Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Impact of dietary macronutrient profile on feline body weight is not consistent with the protein leverage hypothesis

  • David Allaway (a1), Carlos H. de Alvaro (a1), Adrian Hewson-Hughes (a1), Ruth Staunton (a1), Penelope Morris (a1) and Janet Alexander (a1)...

Abstract

The protein leverage hypothesis proposes that the need to prioritise protein intake drives excess energy intake (EI) when the dietary ratio of protein to fat and carbohydrate is reduced. We hypothesised that cats may become prone to overconsuming energy content when moderate protein diets were offered, and considered the potential influence of fat and carbohydrate on intake. To determine the effect of dietary protein and macronutrient profile (MNP) on EI, weight and body composition, cats (1–4 years) were offered food in excess of energy requirements (ER). A total of six diets were formulated, containing moderate (approximately 7 % w/w; approximately 22 % metabolisable energy (ME)) or high (approximately 10 % w/w; approximately 46 % ME) protein and varying levels of carbohydrate and fat. For 4 weeks, 120 cats were offered 100 % of their individual ER of a diet at the MNP selected by adult cats (50:40:10 protein energy ratio:fat energy ratio:carbohydrate energy ratio). EI, body weight (BW), body composition, activity and palatability were measured. Subsequently, cats were offered one of the six diets at 200 % of their individual ER for 4 weeks when measurements were repeated. Cats offered excess high protein diets had higher EI (kJ/kg) throughout, but at 4 weeks BW was not significantly different to baseline. Cats offered excess moderate protein diets reduced EI and gradually lost weight (average loss of 0·358 (99 % CI 0·388, 0·328) kg), irrespective of fat:carbohydrate and initial palatability. The data do not support the protein leverage hypothesis. Furthermore, cats were able to adapt intake of a wet diet with high protein in an overfeeding environment within 28 d.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: J. Alexander, email janet.alexander@effem.com

