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Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with high heritability and polygenic inheritance. Multimodal neuroimaging studies have also indicated that abnormalities of brain structure and function are a plausible neurobiological characterisation of schizophrenia. However, the polygenic effects of schizophrenia on these imaging endophenotypes have not yet been fully elucidated.
To investigate the effects of polygenic risk for schizophrenia on the brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity, which are disrupted in schizophrenia.
Genomic and neuroimaging data from a large sample of Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia (N = 509) and healthy controls (N = 502) were included in this study. We examined grey matter volume and functional connectivity via structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Using the data from a recent meta-analysis of a genome-wide association study that comprised a large number of Chinese people, we calculated a polygenic risk score (PGRS) for each participant.
The imaging genetic analysis revealed that the individual PGRS showed a significantly negative correlation with the hippocampal grey matter volume and hippocampus–medial prefrontal cortex functional connectivity, both of which were lower in the people with schizophrenia than in the controls. We also found that the observed neuroimaging measures showed weak but similar changes in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia.
These findings suggested that genetically influenced brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity may provide important clues for understanding the pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia and for the early diagnosis of schizophrenia.
In a model where investors disagree about the fundamentals of two stocks, the state-price density depends on investor disagreements for both stocks, especially the larger stock. This implies that disagreement among investors in a large firm has a spillover effect on the pricing of other stocks owned by these investors. The pricing effects of investor disagreements crucially depend on the average belief biases. Empirical findings support the novel model prediction of a disagreement spillover effect and help reconcile some mixed evidence in the literature.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The aim of this study is to determine whether quantitative measures of knee structures including effusion, bone marrow lesions, cartilage, and meniscal damage can improve upon an existing model of demographic and clinical characteristics to classify accelerated knee osteoarthritis (AKOA). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We conducted a case-control study using data from baseline and four annual follow-up visits from the osteoarthritis initiative. Participants had no radiographic knee osteoarthritis (KOA) at baseline. AKOA is defined as progressing from no KOA to advance-stage KOA in at least 1 knee within 48 months. AKOA knees were matched 1:1 based on sex to (1) participants who did not develop KOA within 48 months and (2) participants who developed KOA but not AKOA. Analyses were person based. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to determine the important variables and percent of variance explained. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: A previous classification and regression tree analysis found that age, BMI, serum glucose, and femorotibial angle explained 31% of the variability between those who did and did not develop AKOA. Including structural measurements as candidate variables yielded a model that included effusion, BMI, serum glucose, cruciate ligament degeneration and coronal slope and explained 39% of the variability. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Knee structural measurements improve classification of participants who developed AKOA Versus those who did not. Further research is needed to better classify patients at risk for AKOA.
A novel synthetic air data estimation method without using air data sensors is presented, and the method only relies on the information from the Navigation System (NS) and Flight Control System (FCS). The aircraft's aerodynamic model is also required to make a connection between the FCS control parameters and the NS measurements. The airspeed, angle of attack and sideslip, angular velocity and wind speed are defined as state vectors, and state equations are established through the aircraft's aerodynamic model and dynamics. Linear velocity and angular velocity provided by the navigation system are considered as the measurement vector. To deal with variable wind fields, a novel Initialised Three-step Extended Kalman Filter (ITEKF), which considers the wind speed as an unknown input, is developed to track the variation of wind speed. Simulation results based on a Generic Hypersonic Vehicle (GHV) model are presented and compared with an existing method. Factors affecting the method's accuracy include the navigation system accuracy and the aerodynamic model error, are also discussed.
A new ternary compound Al5NdNi2 was prepared by melting a stoichiometric mixture of aluminum, neodymium, and nickel in an arc furnace and annealing in vacuum. The crystal structure of Al5NdNi2 was studied by X-ray powder diffraction technique and Rietveld analysis. All diffraction lines of Al5NdNi2 were indexed, and the lattice parameters were refined with an orthorhombic structure type of space group Immm (No.71) using Rietveld analysis program DBWS-9807. The lattice parameters are presented, a = 7.0508(1) Å, b = 9.5690(1) Å, c = 3.9792(1) Å, V = 268.47 Å3, Z = 2, ρ = 4.91 g cm−3, and RIR = 1.23.
