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Art may be made as a guide to understanding sense of place, and also as a pathway to understanding and valuing scientific ideas. Here we consider this connection in the context of a selected history of artists working in Antarctica, from early explorers to the modern era. This provides a parallel trajectory for the nature, realisation and purpose of the art. We then consider the interaction between art and science and the nature of interdisciplinary work by looking at work produced in a sea ice-based science field camp by an artist collecting data – both scientific and art focused. The artist participated in two field campaigns a year apart, allowing comparison of the evolution of both the artistic practice and the science data collection. Furthermore, the collection of data that served both needs provides a unique point of connection between two fields of endeavour, which are typically considered as separate.
The Drygalski Ice Tongue presents an ~80 km long floating obstacle to alongshore flows in the Victoria Land coastal ocean region of the Western Ross Sea. Here we use oceanographic data from near to the tongue to explore the interplay between the floating glacier and the local currents and stratification. A vessel-based circuit of the glacier, recording ocean temperature and salinity profiles, reveals the southwest corner to be the coldest and most complex in terms of vertical structure. The southwest corner structure beneath the surface warm, salty layer sustains a block of very cold water extending to 200 m depth. In this same location there was a distinct layer at 370 m not seen anywhere else of water at ~−1.93°C. The new observations broadly, but not directly, support the presence of a coherent Victoria Land Coastal Current. The data suggest the northward moving coastal current turns against the Coriolis force and works its way anticlockwise around the glacier, but with leakage beneath the glacier through the highly ‘rippled’ underside, resulting in a spatially heterogeneous supply to the Terra Nova Bay Polynya region – an important location for the formation of high-salinity shelf water.
The advent of managed care as a system driving purchasing in the health sector has brought with it an emphasis on purchasing outcomes rather than inputs. Although any change in purchasing schemes will have an effect on service providers, it should not prove to be too disruptive for those of us in rehabilitation since rehabilitation as a service system has always been outcome driven. In fact, our entire system is driven by needs based assessment and directed toward the meeting individually identified goals for service. These goals reflect the desired outcome of the service we provide for each individual served. The challenge we face, then, is translating our emphasis on goal directed, outcome driven services to meet the language, understanding and expectations of our funding agents as they begin to adopt a regime of outcome based contracts. The purpose of this paper is to argue the validity of individually determined outcomes as opposed to institutionally determined measures and to propose one method of measuring those outcomes in a manner that is applicable to the needs of the purchaser.
Tomato product consumption and estimated lycopene intake are hypothesised to reduce the risk of prostate cancer. To define the impact of typical servings of commercially available tomato products on resultant plasma and prostate lycopene concentrations, men scheduled to undergo prostatectomy (n 33) were randomised either to a lycopene-restricted control group ( < 5 mg lycopene/d) or to a tomato soup (2–2¾ cups prepared/d), tomato sauce (142–198 g/d or 5–7 ounces/d) or vegetable juice (325–488 ml/d or 11–16·5 fluid ounces/d) intervention providing 25–35 mg lycopene/d. Plasma and prostate carotenoid concentrations were measured by HPLC. Tomato soup, sauce and juice consumption significantly increased plasma lycopene concentration from 0·68 (sem 0·1) to 1·13 (sem 0·09) μmol/l (66 %), 0·48 (sem 0·09) to 0·82 (sem 0·12) μmol/l (71 %) and 0·49 (sem 0·12) to 0·78 (sem 0·1) μmol/l (59 %), respectively, while the controls consuming the lycopene-restricted diet showed a decline in plasma lycopene concentration from 0·55 (sem 0·60) to 0·42 (sem 0·07) μmol/l ( − 24 %). The end-of-study prostate lycopene concentration was 0·16 (sem 0·02) nmol/g in the controls, but was 3·5-, 3·6- and 2·2-fold higher in tomato soup (P= 0·001), sauce (P= 0·001) and juice (P= 0·165) consumers, respectively. Prostate lycopene concentration was moderately correlated with post-intervention plasma lycopene concentrations (r 0·60, P =0·001), indicating that additional factors have an impact on tissue concentrations. While the primary geometric lycopene isomer in tomato products was all-trans (80–90 %), plasma and prostate isomers were 47 and 80 % cis, respectively, demonstrating a shift towards cis accumulation. Consumption of typical servings of processed tomato products results in differing plasma and prostate lycopene concentrations. Factors including meal composition and genetics deserve further evaluation to determine their impacts on lycopene absorption and biodistribution.
Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy has been reported to be associated with childhood asthma and atopic disease. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children has reported associations between reduced umbilical cord Fe status and childhood wheeze and eczema; however, follow-up was short and lung function was not measured. In the present study, the associations between maternal Fe status during pregnancy and childhood outcomes in the first 10 years of life were investigated in a subgroup of 157 mother–child pairs from a birth cohort with complete maternal, fetal ultrasound, blood and child follow-up data. Maternal Fe intake was assessed using FFQ at 32 weeks of gestation and Hb concentrations and serum Fe status (ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor and TfR-F (transferrin receptor:ferritin) index) were measured at 11 weeks of gestation and at delivery. Maternal Fe intake, Hb concentrations and serum Fe status were found to be not associated with fetal or birth measurements. Unit increases in first-trimester maternal serum TfR concentrations (OR 1·44, 95 % CI 1·05, 1·99) and TfR-F index (OR 1·42, 95 % CI 1·10, 1·82) (i.e. decreasing Fe status) were found to be associated with an increased risk of wheeze, while unit increases in serum ferritin concentrations (i.e. increasing Fe status) were found to be associated with increases in standardised mean peak expiratory flow (PEF) (β 0·25, 95 % CI 0·09, 0·42) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) (β 0·20, 95 % CI 0·08, 0·32) up to 10 years of age. Increasing maternal serum TfR-F index at delivery was found to be associated with an increased risk of atopic sensitisation (OR 1·35, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·79). The results of the present study suggest that reduced maternal Fe status during pregnancy is adversely associated with childhood wheeze, lung function and atopic sensitisation, justifying further studies on maternal Fe status and childhood asthma and atopic disease.
We present an unconditionally energy stable and uniquely solvable finite difference scheme for the Cahn-Hilliard-Brinkman (CHB) system, which is comprised of a Cahn-Hilliard-type diffusion equation and a generalized Brinkman equation mod-eling fluid flow. The CHB system is a generalization of the Cahn-Hilliard-Stokes model and describes two phase very viscous flows in porous media. The scheme is based on a convex splitting of the discrete CH energy and is semi-implicit. The equations at the implicit time level are nonlinear, but we prove that they represent the gradient of a strictly convex functional and are therefore uniquely solvable, regardless of time step size. Owing to energy stability, we show that the scheme is stable in the time and space discrete and norms. We also present an efficient, practical nonlinear multigrid method . comprised of a standard FAS method for the Cahn-Hilliard part, and a method based on the Vanka smoothing strategy for the Brinkman part . for solving these equations. In particular, we provide evidence that the solver has nearly optimal complexity in typical situations. The solver is applied to simulate spinodal decomposition of a viscous fluid in a porous medium, as well as to the more general problems of buoyancy- and boundary-driven flows.
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the largest nutritional assistance program addressing food insecurity in the United States. Due to the program's reach, SNAP has been called upon to address other nutrition-related challenges facing low-income Americans, including childhood obesity. This study considers the effect of SNAP participation on child weight outcomes after controlling for household financial stress, an important determinant of child overweight status that disproportionately affects low-income households. Using data from the Survey of Household Finances and Childhood Obesity and instrumental variable methods, we find that SNAP participation is negatively associated with obesity among eligible children.
