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This study focuses on the process of the circulation deposition in the Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI). The growth rate of circulation and its sources are theoretically and numerically studied to reveal the physical mechanism of the viscosity in the circulation deposition process. We derive a predicting model of the circulation rate for RMI. More importantly, all the contributing sources are separately predicted. Particularly, the viscous source, which previously lacked theoretical or numerical investigations, is efficiently predicted. The RMI problems in a large range of initial conditions are simulated with the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method to verify our predicting model and further reveal the circulation deposition mechanism. The DSMC simulations provide reliable quantification of the circulation deposition (especially viscous contribution) for RMI due to its molecular nature. Our model predicts the circulation rate, baroclinic and viscous sources accurately for all the cases in comparison with the simulations. A new physical insight into the mechanism of viscosity in RMI is provided. Unlike the previous understandings that nearly all circulation deposition in RMI comes from the baroclinic source, this study reveals the hidden positive contribution of the viscous source, especially for high Mach number conditions (up to 11 % of total circulation rate). For RMI, the large viscosity gradient inside the shock waves plays a crucial role in the circulation deposition even under high Reynolds number conditions. Our study also provides exciting opportunities to further understand the viscous contribution to the vorticity dynamics in the reshocked RMI and shock wave–turbulence interactions.
Social isolation and loneliness have each been associated with cognitive decline, but most previous research is limited to Western populations. This study examined the relationships of social isolation and loneliness on cognitive function among Chinese older adults.
This study used two waves of data (2011 and 2015) from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) and analyses were restricted to those respondents aged 50 and older. Social isolation, loneliness, and cognitive function were measured at baseline. Follow-up measures on cognitive function were obtained for 7761 participants (mean age = 60.97, s.d. = 7.31; male, 50.8%). Lagged dependent variable models adjusted for confounding factors were used to evaluate the association between baseline isolation, loneliness, and cognitive function at follow-up.
Loneliness was significantly associated with the cognitive decline at follow-up (episodic memory: β = −0.03, p < 0.01; mental status: β = −0.03, p < 0.01) in the partially adjusted models. These associations became insignificant after additional confounding variables (chronic diseases, health behaviors, disabilities, and depressive symptoms) were taken into account (all p > 0.05). By contrast, social isolation was significantly associated with decreases in all cognitive function measures at follow-up (episodic memory: β = −0.05, p < 0.001; mental status: β = −0.03, p < 0.01) even after controlling for loneliness and all confounding variables.
Social isolation is associated with cognitive decline in Chinese older adults, and the relationships are independent of loneliness. These findings expand our knowledge about the links between social relationships and the cognitive function in non-Western populations.
The catch of Japanese butterfish, Psenopsis anomala in Taiwan is greater than those of any other nation; however, the biology, particularly the age and growth, of this economically important fish species is little known. This study describes the age and growth of P. anomala based on 734 specimens (340 females, 363 males, 31 unsexed) caught by trawl fishery in the north-eastern waters off Taiwan from March 2007 to July 2008. The age of specimens was estimated by counting the growth annuli in sagittal otoliths. The periodicity of annulus deposition on otolith was estimated to be one year with opaque zone deposited between July and August based on marginal increment analysis. The maximum age for both sexes was estimated to be ~4. The female portion of the population was dominated by the 3+ age class, while the male portion was dominated by the 2∞ age class. The parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth function with standard error estimated based on the observed length at age using a non-linear method are as follows: L∞ = 25.47 ± 0.65 cm, k = 0.30 ± 0.03 year−1, and t0 = −1.84 ± 0.16 year for females (n = 350), and L∞ = 22.39 ± 0.45 cm, k = 0.46 ± 0.04 year−1, and t0 = −1.38 ± 0.13 year for males (n = 378). The growth performances of P. anomala reported from different geographic regions were compared, and the potential influences of sample size distribution on the estimated growth parameters were further discussed.
Muscle-reducing obesity is the most common form of obesity in the elderly, so it is more difficult for the elderly to lose weight. The efficacy and safety of low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) for weight loss in the elderly remains controversial. This study aimed to explore the effect and safety of LCD on weight loss in overweight and obese elderly people.
Materials and Methods:
Obese or overweight elderly (> 60 years old) with a BMI greater than 24 were recruited to use a restricted LCD for 1–3 months for weight loss intervention. According to the time, participants were divided into short-time group (< 30 days), medium-time group (< 31–60 days) and long-time group (> 60 days). The enrolled subjects were given an energy-restricted LCD for weight reduction intervention (1200–1400 kcal/d, carbohydrate accounts for 15–20% of energy). The primary outcome was change in body composition included weight, BMI, fat mass, and waist circumference, and there were other secondary outcomes including blood sugar, blood lipid and uric acid.