Surface elevation data for sea ice in the northwesternty - Weddell Sea, Antarctica, collected by a helicopter-borne laser altimeter during the Winter Weddell Outflow Study 2006, were used to estimate the form drag on pressure ridges and its contribution to the total wind drag, and the air-ice drag coefficient at a reference height of 10 m under neutral stability conditions (Cdn(10)). This was achieved by partitioning the total wind drag into two components: form drag on pressure ridges and skin drag over rough sea-ice surfaces. The results reveal that for the compacted ice field, the contribution of form drag on pressure ridges to the total wind drag increases with increasing ridging intensity Ri (where Ri is the ratio of mean ridge height to spacing), while the contribution decreases with increasing roughness length. There is also an increasing trend in the air-ice drag coefficient Cdn(10) as ridging intensity Ri increases. However, as roughness length increases, Cdn(10) increases at lower ridging intensities (Ri < 0.023) but decreases at lower ridging intensities (0.023 < Ri < 0.05). These opposing trends are mainly caused by the dominance of the form drag on pressure ridges and skin drag over rough ice surfaces. Generally, the form drag becomes dominant only when the ridging intensity is sufficiently large, while the skin drag is the dominant component at relatively larger ridging intensities. These results imply that a large value of Cdn(10) is caused not only by the form drag on pressure ridges, but also by the skin drag over rough ice surfaces. Additionally, the estimated drag coefficients are consistent with reported measurements in the northwestern Weddell Sea, further demonstrating the feasibility of the drag partition model.
Although many studies worldwide have focused on the relationship between vitamin D and insulin resistance, results remain controversial. Furthermore, concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in the Chinese population are unclear. We aimed to investigate vitamin D status and its correlation with insulin resistance among a Chinese adult population.
Serum 25(OH)D, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, glycated Hb (HbA1c) and other metabolic parameters were assessed. Neck circumference, waist circumference, hip circumference, weight and height were also measured. Lifestyle factors including smoking and drinking status were obtained. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed by HbA1c according to the 2010 American Diabetes Association criteria.
Of 7200 residents included, 6597 individuals were ultimately analysed.
We enrolled 2813 males (mean age 52·7 (sd 13·5) years) and 3784 females (52·3 (sd 13·5) years); mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 43·1 (sd 11·6) and 39·6 (sd 9·8) nmol/l, respectively. Additionally, 83·3 % of participants were 25(OH)D deficient. A significant difference in 25(OH)D was observed between males and females in winter and spring (P<0·001). Furthermore, 25(OH)D concentrations were inversely associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in the overweight and pre-diabetic populations. After adjusting for several variables, 25(OH)D was significantly associated with HOMA-IR in winter. When 25(OH)D values were categorized into quartiles, HOMA-IR was significantly associated with decreasing 25(OH)D.
The majority of the Chinese population was vitamin D deficient and this deficiency was negatively associated with insulin resistance, particularly in the overweight and pre-diabetic populations. Moreover, these associations might be more evident in the winter.
We reconstructed the centennial climate changes for the period of 9–7 cal ka BP in the upper region of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River Delta plain. A general warming and wetting trend from 8560 to 7220 cal yr BP was indicated by the decrease in Quercus (deciduous) and increases in Quercus (evergreen), Pinus, and Polypodiaceae spores. However, there were several brief climate fluctuations. A notable palynological change, from regional assemblages dominated by arboreal pollen to local assemblages mainly consisting of nonarboreal pollen, reflects climate fluctuations. The key indices of Quercus (deciduous), Pinus, herbs, fern spores, and palynological concentrations showed similar signs of centennial climate fluctuations. We suggest that the climate changes of the Dongge Cave and Yangtze River Delta regions were mainly affected by the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) during the period of 9–7 cal ka BP. The general warming trend may be associated with an intensified EASM, and solar activity may be one of the important factors driving the centennial climate changes. The ~8.2 ka event was also recorded in the Yangtze River Delta region, which suggests that there was a close relationship between the EASM and Greenland climate during the early Holocene.