References

Hide All
1. Lund, EM, Armstrong, PJ, Kirk, CA, et al. (2005) Prevalence and risk factors for obesity in adult cats from private US veterinary practices. Intern J Appl Res Vet Med 3, 8896.
2. Lund, EM, Armstrong, PJ, Kirk, CA, et al. (2006) Prevalence and risk factors for obesity in adult dogs from private US veterinary practices. Intern J Appl Res Vet Med 4, 177186.
3. German, AJ (2006) The growing problem of obesity in dogs and cats. J Nutr 136, 1940S1946S.
4. Tarkosova, D, Story, MM, Rand, JS, et al. (2016) Feline obesity-prevalence, risk factors, pathogenesis, associated conditions and assessment: a review. Vet Med 61, 295307.
5. Kienzle, E & Bergler, R (2006) Human–animal relationship of owners of normal and overweight cats. J Nutr 136, 1947S1950S.
6. German, AJ, Holden, SL, Mason, SL, et al. (2011) Imprecision when using measuring cups to weigh out extruded dry kibbled food. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 95, 368373.
7. Willett, WC (1998) Dietary fat and obesity: an unconvincing relation. Am J Clin Nutr 68, 11491150.
8. Bray, GA & Popkin, BM (1998) Dietary fat intake does affect obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 68, 11571173.
9. Galgani, J & Ravussin, E (2008) Energy metabolism, fuel selection and body weight regulation. Int J Obes 32, S109S119.
10. Acheson, KJ (2013) Diets for body weight control and health: the potential of changing the macronutrient composition. Eur J Clin Nutr 67, 462466.
11. Sacks, FM, Bray, GA, Carey, VJ, et al. (2009) Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. N Engl J Med 360, 859873.
12. Bray, GA, Smith, SR, DeJonge, L, et al. (2012) Effect of diet composition on energy expenditure during weight loss: the POUNDS LOST Study. Int J Obes 36, 448455.
13. Scarlett, J, Donoghue, S, Saidla, J, et al. (1994) Overweight cats: prevalence and risk factors. Int J Obes 18, S22S28.
14. Nguyen, PG, Dumon, HJ, Siliart, BS, et al. (2004) Effects of dietary fat and energy on body weight and composition after gonadectomy in cats. Am J Vet Res 65, 17081713.
15. Backus, RC, Cave, NJ & Keisler, DH (2007) Gonadectomy and high dietary fat but not high dietary carbohydrate induce gains in body weight and fat of domestic cats. Br J Nutr 98, 641650.
16. Gooding, MA (2012) The effects of diet matricies on feline bioenergetics and behaviour. PhD Thesis, University of Guelph.
17. Simpson, SJ & Raubenheimer, D (2005) Obesity: the protein leverage hypothesis. Obes Rev 6, 133142.
18. Gosby, AK, Conigrave, AD, Lau, NS, et al. (2011) Testing protein leverage in lean humans: a randomised controlled experimental study. PLoS ONE 6, e25929.
19. Martinez-Cordero, C, Kuzawa, CW, Sloboda, DM, et al. (2012) Testing the protein leverage hypothesis in a free-living human population. Appetite 59, 312315.
20. Hewson-Hughes, AK, Hewson-Hughes, VL, Miller, AT, et al. (2011) Geometric analysis of macronutrient selection in the adult domestic cat, Felis catus . J Exp Biol 214, 10391051.
21. Coradini, M, Rand, JS, Morton, JM, et al. (2011) Effects of two commercially available feline diets on glucose and insulin concentrations, insulin sensitivity and energetic efficiency of weight gain. Br J Nutr 106, S64S77.
22. Salaun, F, Blanchard, G, Le Paih, L, et al. (2017) Impact of macronutrient composition and palatability in wet diets on food selection in cats. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 101, 320328.
23. German, AJ, Holden, SL, Moxham, GL, et al. (2006) A simple, reliable tool for owners to assess the body condition of their dog or cat. J Nutr 136, 2031S2033S.
24. Association of American Feed Control Officials (2016) Model Regulations for Pet Food and Specialty Pet Food Under the Model Bill. Oxford: Association of American Feed Control Officials.
25. National Research Council (2006) Energy requirements of dogs. In Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats , pp. 3839. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
26. Hewson-Hughes, AK, Hewson-Hughes, VL, Colyer, A, et al. (2013) Consistent proportional macronutrient intake selected by adult domestic cats (Felis catus) despite variations in macronutrient and moisture content of foods offered. J Comp Physiol B 183, 525536.
27. Rogers, QR, Morris, JG & Freeland, RA (1977) Lack of hepatic enzymatic adaptation to low and high levels of dietary protein in the adult cat. Enzyme 22, 348356.
28. Russell, K, Murgatroyd, PR & Batt, RM (2002) Net protein oxidation is adapted to dietary protein intake in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus). J Nutr 132, 456460.
29. Green, AS, Ramsey, JJ, Villaverde, C, et al. (2008) Cats are able to adapt protein oxidation to protein intake provided their requirement for dietary protein is met. J Nutr 138, 10531060.
30. Wei, A, Fascetti, AJ, Liu, KJ, et al. (2011) Influence of a high‐protein diet on energy balance in obese cats allowed ad libitum access to food. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 95, 359367.
31. Eisert, R (2011) Hypercarnivory and the brain: protein requirements of cats reconsidered. J Comp Physiol B 181, 117.
32. Farrow, H, Rand, JS, Morton, JM, et al. (2012) Postprandial glycaemia in cats fed a moderate carbohydrate meal persists for a median of 12 hours – female cats have higher peak glucose concentrations. J Feline Med Surg 14, 706715.
33. Hewson-Hughes, AK, Colyer, A, Simpson, SJ, et al. (2016) Balancing macronutrient intake in a mammalian carnivore: disentangling the influences of flavour and nutrition. R Soc Open Sci 3, 160081.

Keywords

Type Description Title
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Allaway et al. supplementary material
Figure S1

 Unknown (784 KB)
784 KB
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Allaway et al. supplementary material
Figure S2

 Unknown (404 KB)
404 KB
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Allaway et al. supplementary material
Tables S1-S3

 Unknown (20 KB)
20 KB

Impact of dietary macronutrient profile on feline body weight is not consistent with the protein leverage hypothesis

  • David Allaway (a1), Carlos H. de Alvaro (a1), Adrian Hewson-Hughes (a1), Ruth Staunton (a1), Penelope Morris (a1) and Janet Alexander (a1)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed