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Childhood maltreatment is one of the strongest predictors of adulthood depression and alterations to circulating levels of inflammatory markers is one putative mechanism mediating risk or resilience.
To determine the effects of childhood maltreatment on circulating levels of 41 inflammatory markers in healthy individuals and those with a major depressive disorder (MDD) diagnosis.
We investigated the association of childhood maltreatment with levels of 41 inflammatory markers in two groups, 164 patients with MDD and 301 controls, using multiplex electrochemiluminescence methods applied to blood serum.
Childhood maltreatment was not associated with altered inflammatory markers in either group after multiple testing correction. Body mass index (BMI) exerted strong effects on interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels in those with MDD.
Childhood maltreatment did not exert effects on inflammatory marker levels in either the participants with MDD or the control group in our study. Our results instead highlight the more pertinent influence of BMI.
Declaration of interest
D.A.C. and H.W. work for Eli Lilly Inc. R.N. has received speaker fees from Sunovion, Jansen and Lundbeck. G.B. has received consultancy fees and funding from Eli Lilly. R.H.M.-W. has received consultancy fees or has a financial relationship with AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Cyberonics, Eli Lilly, Ferrer, Janssen-Cilag, Lundbeck, MyTomorrows, Otsuka, Pfizer, Pulse, Roche, Servier, SPIMACO and Sunovian. I.M.A. has received consultancy fees or has a financial relationship with Alkermes, Lundbeck, Lundbeck/Otsuka, and Servier. S.W. has sat on an advisory board for Sunovion, Allergan and has received speaker fees from Astra Zeneca. A.H.Y. has received honoraria for speaking from Astra Zeneca, Lundbeck, Eli Lilly, Sunovion; honoraria for consulting from Allergan, Livanova and Lundbeck, Sunovion, Janssen; and research grant support from Janssen. A.J.C. has received honoraria for speaking from Astra Zeneca, honoraria for consulting with Allergan, Livanova and Lundbeck and research grant support from Lundbeck.
The protein leverage hypothesis proposes that the need to prioritise protein intake drives excess energy intake (EI) when the dietary ratio of protein to fat and carbohydrate is reduced. We hypothesised that cats may become prone to overconsuming energy content when moderate protein diets were offered, and considered the potential influence of fat and carbohydrate on intake. To determine the effect of dietary protein and macronutrient profile (MNP) on EI, weight and body composition, cats (1–4 years) were offered food in excess of energy requirements (ER). A total of six diets were formulated, containing moderate (approximately 7 % w/w; approximately 22 % metabolisable energy (ME)) or high (approximately 10 % w/w; approximately 46 % ME) protein and varying levels of carbohydrate and fat. For 4 weeks, 120 cats were offered 100 % of their individual ER of a diet at the MNP selected by adult cats (50:40:10 protein energy ratio:fat energy ratio:carbohydrate energy ratio). EI, body weight (BW), body composition, activity and palatability were measured. Subsequently, cats were offered one of the six diets at 200 % of their individual ER for 4 weeks when measurements were repeated. Cats offered excess high protein diets had higher EI (kJ/kg) throughout, but at 4 weeks BW was not significantly different to baseline. Cats offered excess moderate protein diets reduced EI and gradually lost weight (average loss of 0·358 (99 % CI 0·388, 0·328) kg), irrespective of fat:carbohydrate and initial palatability. The data do not support the protein leverage hypothesis. Furthermore, cats were able to adapt intake of a wet diet with high protein in an overfeeding environment within 28 d.
A large number of multispectral and stereo-image data are expected to become available as part of the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space project. We investigate digital elevation model extraction, anisotropic reflectance correction and selected glacier analysis tasks that must be developed to achieve full utility of these new data. Results indicate that glaciers in the Karakoram and Nanga Parbat Himalaya, northern Pakistan, exhibit unique spectral, spatial and geomorphometric patterns that can be exploited by various models and algorithms to produce accurate information regarding glacier extent, supraglacial features and glacier geomorphology The integration of spectral, spatial and geomorphometric features, coupled with approaches for advanced pattern recognition, can help geoscientists study glacier mass balance, glacier erosion, sediment-transfer efficiency and landscape evolution.
