9·4 and 10·2 % in 2014, respectively. The prevalence of stunting, wasting and malnutrition in both urban and rural children was higher in western provinces, while lower in eastern provinces. Although the prevalence of wasting and malnutrition was higher in rural children than their urban counterparts, the urban–rural disparity in both wasting and malnutrition decreased from 2010 to 2014 (prevalence OR: wasting, 1·35 to 1·16; malnutrition, 1·50 to 1·27). A reversal occurred in 2014 in several eastern provinces where the prevalence of wasting and malnutrition in urban children surpassed their rural peers. The urban–rural disparity was larger in western provinces than eastern provinces.
The shrinking urban–rural disparity and the reversal in wasting and malnutrition suggest that the malnutrition situation has improved during the post-crisis period, especially in the western provinces. Region-specific policies and interventions can be useful to sustainably mitigate malnutrition in Chinese children, especially in rural areas and the western provinces.
Social attention ability is crucial for human adaptive social behaviors and interpersonal communications, and the malfunction of which has been implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a highly genetic neurodevelopmental disorder marked by striking social deficits.
Using a classical twin design, the current study investigated the genetic contribution to individual variation in social and non-social attention abilities, and further probed their potential genetic linkage. Moreover, individual autistic traits were further measured in an independent group of non-twin participants to examine the hypothetical link between the core social attention ability and ASD.
We found reliable genetic influences on the social attentional effects induced by two distinct cues (eye gaze and walking direction), with 91% of their covariance accounted for by common genetic effects. However, no evidence of heritability or shared genetic effects was observed for the attentional effect directed by a non-social cue (i.e. arrow direction) and its correlation with the social attention ability. Remarkably, one's autistic traits could well predict his/her heritable core social attention ability extracted from the conventional social attentional effect.
These findings together suggest that human social attention ability is supported by unique genetic mechanisms that can be shared across different social, but not non-social, processing. Moreover, they also encourage the identification of ‘social attention genes’ and highlight the critical role of the core human social attention ability in seeking the endophenotypes of social cognitive disorders including ASD.
In this paper, the influence of strain rate on the mechanical behavior of high-strength low-alloy (HC420LA) steel were studied. Quasi-static and dynamic tensile experiments were performed with strain rates ranging from 0.001 to 500 s−1 at room temperature. The digital image correlation technique was used to obtain the full-field strain. The experimental results showed that HC420LA steel exhibited positive strain rate sensitivity. Based on experimental results, the modified Johnson–Cook (J–C) model was used to model the constitutive behavior of HC420LA steel. Predictions of the standard and modified J–C models were compared using standard statistical parameters. The modified J–C model showed better agreement with the experimental data. Then, numerical simulation of the representative tensile test at a strain rate of 100 s−1 was performed using the finite element code LS-DYNA. Good correlation between the experimental and numerical simulation results was achieved.
Multi-pass warm rolling with falling temperature was proposed and investigated to obtain AZ31 Mg alloy sheets with a fine-grained microstructure. The results indicated that the grain microstructure of AZ31 alloy sheets was successfully refined from 22.1 to 4.5 μm after multi-pass warm rolling with falling temperature and annealing. Compared to the as-received sheet, the multi-pass warm rolled sheets in annealed condition exhibited weaker (0001) basal texture intensity, which resulted in the significantly increased Schmid factor of 〈a〉 basal slip. After multi-pass warm rolling with falling temperature, the rolled sheets in annealed condition also exhibited much better mechanical properties, e.g., higher tensile strength, larger fracture elongation, and higher Erichsen value, especially the IE of 8-pass warm rolled sheet in annealed condition was significantly increased by ∼33% under the same thickness, which could be attributed to the refined grain microstructure and the weakened basal texture.
In north-central China, subsistence practices transitioned from hunting and gathering to millet-based agriculture between the early and middle Holocene. To better understand how ancient environmental changes influenced this shift in subsistence strategies and human activities at regional to local levels, we conducted palynological and lithologic analyses on radiocarbon-dated sediment cores from the Luoyang Basin, western Henan Province. Our palynological results suggest that vegetation shifted from broad-leaved deciduous forest (9230–8850 cal yr BP) to steppe-meadow vegetation (8850–7550 cal yr BP), and then to steppe with sparse trees (7550–6920 cal yr BP). Lithologic analyses also indicate that the stabilization of the Luoyang Basin’s floodplain after ~8370 cal yr BP might have attracted people to move into the basin, promoting the emergence of millet-based agriculture during the Peiligang culture period (8500–7000 cal yr BP). Once agricultural practices emerged, the climatic optimum after ~7550 cal yr BP likely facilitated the expansion of the Yangshao culture (7000–5000 cal yr BP) in north-central China. As agriculture intensified, pollen taxa related to human disturbance, such as Urtica, increased in abundance.
The pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in patients with the major depressive disorder (MDD) may involve neuroinflammation mediated by cytokines.
The aim of this study was to examine the serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, sustained attention, and their association in patients with MDD.
Thirty patients with MDD and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in this case-control study. Sustained attention was measured using the Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP) task in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The serum IL-6 levels of all subjects were assessed by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.
There were significant differences in the log10RVP total hits, log10RVP total misses, and log10RVP mean latency between patients with MDD and healthy controls (F = 6.04, p = 0.017; F = 19.77, p < 0.0001; F = 14.42, p < 0.0001, respectively). The serum levels of Log10IL-6 were significantly higher in patients with MDD than in healthy controls (F = 192.27, p < 0.0001). The log10IL-6 levels were also positively correlated with the log10RVP mean latency in patients with MDD (r = 0.45, p = 0.013). A further stepwise multivariate regression analysis indicated that the log10IL-6 levels were significantly associated with the log10RVP mean latency in patients with MDD (β = 0.31, t = 2.41, p = 0.025).
Our data suggested that increased IL-6 levels were associated with the psychopathology of MDD, and that abnormal IL-6 levels were implicated in the impairment of sustained attention in patients with MDD.
Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum (Lindl. ex Hook. f.) Stein (Orchidaceae) is a valuable but endangered ornamental plant. In the present study, the microsatellites characteristics were analysed and 14 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed based on the de novo transcriptome sequencing for P. hirsutissimum using Illumina pair-end sequencing technology. A total of 7406 SSRs were detected in 56,688 unigenes, with the occurrence frequency of 13.06% and an average density of one SSR per 5.42 kb; and 150 primer pairs randomly selected from 2090 pairs except mononucleotide repeats were synthesized for verification. These loci were validated in 32 individuals from the concentrated distribution centre, and were successfully amplified using 14 primer sets showing a high level of polymorphism. These SSR markers will be useful in future studies of genetic diversity, the population structure of P. hirsutissimum and make effective conservation strategy.
High concentrations of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in cows’ blood caused by ketosis are associated with inflammatory states. We hypothesised that ketosis in postparturient dairy cows would result in altered levels on inflammation-related proteins not only in plasma but also in the milk fat globule membranes (MFGM). Thirty cows were selected from a dairy farm in Heilongjiang, China. Inflammatory milk fat globule membrane proteins were detected using ELISA kits, and a fully automatic biochemical analyser was used to measure the concentrations of BHBA, NEFA, glucose (GLU) and triglyceride (TG) in plasma. MFGM protein from milk of ketotic cows contained significantly different concentrations of acute-phase response proteins (complement C3 (C3), prothrombin (F2), alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (ORM1), inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 (ITIH4), alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein (AHSG), complement C9 (C9), complement regulatory protein variant 4 (CD46)) in comparison with milk from non-ketotic cows. Blood concentrations of C3, complement C9 (C9), tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), MFGM C3, monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 (CD14) and ORM1 levels were correlated with energy balance. ITIH4 and CD46 increased, and AHSG and ORM1 decreased before the onset of ketosis. These biomarkers offer potential as predictors and monitors of ketosis in at-risk cows.
Italian ryegrass has invaded wheat ﬁelds in China and is becoming a predominant, troublesome weed. Fenoxaprop-P-ethyl has been widely used for weed control on Chinese farms since the 1990s. However, overuse has led to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl resistance in Italian ryegrass in Chinese wheat fields. In this study, we identified a putative fenoxaprop-P-ethyl–resistant population of Italian ryegrass, HZYC-6, from Henan province, China. Mutations involving Asp-2078-Gly and Ile-1781-Leu substitutions were identified in the carboxyl-transferase domain of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase in this population, and these mutations are the likely cause of the target site–based resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl. In addition, we identified cytochrome P450–mediated metabolism of herbicides (non–target site based resistance) in the HZYC-6 population, indicating that multiple mechanisms of resistance may be segregating in this population. Furthermore, HZYC-6 was also highly resistant to haloxyfop-R-methyl and quizalofop-P-ethyl, moderately resistant to clodinafop-propargyl and sethoxydim, and had low resistance to clethodim and pinoxaden.