An effective multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of three major pathogens, Nosema bombycis Nägeli (Microsporidia: Nosematidae), Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (Baculoviridae: genus Alphabaculovirus) (NPV), and Bombyx mori densovirus (Parvoviridae: genus Iteravirus) (DNV), in silkworms (Bombyx mori (Linnaeus); Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) was developed in this study. Polymerase chain reaction and real-time PCR tests and basic local alignment search tool searches revealed that the primers and probes used in this study had high specificities for their target species. The ability of each primer/probe set to detect pure pathogen DNA was determined using a plasmid dilution panel, in which under optimal conditions the multiplex real-time PCR assay showed high efficiency in the detection of three mixed target plasmids with a detection limit of 8.5×103 copies for N. bombycis and Bombyx mori NPV (BmNPV) and 8.5×104 copies for Bombyx mori DNV (BmDNV). When the ability to detect these three pathogens was examined in artificially inoculated silkworms, our method presented a number of advantages over traditional microscopy, including specificity, sensitivity, and high-throughput capabilities. Under the optimal volume ratio for the three primer/probe sets (3:2:2=N. bombycis:BmNPV:BmDNV), the multiplex real-time PCR assay showed early detection of BmNPV and BmDNV by day 1 post inoculation using DNA templates of the three pathogens in various combinations from individually infected silkworms; the early detection of N. bombycis was possible by day 3 post inoculation using the DNA isolated from the midgut of N. bombycis-infected silkworms.
To evaluate the effects of different anthropogenic activities on zooplankton and the pelagic ecosystem, we conducted seasonal cruises in 2010 to assess spatial heterogeneity among the mesozooplankton communities of Xiangshan Bay, a subtropical semi-enclosed bay in China. The evaluation included five different areas: a kelp farm, an oyster farm, a fish farm, the thermal discharge area of a power plant, and an artificial reef, and we aimed to identify whether anthropogenic activities dominated spatial variation in the mesozooplankton communities. The results demonstrated clear spatial heterogeneity among the mesozooplankton communities of the studied areas, dominantly driven by natural hydrographic properties, except in the area near the thermal discharge outlet of the power station. In the outlet area, thermal shock caused by the discharge influenced the mesozooplankton community by decreasing abundance and biomass throughout the four seasons, even causing a shift in the dominant species near the outlet during summer from Acartia pacifica to eurythermal and warm water taxa. Unique features of the mesozooplankton community in the oyster farm may be due to the combined effects of oyster culture and the natural environment in the branch harbour. However, kelp and fish culture, and the construction of an artificial reef did not exert any obvious influence on the mesozooplankton communities up to 2010, probably because of the small scale of the aquaculture and a time lag in the rehabilitation effects of the artificial reef. Thus, our results suggested that the dominant factors influencing spatial variations of mesozooplankton communities in Xiangshan Bay were still the natural hydrographic properties, but the thermal discharge was an anthropogenic activity that changed the pelagic ecosystem, and should be supervised.
Using phytolith analysis from a well-dated and high-resolution sediment sequence in the apex of northern Yangtze Delta, we investigate environmental changes, the rise and decline of rice exploitation and possible impacts of environment on rice exploitation during the early mid-Holocene. The phytolith sequence documents a relatively warm and dry interval during ca.9000 to 8200 cal yr BP, followed by climatic amelioration before 7200 cal yr BP. Phytolith evidence indicates that rice exploitation at the apex of northern Yangtze Delta began at 8200 cal yr BP, flourished by 7700 cal yr BP and ceased after 7400 cal yr BP. The first emergence of marine diatom species approximately 7300 cal yr BP likely indicates an accelerated sea-level rise. The apparent correlation of the initiation of rice exploitation with climatic amelioration during the early mid-Holocene suggests that climatic changes may have played an important role in facilitating rice exploitation. Both the ideal climatic conditions and stable sea level enabled flourishing rice exploitation during 8200 to 7400 cal yr BP. Although the climate remained warm and wet after 7400 cal yr BP, local sea-level rise possibly led to the termination of earlier rice exploitation at this site of the northern Yangtze Delta.
