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When given a desirable item, people have a tendency to value this owned item more than an equally-desirable, unowned item. Conversely, when the endowed item is undesirable, in some circumstances people have a tendency to swap it for an equally undesirable item, a phenomenon known as the reversed endowment effect. The fact that the endowment effect can reverse for undesirable items has been taken as evidence against loss aversion being the underlying cause of the endowment effect. This study represents the first time that the reversed endowment effect has been observed for choices with real consequences. However, we find that the reversed endowment effect occurs only when participants’ ability to compare the available choice options is limited. We further show that these endowment reversals can also be induced for choices between desirable options and removed for choices between undesirable options by manipulating the expectations participants have when making a choice. Finally, we show that our data, including endowment reversals, can in principle be explained by loss aversion.
Pre-eclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy, and maternal nutritional factors may play protective roles or exacerbate risk. The tendency to focus on single nutrients as a risk factor obscures the complexity of possible interactions, which may be important given the complex nature of pre-eclampsia. An evidence review was conducted to compile definite, probable, possible and indirect nutritional determinants of pre-eclampsia to map a nutritional conceptual framework for pre-eclampsia prevention. Determinants of pre-eclampsia were first compiled through an initial consultation with experts. Second, an expanded literature review was conducted to confirm associations, elicit additional indicators and evaluate evidence. The strength of association was evaluated as definite relative risk (RR) < 0·40 or ≥3·00, probable RR 0·40–0·69 or 1·50–2·99, possible RR 0·70–0·89 or 1·10–1·49 or not discernible RR 0·90–1·09. The quality of evidence was evaluated using Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation. Twenty-five nutritional factors were reported in two umbrella reviews and twenty-two meta-analyses. Of these, fourteen were significantly associated with pre-eclampsia incidence. Higher serum Fe emerged as a definite nutritional risk factors for pre-eclampsia incidence across populations, while low serum Zn was a risk factor in Asia and Africa. Maternal vitamin D deficiency was a probable risk factor and Ca and/or vitamin D supplementation were probable protective nutritional factors. Healthy maternal dietary patterns were possibly associated with lower risk of developing pre-eclampsia. Potential indirect pathways of maternal nutritional factors and pre-eclampsia may exist through obesity, maternal anaemia and gestational diabetes mellitus. Research gaps remain on the influence of household capacities and socio-cultural, economic and political contexts, as well as interactions with medical conditions.
What effect does political instability in the form of a potential secession from a political union have on business formation? Using newly collected data on business creation, we show that entrepreneurial activity in Ireland in the late nineteenth century was much lower than Scotland, and this divergence fluctuated over time. Several factors may have contributed to this, but we argue that political uncertainty about the prospect of a devolved government in Ireland played a role. The effects were most acute in the North of Ireland, the region that was most concerned by potential changes.
We describe severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) IgG seroprevalence and antigenemia among patients at a medical center in January–March 2021 using residual clinical blood samples. The overall seroprevalences were 17% by infection and 16% by vaccination. Spent or residual samples are a feasible alternative for rapidly estimating seroprevalence or monitoring trends in infection and vaccination.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) was previously associated with negative affective biases. Evidence from larger population-based studies, however, is lacking, including whether biases normalise with remission. We investigated associations between affective bias measures and depressive symptom severity across a large community-based sample, followed by examining differences between remitted individuals and controls.
Participants from Generation Scotland (N = 1109) completed the: (i) Bristol Emotion Recognition Task (BERT), (ii) Face Affective Go/No-go (FAGN), and (iii) Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT). Individuals were classified as MDD-current (n = 43), MDD-remitted (n = 282), or controls (n = 784). Analyses included using affective bias summary measures (primary analyses), followed by detailed emotion/condition analyses of BERT and FAGN (secondary analyses).
For summary measures, the only significant finding was an association between greater symptoms and lower risk adjustment for CGT across the sample (individuals with greater symptoms were less likely to bet more, despite increasingly favourable conditions). This was no longer significant when controlling for non-affective cognition. No differences were found for remitted-MDD v. controls. Detailed analysis of BERT and FAGN indicated subtle negative biases across multiple measures of affective cognition with increasing symptom severity, that were independent of non-effective cognition [e.g. greater tendency to rate faces as angry (BERT), and lower accuracy for happy/neutral conditions (FAGN)]. Results for remitted-MDD were inconsistent.
