Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Epidemiological and genetic characteristics of influenza virus and the effects of air pollution on laboratory-confirmed influenza cases in Hulunbuir, China, from 2010 to 2019

  • Bing Lu (a1) (a2), Yingchen Wang (a1) (a3), Zhansong Zhu (a2), Zhe Zhang (a1), Tuo Dong (a1) (a3), Falong Li (a1), Ya Gao (a1), Xiqiao Du (a1) and Zhangyi Qu (a1) (a3)...

Abstract

Objective

A continuous survey on influenza was conducted in Hulunbuir, China from January 2010 to May 2019 to reveal epidemiological, microbiological and air pollutants associated with laboratory-confirmed influenza cases.

Methods

Influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory infection subjects were enrolled from a sentinel hospital in Hulunbuir during the study period for epidemiological and virological investigation. The association between air pollutants and influenza-positivity rate was assessed by a generalised additive model.

Results

Of 4667 specimens, 550 (11.8%) were tested positive for influenza. The influenza-positivity was highest in the age groups of 5–14 years, 50–69 years and ⩾70 years. We found that the effect of particulate matter ⩽2.5 μm (PM2.5) concentrations on the influenza-positivity rate was statistically significant, particularly on day lag-4 and lag-5. Genetic characterisations showed that (H1N1) pdm09 strains belonged to subclade 6B.1 and that influenza B isolates belonged to subclade 1A-3Del, with significant substitutions in the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins compared with those in the WHO-recommended vaccine strains.

Conclusions

Elderly individuals and school-age children were at high risk for influenza infection. PM2.5 concentrations showed significant effects on influenza-positivity rate in Hulunbuir, which could be considered in local influenza prevention strategies.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Epidemiological and genetic characteristics of influenza virus and the effects of air pollution on laboratory-confirmed influenza cases in Hulunbuir, China, from 2010 to 2019
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Epidemiological and genetic characteristics of influenza virus and the effects of air pollution on laboratory-confirmed influenza cases in Hulunbuir, China, from 2010 to 2019
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Epidemiological and genetic characteristics of influenza virus and the effects of air pollution on laboratory-confirmed influenza cases in Hulunbuir, China, from 2010 to 2019
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Zhangyi Qu, E-mail: HMU635@126.com

Footnotes

Hide All
*

These authors contributed equally to this study.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
1.Francis, T Jr (1953) Vaccination against influenza. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 8, 725741.
2.Murray, R (1961) Some problems in the standardization and control of influenza vaccine in 1957. The American Review of Respiratory Disease 83, 160167.
3.WHO Influenza (Seasonal) Fact-sheets. https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/influenza-(seasonal) (Accessed 9 July 2019).
4.Kilbourne, ED (2006) Influenza pandemics of the 20th century. Emerging Infectious Diseases 12, 914.
5.Schafer, JR et al. (1993) Origin of the pandemic 1957 H2 influenza A virus and the persistence of its possible progenitors in the avian reservoir. Virology 194, 781788.
6.Asha, K and Kumar, B (2019) Emerging influenza D virus threat: what we know so far!. Journal of Clinical Medicine 8, 192.
7.Smith, DB et al. (2016) Detection of influenza C virus but not influenza D virus in Scottish respiratory samples. Journal of Clinical Virology 74, 5053.
8.Su, S et al. (2017) Novel influenza D virus: epidemiology, pathology, evolution and biological characteristics. Virulence 8, 15801591.
9.Bean, WJ et al. (1992) Evolution of the H3 influenza virus hemagglutinin from human and nonhuman hosts. Journal of Virology 66, 11291138.
10.McCullers, JA et al. (1999) Reassortment and insertion-deletion are strategies for the evolution of influenza B viruses in nature. Journal of Virology 73, 73437348.
11.McCullers, JA et al. (2005) A single amino acid change in the C-terminal domain of the matrix protein M1 of influenza B virus confers mouse adaptation and virulence. Virology 336, 318326.
12.Wong, CM et al. (2009) Modification by influenza on health effects of air pollution in Hong Kong. Environmental Health Perspectives 117, 248253.
13.Xu, Z et al. (2013) Air pollution, temperature and pediatric influenza in Brisbane, Australia. Environment International 59, 384388.
14.Chen, C et al. (2020) Effect of air pollution on hospitalization for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, and myocardial infarction. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 27, 33843400.
15.Fukuda, K et al. (2011) Including viral infection data supports an association between particulate pollution and respiratory admissions. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 35, 163169.
16.Chen, C et al. (2019) The effect of air pollution on hospitalization of individuals with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in Jinan, China. Medicine 98, e15634.
17.Huang, L et al. (2016) Acute effects of air pollution on influenza-like illness in Nanjing, China: a population-based study. Chemosphere 147, 180187.
18.WHO surveillance case definitions for ILI and SARI. https://www.who.int/influenza/surveillance_monitoring/ili_sari_surveillance_case_definition/en/ (Accessed 11 July 2019).
19.WHO recommendations on the composition of influenza virus vaccines. https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/virus/recommendations/en/ (Accessed 5 June 2019).
20.Bao, Y et al. (2007) FLAN: a web server for influenza virus genome annotation. Nucleic Acids Research 35, 280284.
21.Prediction of N-glycosylation sites in human proteins. http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetNGlyc/ (Accessed 12 June 2019).
22.Ang, LW et al. (2016) Characterization of influenza activity based on virological surveillance of influenza-like illness in tropical Singapore, 2010–2014. Journal of Medical Virology 88, 20692077.
23.Ravindra, K et al. (2019) Generalized additive models: building evidence of air pollution, climate change and human health. Environment International 132, 104987.
24.Wood, SN (2017) Generalized linear models. In Wood, SN (ed.), Generalized Additive Models: An Introduction with R, 2nd Edn. Florida: Chapman & Hall, pp. 203211.
25.Peng, RD and Dominici, F (2008) Statistical models. In Peng, RD and Dominici, F (eds), Statistical Methods for Environmental Epidemiology with R: A Case Study in Air Pollution and Health. New York; London: Springer, p. 144.
26.Bridges, CB, Kuehnert, MJ and Hall, CB (2003) Transmission of influenza: implications for control in health care settings. Clinical Infectious Diseases 37, 10941101.
27.Liu, XX et al. (2019) Effects of air pollutants on occurrences of influenza-like illness and laboratory-confirmed influenza in Hefei, China. International Journal of Biometeorology 63, 5160.
28.Al Khatib, HA, Al Thani, AA and Yassine, HM (2018) Evolution and dynamics of the pandemic H1N1 influenza hemagglutinin protein from 2009 to 2017. Archives of Virology 163, 30353049.
29.Daniels, PS et al. (1987) The receptor-binding and membrane-fusion properties of influenza virus variants selected using anti-haemagglutinin monoclonal antibodies. The EMBO Journal 6, 14591465.
30.Glaser, L et al. (2005) A single amino acid substitution in 1918 influenza virus hemagglutinin changes receptor binding specificity. Journal of Virology 79, 1153311536.
31.Lee, N et al. (2018) The use of plant lectins to regulate H1N1 influenza A virus receptor binding activity. PLoS One 13, e0195525.
32.Matrosovich, M et al. (2000) Early alterations of the receptor-binding properties of H1, H2, and H3 avian influenza virus hemagglutinins after their introduction into mammals. Journal of Virology 74, 85028512.
33.Keleta, L et al. (2008) Experimental evolution of human influenza virus H3 hemagglutinin in the mouse lung identifies adaptive regions in HA1 and HA2. Journal of Virology 82, 1159911608.
34.Yu, Z et al. (2015) A PB1 T296R substitution enhance polymerase activity and confer a virulent phenotype to a 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in mice. Virology 486, 180186.
35.Kaverin, NV et al. (2007) Epitope mapping of the hemagglutinin molecule of a highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus by using monoclonal antibodies. Journal of Virology 81, 1291112917.
36.Favaro, PF et al. (2018) Evolution of equine influenza viruses (H3N8) during a Brazilian outbreak, 2015. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 49, 336346.
37.Kaverin, NV et al. (2004) Structural differences among hemagglutinins of influenza A virus subtypes are reflected in their antigenic architecture: analysis of H9 escape mutants. Journal of Virology 78, 240249.
38.Chen, LM et al. (2012) In vitro evolution of H5N1 avian influenza virus toward human-type receptor specificity. Virology 422, 105113.
39.Yang, W et al. (2018) Transmission dynamics of influenza in two major cities of Uganda. Epidemics 24, 4348.
40.Ang, LW et al. (2019) Differential age-specific distribution of influenza virus types and subtypes in tropical Singapore, 2011 to 2017. Journal of Medical Virology 91, 14151422.
41.Hope-Simpson, RE (1981) The role of season in the epidemiology of influenza. The Journal of Hygiene 86, 3547.
42.Croft, DP et al. (2019) The association between respiratory infection and air pollution in the setting of air quality policy and economic change. Annals of the American Thoracic Society 16, 321330.
43.Bono, R et al. (2016) Air pollution, aeroallergens and admissions to pediatric emergency room for respiratory reasons in Turin, northwestern Italy. BMC Public Health 16, 722.
44.Capraz, O, Deniz, A and Dogan, N (2017) Effects of air pollution on respiratory hospital admissions in Istanbul, Turkey, 2013 to 2015. Chemosphere 181, 544550.
45.Delfino, RJ et al. (1997) Effects of air pollution on emergency room visits for respiratory illnesses in Montreal, Quebec. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 155, 568576.
46.Moolgavkar, SH, Luebeck, EG and Anderson, EL (1997) Air pollution and hospital admissions for respiratory causes in Minneapolis-St. Paul and Birmingham. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) 8, 364370.
47.Wong, CM et al. (2002) A tale of two cities: effects of air pollution on hospital admissions in Hong Kong and London compared. Environmental Health Perspectives 110, 6777.
48.de Vries, RP et al. (2013) Evolution of the hemagglutinin protein of the new pandemic H1N1 influenza virus: maintaining optimal receptor binding by compensatory substitutions. Journal of Virology 87, 1386813877.
49.O'Donnell, CD, et al. (2012) Antibody pressure by a human monoclonal antibody targeting the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus hemagglutinin drives the emergence of a virus with increased virulence in mice. mBio 3, e00120–12.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Lu et al. supplementary material
Lu et al. supplementary material

 Word (2.0 MB)
2.0 MB

Epidemiological and genetic characteristics of influenza virus and the effects of air pollution on laboratory-confirmed influenza cases in Hulunbuir, China, from 2010 to 2019

  • Bing Lu (a1) (a2), Yingchen Wang (a1) (a3), Zhansong Zhu (a2), Zhe Zhang (a1), Tuo Dong (a1) (a3), Falong Li (a1), Ya Gao (a1), Xiqiao Du (a1) and Zhangyi Qu (a1) (a3)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.