Trigonometric parallaxes have been measured by Dahn et al. (2002) for 28 cool dwarfs and brown dwarfs, including 17 L dwarfs and three T dwarfs. Broadband CCD and near-IR photometry (VRIz*JHK) have been obtained for these objects and for 24 additional late-type dwarfs. These data have been supplemented with astrometry and photometry from the literature, including parallaxes for the brighter companions of ten L and two T dwarfs. The absolute magnitudes and colors are reviewed here. The I - J color and the spectral type are both good predictors of absolute magnitude for late-M and L dwarfs. MJ becomes monotonically fainter with I - J color and with spectral type through late-L dwarfs, then brightens for early-T dwarfs. In contrast, the J - K color correlates poorly with absolute magnitude for L dwarfs. Using several other parameters from the literature (Li detection, Hα emission strength, projected rotation velocity, and tangential velocity), we fail to uncover any measurable parameter that correlates with the anomalous J - K color.
A new dataset of the highest quality specimens of fully articulated, juvenile and mature exoskeletons of the Czech middle Silurian trilobite Aulacopleura koninckii offers improved resolution of original morphology by all measures considered. The degree of variation in both size and shape among later meraspid instars was constant, and suggesting targeted growth in both attributes. Size-related changes in the shape of the dorsal exoskeleton and of the segment-invariant cephalon were detected in the meraspid stage, but in the holaspid phase marked allometry was detected only in the trunk region, with the pygidium showing notable expansion in relative size. Meraspid cranidial allometry was subtle, with significant changes in instar form detectable only after several molts. This trilobite developed gradually throughout meraspid and holaspid ontogeny, with the synchronous cessation of trunk segment appearance and release at the onset of the holaspid phase. Precise development of shape and size occurs in the context of marked variability in the number of trunk segments at maturity, illustrating complex patterns of character variation within a species. A new systematic description establishes the synonymy of several subspecies with A. koninckii.
It was found in a Cu-CMP process using EP-C 5001 slurry and IC 1000 pad that Cu removal rate, being extremely low without H2O2 in the slurry, increases up to a maximum with the addition of H2O2, and then decreases again. Analysis of polarization curves and Eh-pH diagrams shows that without H2O2 Cu has the lowest electric potential, as a result, the highest thermodynamic stability in the Cu/slurry system. Addition of H2O2 shifts the potential up and induces the formation of Cu2O, resulting in a high removal rate. At high H2O2 concentration, a CuO passivation film is formed. In this case, only mechanical removal of the passivating oxide film allows the process to proceed. It is speculated that the moving pad surface adheres the oxidized species via the formation of hydrogen bonds with oxygen atoms of copper oxide molecules, thus detaching them from the wafer surface. Each oxygen atom is capable of pulling out two Cu atoms if Cu2O is formed on the surface and only one Cu atom if CuO is formed. This would explain why the removal rate is high at low H2O2 concentration and low at high H2O2 concentration.
Abstract Wet chemical removal of a silicon nitride/silicon Poly Buffer LOCUS (PBL) film stack with a phosphoric/nitric acid solution was characterized. Though silicon nitride etch rates remain constant, silicon etch rates decrease as a function of loading which severely limits the usable lifetime of the bath. This is caused by buildup of etching products which limits the amount of silicon that can be dissolved in the solution. Addition of HF to the phosphoric/nitric acid solution enhances the dissolution chemistry presumably by decomposing the silica reaction products and shifting the equilibrium. Characterization of this process was done to determine whether it could be applied towards PBL removal. Depending on the relative amounts of HF and HNO3 added, silicon etch rates could be enhanced by two orders of magnitude (200–400A/min) and silicon nitride etch rates by a factor of two. Selectivities for etching silicon to oxide and silicon nitride to oxide were typically between 8–12:1 and 8–20:1 respectively.
The 1-nm-wide Bi nanoline has been proposed as a possible template for the growth of very-high-density arrays of atomic-scale nanowires, grown epitaxially on the technologically important Si(001) surface. Indium reacts with the Bi dimers, forming a unique zigzag atomic chain structure. Simulations of the appearance in STM of the lowest-energy isomer of this structure match experimental filled-states images. Calculation of the LDOS for the single-layer islands, finds that the nanowires are semiconducting, with a band gap smaller than that of the substrate, in good agreement with STS. A delocalised LUMO state is created, which may provide a conduction pathway along the nanowire. We have performed dual-probe STM conduction measurements along the In-Bi nanowires to test this prediction.
We have mapped the nearby face-on spiral galaxy M 33 in the 1.1 mm dust continuum using AzTEC on Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). The preliminary results are presented here. The observed dust has a characteristic temperature of ~ 21 K in the central kpc, radially declining down to ~ 13 K at the edge of the star forming disk. We compare the dust temperatures with KS band flux and star formation tracers. Our results imply that cold dust heating may be driven by long-lived stars even nearby star forming regions.