This suggests the presence of subtle negative affective biases at the level of emotion/condition in association with depressive symptoms across the sample, over and above those accounted for by non-affective cognition, with no evidence for affective biases in remitted individuals.
Kounis syndrome is the concurrence of acute coronary syndrome or coronary vasospasm with conditions associated with the release of inflammatory cytokines through mast cell activation in the setting of allergic or anaphylactic reactions. Many identified triggers have been identified in paediatric patients including exposures, drugs, and immunisations; however, to our knowledge this is the first case report of Kounis syndrome linked to immunotherapy. We present a case of a 9-year-old with seasonal allergies presenting with clinical symptoms of Kounis syndrome following her weekly subcutaneous injection of allergens. Clinicians need a high index of suspicion for Kounis syndrome in patients who develop systemic signs of anaphylaxis with clinical, laboratory, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic findings of acute coronary syndrome to help direct therapy and improve outcomes.
Identifying pests associated with novel crops is important for forecasting impacts on their production and determining if they could be reservoirs of pests moving over onto cash crops. We carried out preliminary pest surveys in two bioenergy crops, carinata (Brassica carinata Alexander Braun (Brassicaceae)) and camelina (Camelina sativa (Linnaeus) Crantz (Brassicaceae)), and a cover crop mix under evaluation to replace fallow in rotations with wheat. Insect pests were sampled in each of the three crops over two years. Crucifer flea beetles, Phyllotreta cruciferae Goeze (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), dominated the pest complex associated with carinata and the cover crop mix, comprising more than 70% of the insects sampled. In contrast, the pest complex associated with camelina was dominated (40–91%) by generalist Lygus spp. (Heteroptera: Miridae). Crucifer flea beetles were 200–1000 times more abundant in carinata than in camelina, suggesting that they could be a serious pest of carinata. Camelina, in contrast, appears less likely to be attacked by, or serve as a reservoir for, crucifer flea beetles. Future work to assess feeding damage and population buildup of pests in these crops is needed to determine impacts on their production and the extent to which they may be reservoirs of canola pests over broader spatial scales.
Health technology assessment (HTA) agencies are considering adopting a lifecycle approach to assessments to address uncertainties in the evidence base at launch and to revisit the clinical and economic value of therapies in a dynamic clinical landscape. For reassessments of therapies post launch, HTA agencies are looking to real-world evidence (RWE) to enhance the clinical and economic evidence base, though challenges and concerns in using RWE in decision-making exists. Stakeholders are embarking on demonstration projects to address the challenges and concerns and to further define when and how RWE can be used in HTA decision making. The Institute for Clinical and Economic Review piloted a 24-month observational RWE reassessment. Key learnings from this pilot include identifying the benefits and challenges with using RWE in reassessments and considerations on prioritizing and selecting topics relevant for RWE updates.
The incidence of infections from extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-E) is increasing in the United States. We describe the epidemiology of ESBL-E at 5 Emerging Infections Program (EIP) sites.
During October–December 2017, we piloted active laboratory- and population-based (New York, New Mexico, Tennessee) or sentinel (Colorado, Georgia) ESBL-E surveillance. An incident case was the first isolation from normally sterile body sites or urine of Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae/oxytoca resistant to ≥1 extended-spectrum cephalosporin and nonresistant to all carbapenems tested at a clinical laboratory from a surveillance area resident in a 30-day period. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from medical records. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) performed reference antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing on a convenience sample of case isolates.
We identified 884 incident cases. The estimated annual incidence in sites conducting population-based surveillance was 199.7 per 100,000 population. Overall, 800 isolates (96%) were from urine, and 790 (89%) were E. coli. Also, 393 cases (47%) were community-associated. Among 136 isolates (15%) tested at the CDC, 122 (90%) met the surveillance definition phenotype; 114 (93%) of 122 were shown to be ESBL producers by clavulanate testing. In total, 111 (97%) of confirmed ESBL producers harbored a blaCTX-M gene. Among ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, 52 (54%) were ST131; 44% of these cases were community associated.
The burden of ESBL-E was high across surveillance sites, with nearly half of cases acquired in the community. EIP has implemented ongoing ESBL-E surveillance to inform prevention efforts, particularly in the community and to watch for the emergence of new ESBL-E strains.
The goal of disaster triage at both the prehospital and in-hospital level is to maximize resources and optimize patient outcomes. Of the disaster-specific triage methods developed to guide health care providers, the Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (START) algorithm has become the most popular system world-wide. Despite its appeal and global application, the accuracy and effectiveness of the START protocol is not well-known.