In this article, we report on the preparation of few-layered MoS2/graphene nanocomposite (MoS2/GNS-G) with enlarged interlayer distance as the lithium-ion battery anode via a facile hydrothermal method followed by glucose-assisted thermal annealing. During the synthesis, glucose serving as a small organic molecule can interlay into MoS2 nanosheets, which effectively hinder the aggregation and restacking of MoS2 during the process of heat treatment, retaining a sandwich structure of the composite. The enlarged interlayer distance (approximately 0.98 nm), along with the inserted amorphous carbon, could promote efficient lithium migration into active sites, buffer the volume change and stabilize the electrode structure effectively during the lithium insertion/extraction cycling. Electrochemical tests demonstrate that the MoS2/GNS-G delivers a high discharge capacity of 1583.0 mA h/g in the initial cycle at current density of 100 mA/g. The specific capacity remained at the relative high value of 673.5 mA h/g even at a current density of 1000 mA/g.
Paired radiocarbon and stable carbon analyses have been carried out on aragonite shells and organic soft bodies of snails from the Chinese Loess Plateau in order to explore the possibility of using these kinds of samples as environmental and chronological indicators. Results show that the soft bodies exhibit 14C concentrations similar to those of plant leaves, indicating that carbon in the soft bodies is fixed from organic diets. The aragonite shells are depleted in 14C compared to the soft bodies due to ingestion of 14C-depleted carbonate. This depletion shows a consistent pattern across the Chinese Loess Plateau, implying a good potential for the snail shells to be applicable for 14C dating with a simple correction. The δ13C values measured for aragonite shells display a linear relationship with those obtained for the soft bodies with a constant offset. In addition, the carbon derived from organic diets accounts for more than 70% of the total shell carbon. This fact suggests that stable carbon isotope composition of aragonite shells mainly reflects that of organic diet, and could be used as a reliable indicator of paleodiet in the Chinese Loess Plateau.
Electron cyclotron maser (ECM) instability is today’s most favoured process for microwave spike emission. Although ECM looks attractive, the emission mechanism is still unclear due to the imperfection of present theories, inadequacy of observational data, and uncertainty as to conditions in the source region. To find solar active phenomena, both statistically and individually coincident with radio spike events, is essential for understanding the ambient conditions needed for generating spike emission, locating sites where spike emission is produced, and providing clues for particle acceleration and energy release in flares.
In this paper, evidence for an association between spike emission at 21 cm and fast variation of the magnetic configuration in post-flare loops is presented. Such associations may be helpful for solving the questions mentioned above.
Recent studies have suggested an association between vitamin D and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, some results are subject to debate. This study was carried out to evaluate the correlation between NAFLD and vitamin D in men and women in East China. The data were obtained from a cross-sectional study that focused on the health and metabolic status of adults in sixteen areas of East China. According to ultrasonic assessments, the patients were divided into normal and NAFLD groups. Demographic characteristics and biochemical measurements were obtained. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association. In total, 5066 subjects were enrolled, and 2193 (43·3 %) were diagnosed with NAFLD; 84·56 % of the subjects showed vitamin D deficiency. Subjects with high vitamin D levels had a lower prevalence of NAFLD, particularly male subjects. Within the highest quartile of vitamin D levels, the prevalence of NAFLD was 40·8 %, whereas the lowest quartile of vitamin D levels showed a prevalence of 62·2 %, which was unchanged in women across the vitamin D levels. Binary logistic analysis showed that decreased vitamin D levels were associated with an increased risk of NAFLD (OR 1·54; 95 % CI 1·26, 1·88). This study suggests that vitamin D levels are significantly associated with NAFLD and that vitamin D acts as an independent factor for NAFLD prevalence, particularly in males in East China. Vitamin D interventional treatment might be a new target for controlling NAFLD; elucidating the mechanism requires further research.