Invasive plants continue to spread in riparian ecosystems, causing both ecological and economic damage. This research investigated the impacts of common reed, purple loosestrife, riparian shrubland, and riparian woodlands on the quality and quantity of sandhill crane roosting habitat in the central Platte River, Nebraska, using a discrete choice model. A more detailed investigation of the impacts of common reed on sandhill crane roosting habitat was performed by forecasting a spread or contraction of this invasive plant. The discrete choice model indicates that riparian woodlands had the largest negative impact on sandhill crane roosting habitat. The forecasting results predict that a contraction of common reed could increase sandhill crane habitat availability by 50%, whereas an expansion could reduce the availability by as much as 250%. This suggests that if the distribution of common reed continues to expand in the central Platte River the availability of sandhill crane roosting habitat would likely be greatly reduced.
A tool has been developed to assist investigators in exploring common problems found in radionuclide transport work. This tool consists of an integrated series of programs known as the Simplified Codes for Performance Evaluation (SCOPE) system. The heart of the system is a set of programs which make use of analytical solutions to the onedimensional solute transport for up to three-member decay chains. Longer chains are approximated by combining the results of the one-, two-, and three-member chain solutions with the effects of short lived members.
SCOPE also provides programs that allow the user to evaluate the results by integrated radionuclide releases or by dose-to-man. In the first case, the integrated release passing through the boundary of an aquifer over time is compared to a given set of criteria. The criteria normally used are those developed by EPA (Radiation Protection Program 1982)  for estimating hazard. To provide the user with the option of calculating dose-to-man, two existing programs (ALLDOS and PABLM) were integrated into the system.
The system is not intended to solve all classes of radionuclide transport problems. However, it can provide the user with a good “first cut” understanding of many geohydrologic systems by allowing the problem to be looked at first as one-dimensional flow in a homogeneous geology.
Detailed properties of the defects and energy transfers responsible for afterglow in transparent sintered ceramic Y2O3:Eu and (Y,Gd)2O3:Eu based scintillators have been determined by transient thermoluminescence ('TL) and spectral measurements of afterglow emission. X-ray excited TTL spectra between 150 K and 350 K reveal 4 defect transitions for 3 mole percent Eu. Adequate modeling of this data requires for each defect transition a trap depth energy, an attempt-to-escape frequency, a broadened density of trap state energies, and a trap filling frequency. These defect parameters have been determined and can be used to predict afterglow dependence on time after excitation shut-off, exposure time, and temperature. The afterglow emission spectra at all temperatures are characteristic of Eu under S6 site-selective UV excitation of these rare-earth C-type structure scintillators. This indicates that states associated with the Eu activator on the S6 site are the terminal states upon thermal release of trapped charge carriers.
A single-step, low temperature self-aligned CoSi2 process using Ti/Co source material has been developed for use in extreme submicrometer MOSFET applications. Ultra-thin CoSi2 films (∼ 20 nm) were obtained from a single-step RTA anneal at 550°C for 30 sec using Ti/Co source material on patterned n+ implanted (100) Si. X-ray diffraction was used to verify CoSi2 formation. Highresolution SEM and TEM examination showed the silicide to be microstructurally smooth and the devices showed no lateral growth of the silicide at the polysilicon spacer edge. Some voiding and lateral overgrowth was observed at the LOCOS isolation edge and this effect was exacerbated at higher anneal temperatures. This single-step low temperature CoSi2 process is a promising technology for deep-submicron MOSFET applications.
We would like to mimic the mechanical properties of animal systems for the development of novel materials. Insect cuticle serves as one source of inspiration for the design of these materials. Cuticle is composed of chitin embedded in a protein matrix which may also contain plasticizers, fillers, crosslinkers, and minerals. The specific properties of the cuticle depend on the type, amount and interactions between each component. We are renewing the investigation of the elastic cuticle, resilin. Resilin, a protein-based elastomer first described in the early 1960s, has properties which have been reported to be most like those of ideal rubbers. We have examined resilin isolated from the prealar arms of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana. The results of amino acid analysis are in good agreement with earlier data reported for resilin. A series of tryptic fragments have been isolated and sequenced. These peptides have been used for the design of oligonucleotide probes for the identification of the gene(s) from a teneral cockroach cDNA library. A biopolymer, based on one tryptic fragment, has been designed and synthesized. We are continuing to treat resilin with residue specific proteases in order to map the resilin protein.