The purpose of this meta-analysis was two-fold: (1) to estimate overall accuracy, under-triage, and over-triage of the START method when used by providers across a variety of backgrounds; and (2) to obtain specific accuracy for each of the four START categories: red, yellow, green, and black.
A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted that searched Medline (OVID), Embase (OVID), Global Health (OVID), CINAHL (EBSCO), Compendex (Engineering Village), SCOPUS, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global, Cochrane Library, and PROSPERO. The results were expanded by hand searching of journals, reference lists, and the grey literature. The search was executed in March 2020. The review considered the participants, interventions, context, and outcome (PICO) framework and followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Accuracy outcomes are presented as means with 95% confidence intervals (CI) as calculated using the binomial method. Pooled meta-analyses of accuracy outcomes using fixed and random effects models were calculated and the heterogeneity was assessed using the Q statistic.
Thirty-two studies were included in the review, most of which utilized a non-randomized study design (84%). Proportion of victims correctly triaged using START ranged from 0.27 to 0.99 with an overall triage accuracy of 0.73 (95% CI, 0.67 to 0.78). Proportion of over-triage was 0.14 (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.17) while the proportion of under-triage was 0.10 (95% CI, 0.072 to 0.14). There was significant heterogeneity of the studies for all outcomes (P < .0001).
This meta-analysis suggests that START is not accurate enough to serve as a reliable disaster triage tool. Although the accuracy of START may be similar to other models of disaster triage, development of a more accurate triage method should be urgently pursued.
Problematic anger is frequently reported by soldiers who have deployed to combat zones. However, evidence is lacking with respect to how anger changes over a deployment cycle, and which factors prospectively influence change in anger among combat-deployed soldiers.
Reports of problematic anger were obtained from 7298 US Army soldiers who deployed to Afghanistan in 2012. A series of mixed-effects growth models estimated linear trajectories of anger over a period of 1–2 months before deployment to 9 months post-deployment, and evaluated the effects of pre-deployment factors (prior deployments and perceived resilience) on average levels and growth of problematic anger.
A model with random intercepts and slopes provided the best fit, indicating heterogeneity in soldiers' levels and trajectories of anger. First-time deployers reported the lowest anger overall, but the most growth in anger over time. Soldiers with multiple prior deployments displayed the highest anger overall, which remained relatively stable over time. Higher pre-deployment resilience was associated with lower reports of anger, but its protective effect diminished over time. First- and second-time deployers reporting low resilience displayed different anger trajectories (stable v. decreasing, respectively).
Change in anger from pre- to post-deployment varies based on pre-deployment factors. The observed differences in anger trajectories suggest that efforts to detect and reduce problematic anger should be tailored for first-time v. repeat deployers. Ongoing screening is needed even for soldiers reporting high resilience before deployment, as the protective effect of pre-deployment resilience on anger erodes over time.
The obsidian mirror associated with the Elizabethan polymath and magus John Dee (1527–1608/1609) has been an object of fascination for centuries. The mirror, however, has a deeper history as an Aztec artefact brought to Europe soon after the Spanish conquest. The authors present the results of new geochemical analysis, and explore its history and changing cultural context to provide insights into its meaning during a period in which entirely new world views were emerging. The biography of the mirror demonstrates how a complex cultural history underpins an iconic object. The study highlights the value of new compositional analyses of museum objects for the reinterpretation of historically significant material culture.
Three-scalar subgrid-scale (SGS) mixing in turbulent coaxial jets is investigated experimentally. The flow consists of a centre jet, an annulus and a co-flow. The SGS mixing process and its dependence on the velocity and length scale ratios of the annulus flow to the centre jet are investigated. For small SGS scalar variance the scalars are well mixed and the initial three-scalar mixing configuration is lost. For large SGS variance, the scalars are highly segregated with a bimodal scalar filtered joint density function (f.j.d.f.) at a range of radial locations. Two competing factors, the SGS variance and the scalar length scale, play an important role for the bimodal f.j.d.f. For the higher velocity ratio cases, the peak value of the SGS variance is higher, thereby resulting in stronger bimodality. For the lower velocity ratio cases, the wider mean SGS variance profiles and the smaller scalar length scale cause bimodal f.j.d.f.s over a wider range of physical locations. The scalar dissipation rate structures have similarities to those of mixture fraction and temperature in turbulent non-premixed/partially premixed flames. The observed SGS mixing characteristics present a challenging test for SGS mixing models as well as provides an understanding of the physics for developing improved models. The results also provide a basis for investigating multiscalar SGS mixing in turbulent reactive flows.