We study de Finetti's optimal dividend problem, also known as the optimal harvesting problem, in the dual model. In this model, the firm value is affected both by continuous fluctuations and by upward directed jumps. We use a fixed point method to show that the solution of the optimal dividend problem with jumps can be obtained as the limit of a sequence of stochastic control problems for a diffusion. In each problem, the optimal dividend strategy is of barrier type, and the rate of convergence of the barrier and the corresponding value function is exponential.
The CeCo3Ni2 compound was synthesized by arc melting under argon atmosphere. High-quality powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) data of CeCo3Ni2 have been collected using a Rigaku SmartLab X-ray powder diffractometer. The refinement of the XRD pattern for the CeCo3Ni2 compound shows that the CeCo3Ni2 is a hexagonal structure, space group P6/mmm (No.191) with a = b = 4.9081(2) Å, c = 4.0034(2) Å, V = 83.52 Å3, Z = 1, and ρx = 8.6347 g cm−3. The Smith–Snyder FOM F30 = 112.7(0.0089, 30) and the intensity ratio RIR = 0.48.
A new ternary compound Ho2AlGe3 was synthesized and studied by means of X-ray powder diffraction technique. The powder pattern of Ho2AlGe3 was indexed and refined, giving an orthorhombic structure, space group Pnma (No. 62) with the Y2AlGe3 structure type: a = 6.743 98(8) Å, b = 4.163 73(5) Å, c = 17.5834(2) Å, V = 493.74 Å3, Z = 4, ρx = 7.73 g cm−3, F30 = 202.7 (0.004, 37), and RIR = 1.21.
Middle Holocene vegetation and mangrove successions are clearly evident in the palynological records of two cores from the upper Mekong River delta in Cambodia. Spanning from ~ 9.4 to 6.3 cal ka BP, the cores mainly record a transgressive sequence from floodplain freshwater marsh to tidal flat, which was overlain by mangrove. Corresponding to the decelerated sea-level rise at ~ 8.3 cal ka BP, pioneer mangrove species Sonneratia alba and Sonneratia caseolaris appeared in the sediments, and then was replaced by regressive mangrove succession containing upward-increasing abundances of Rhizophora apiculata and Bruguiera spp. High salinity- and flooding-tolerant community S. alba was developed at the western core site PSG at ~ 8.2 cal ka BP, and the eastern core site PK at ~ 7.5 cal ka BP. The time difference of S. alba appearance between the two sites might be resulted from the complexity of sedimentary environment, where a higher sediment supply was provided to the western floodplain than to the eastern floodplain. After 7.5 cal ka BP, aggradational stacking of intertidal sediments, of which the thickness is larger than the present maximum tidal range, may have resulted from continuous sea-level rise during 7.5–7.0 cal ka BP.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of osteopontin neutralization treatment on schistosome-induced liver injury in BALB/C mice. We randomly divided 100 BALB/C mice into groups A, B, C, D and group E. Mice in all groups except group A were abdominally infected with schistosomal cercariae to induce a schistosomal hepatopathological model. Mice in group C, D and group E were respectively administered with praziquantel, praziquantel plus colchicine and praziquantel plus neutralizing osteopontin antibody. We extracted mouse liver tissues at 3 and 9 weeks after the ‘stool-eggs-positive’ day, observed liver histopathological changes by haematoxylin-eosin and Masson trichrome staining and detected the expression of osteopontin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1) by immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and Western blot. We found that praziquantel plus neutralizing osteopontin antibody treatment significantly decreased the granuloma dimension, the percentage of collagen and the expression of osteopontin, α-SMA and TGF-β1 compared to praziquantel plus colchicine treatment in both the acute and chronic stage of schistosomal liver damage (P<0·05). So we believe that the combined regimen of osteopontin immunoneutralization and anti-helminthic treatment can reduce the granulomatous response and liver fibrosis during the schistosomal hepatopathologic course.