Herbicide-resistant weeds pose a considerable threat to agriculture, but their resistance mechanisms are poorly understood. Differential gene expression analysis of a weed subjected to herbicide treatment is a key step toward more mechanistic studies. Such an analysis, often involving quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), requires suitable reference genes as internal controls. In this study, we identified optimal reference genes in the noxious weed, Japanese foxtail. This weed has evolved resistance to acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors. We analyzed the stability of eight commonly used candidate reference genes (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH]; ubiquitin [UBQ]; capsine phosphatase [CAP]; beta-tubulin [TUB]; eukaryotic initiation factor 4a [EIF4A]; elongation factor-1 alpha [EF1]; 18S ribosomal RNA [18S]; 25S ribosomal RNA [25S]) from root, stem, and leaf tissue of plants that were either resistant or sensitive to ACCase inhibitors, with or without herbicide stress, using qPCR. The results were further ranked and analyzed using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper software. These analyses identified EF1 and UBQ in roots, EF1, TUB, CAP, and 18S in stems, and EF1, GAPDH, and 18S in leaves as suitable references for qPCR normalization. We have identified a set of reference genes that can be used to study herbicide resistance mechanisms in Japanese foxtail.
The Wuhan Pre/Post-Natal Twin Birth Registry (WPTBR) is one of the largest twin birth registries with comprehensive medical information in China. It recruits women from the first trimester of pregnancy and their twins from birth. From January 2006 to May 2016, the total number of twins enrolled in WPTBR is 13,869 twin pairs (27,553 individuals). The WPTBR initiated the Wuhan Twin Birth Cohort (WTBC). The WTBC is a prospective cohort study carried out through incorporation of three samples. The first one comprises 6,920 twin pairs, and the second one, 6,949 twin pairs. Both are population-based samples linked to the WPTBR and include pre- and post-natal information from WPTBR. The second sample includes neonatal blood spots as well. Using a hospital-based approach, we recently developed a third sample with a target enrolment of 1,000 twin pairs and their mothers. These twins are invited, via their parents, to participate in a periodic health examination from the first trimester of pregnancy to 18 years. Biological samples are collected initially from the mother, including blood, urine, cord blood, cord, amniotic fluid, placenta, breast milk and meconium, and vaginal secretions, and later from the twins, including meconium, stool, urine, and blood. This article describes the design, recruitment, follow-up, data collection, and measures, as well as ongoing and planned analyses at the WTBC. The WTBC offers a unique opportunity to follow women from prenatal to postnatal, as well as follow-up of their twins. This cohort study will expand the understanding of genetic and environmental influences on pregnancy and twins’ development in China.
Japanese foxtail is a grass weed in eastern China. This weed is controlled by fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, one of the most common acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicides. Some Japanese foxtail populations have developed resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, owing to target-site mutations (amino acid substitutions) located within the carboxyl transferase domain of ACCase. In the present study, three mutations were detected in three fenoxaprop-P-ethyl–resistant Japanese foxtail populations: Ile-1781-Leu in JCJT-2, Ile-2041-Asn in JZJR-1, and Asp-2078-Gly in JCWJ-3. Two copies of ACCase (Acc1-1 and Acc1-2) were identified, but mutations were detected only in Acc1-1. The derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (dCAPS) method detected these mutations successfully in Japanese foxtail. The mutation frequencies in JCJT-2, JZJR-1, and JCWJ-3 were approximately 98%, 92%, and 87%, respectively. Different cross-resistance patterns to ACCase inhibitors were found in the three resistant populations. JCJT-2 (Ile-1781-Leu) and JZJR-1 (Ile-2041-Asn) showed cross-resistance to haloxyfop-R-methyl, clodinafop-propargyl, and pinoxaden, but were susceptible to clethodim. JCWJ-3 (Asp-2078-Gly) showed cross-resistance to all tested ACCase-inhibiting herbicides.