Retrospective self-report is typically used for diagnosing previous pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). A new semi-structured interview instrument (New Mexico Assessment of Pediatric TBI; NewMAP TBI) investigated test–retest reliability for TBI characteristics in both the TBI that qualified for study inclusion and for lifetime history of TBI.
One-hundred and eight-four mTBI (aged 8–18), 156 matched healthy controls (HC), and their parents completed the NewMAP TBI within 11 days (subacute; SA) and 4 months (early chronic; EC) of injury, with a subset returning at 1 year (late chronic; LC).
The test–retest reliability of common TBI characteristics [loss of consciousness (LOC), post-traumatic amnesia (PTA), retrograde amnesia, confusion/disorientation] and post-concussion symptoms (PCS) were examined across study visits. Aside from PTA, binary reporting (present/absent) for all TBI characteristics exhibited acceptable (≥0.60) test–retest reliability for both Qualifying and Remote TBIs across all three visits. In contrast, reliability for continuous data (exact duration) was generally unacceptable, with LOC and PCS meeting acceptable criteria at only half of the assessments. Transforming continuous self-report ratings into discrete categories based on injury severity resulted in acceptable reliability. Reliability was not strongly affected by the parent completing the NewMAP TBI.
Categorical reporting of TBI characteristics in children and adolescents can aid clinicians in retrospectively obtaining reliable estimates of TBI severity up to a year post-injury. However, test–retest reliability is strongly impacted by the initial data distribution, selected statistical methods, and potentially by patient difficulty in distinguishing among conceptually similar medical concepts (i.e., PTA vs. confusion).
Recent cannabis exposure has been associated with lower rates of neurocognitive impairment in people with HIV (PWH). Cannabis’s anti-inflammatory properties may underlie this relationship by reducing chronic neuroinflammation in PWH. This study examined relations between cannabis use and inflammatory biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma, and cognitive correlates of these biomarkers within a community-based sample of PWH.
263 individuals were categorized into four groups: HIV− non-cannabis users (n = 65), HIV+ non-cannabis users (n = 105), HIV+ moderate cannabis users (n = 62), and HIV+ daily cannabis users (n = 31). Differences in pro-inflammatory biomarkers (IL-6, MCP-1/CCL2, IP-10/CXCL10, sCD14, sTNFR-II, TNF-α) by study group were determined by Kruskal–Wallis tests. Multivariable linear regressions examined relationships between biomarkers and seven cognitive domains, adjusting for age, sex/gender, race, education, and current CD4 count.
HIV+ daily cannabis users showed lower MCP-1 and IP-10 levels in CSF compared to HIV+ non-cannabis users (p = .015; p = .039) and were similar to HIV− non-cannabis users. Plasma biomarkers showed no differences by cannabis use. Among PWH, lower CSF MCP-1 and lower CSF IP-10 were associated with better learning performance (all ps < .05).
Current daily cannabis use was associated with lower levels of pro-inflammatory chemokines implicated in HIV pathogenesis and these chemokines were linked to the cognitive domain of learning which is commonly impaired in PWH. Cannabinoid-related reductions of MCP-1 and IP-10, if confirmed, suggest a role for medicinal cannabis in the mitigation of persistent inflammation and cognitive impacts of HIV.
In many US states, the power to regulate urban agriculture (UA) rests in local governments. Although there has been increased interest in UA, some local governments have been slow to adopt policies or ordinances to foster food production in urban areas or have actively sought to limit UA in their municipalities. To learn more about the disconnect between resident interest and local government policy, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension and Center for Public Issues Education conducted a statewide survey of local government stakeholders (LGS) to assess their attitudes toward UA, subjective knowledge of UA, perceived benefits of and barriers to the implementation of UA and educational needs. Responses were collected using 5-point semantic differential and Likert-type scales. Overall, respondents displayed positive attitudes and moderate knowledge of UA, and they identified a number of benefits of and barriers to implementing UA in their communities. The findings of this study support the hypothesis that lack of basic knowledge about UA is one difficulty in fostering UA. Despite being positively disposed toward UA, LGS may not fully understand how to effectively develop and implement policies to foster UA. This finding may also help explain reluctance to adopt local government policies to support UA. Efforts to provide LGS key information and enhance their knowledge of UA may support the development of UA activities.