Results and Discussion:
Thirty-two obese or overweight elderly completed a LCD for 1–3 months, mean age were 64.9 ± 4.2 years, median intervention time was 56 (range: 26,100); mean BMI was 29.62 ± 3.70kg/m2. After LCD intervention, the average body weight of the three groups decreased by 2.92 ± 0.77 kg, 5.57 ± 1.99 kg and 10.48 ± 2.63 kg; the average BMI decreased by 1.43 ± 0.34 kg/m, 2.18 ± 0.99 kg/m and 3.18 ± 1.77 kg/m; the average body fat decreased by 2.28 ± 0.43 kg, 4.07 ± 2.08 kg and 7.05 ± 2.53 kg; and the average muscle decreased by 0.68 ± 0.76 kg, 1.32 ± 0.78 kg and 2.45 ± 2.03 kg (P < 0.05). The average muscle loss was less than 20% of the total weight loss. Covariance analysis adjusted by sex and age showed that the percentage changes of body weight, BMI, body fat and waist circumference were significant different among the three groups (p < 0.05), which had linear trends with the intervention time, while the percentage of muscle and body fat decreased was not significantly different among the three groups, and did not increase with the intervening time (p > 0.05). Symptoms of patients with hypertension or sleep apnea syndrome were alleviated. There were no serious adverse events during weight loss.LCD with restricted energy is a safe and effective weight-loss intervention for overweight or obese elderly people. It can significantly reduce BMI and body fat without losing more muscle with the increase of weight loss time.
The associations between grains and carbohydrate intake and type 2 diabetes mellitus are controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between grains, carbohydrate intakes and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in China.
Materials and Methods
This was a 1:2 (sex/age) matched case-control study, participants were adults. Cases were diabetics diagnosed within 3 months and the controls were without disorder of glucose metabolism. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect information on their socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and dietary intakes using structured questionnaires. Grains were divided into whole, refined and common grain, and the carbohydrate intake was also calculated. The study participants were divided into quartiles (Q1 (lowest), Q2, Q3, and Q4) by food and nutrients intakes separately. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to explore the association of foods and nutrients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after adjusting for potential confounders. Trend test were performed by treating quartiles variables as continuous variables.
Results and Discussion
Our study enrolled 384 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (males 162, females 222) and 768 controls (males 324, females 444). Multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis(Ver. 21.0; PSS Inc.,Chicago,IL,USA) showed that moderate amount intake of total cereals was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The adjusted OR of the second quartile (Q2, 223g/d) and the third quartile (Q3, 255g/d) were 0.60(95%CI:0.38–0.93) and 0.51(95%CI:0.33–0.79), respectively, compared with the lowest quartile (Q1, 165g/d), but this inverse association was not found in the highest quartile (Q4, 307g/d) and the OR was 0.74(95%CI:0.47–1.15). There was significant negative association between whole grains intake and type 2 diabetes mellitus with the OR of the highest intake 0.48(95%CI:0.31–0.77) compared with the lowest intake(Ptrend = 0.001).No association was found between refined grains intake intake and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and neither did common grain intake. Higher carbohydrate intake may have a beneficial effect on type 2 diabetes mellitus. The best effect was found in the second quartile intake (Q2, 264g/d), with an adjusted OR of 0.56 (95%CI:0.37–0.84) compared with the lowest quartile intake (Q1, 220g/d).The OR of Q3 (285g/d) and Q4 (334g/d) were 0.69 (95%CI:0.48–1.00) and 0.66 (95CI:0.44–1.00) respectively(Ptrend p = 0.017).
Moderate amount of total cereals intake may benefit to type 2 diabetes mellitus, however, much lower and higher intake can increase the risk. Higher intake of whole grains was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Carbohydrate intake was negative associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Flexible electrode is an indispensable component of emerging portable, flexible, and wearable electronic devices. Although various flexible electrodes with different dimensions and functions have been explored, developing a new electrode material with excellent mechanical reliability and superior electrical performance remains a challenge. Here, a graphene-covered Cu composite electrode film with a total thickness of ∼100 nm is successfully fabricated onto a flexible polyimide substrate by means of a series of assembly methods including physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor deposition, and transfer technique. The composite electrode film on the flexible substrate exhibits evidently enhanced tensile strength, monotonic bending, and repeatedly bending fatigue reliability as well as electrical performance compared with that of the bared Cu film electrode. Such excellent mechanical performances are attributed to the role of the graphene coating in suppressing fatigue damage formation and preventing crack advance. It is expected that the chemical vapor-deposited graphene-covered Cu composite electrode would extend the potential ultrathin metal film electrode as the innovative electrode material for the next-generation flexible electronic devices.
This paper reports on an atomic-scale investigation into the β′ precipitates and the long-period stacking ordered phase (LPSO) in Mg–5Y–2.5Ni–0.5Zr (at.%) alloy, using Cs-corrected high angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). The results displayed that the 18R-type and 14H-type LPSO phases coexisted in the as-cast and the solid solution states, and the 18R-type and 14H-type LPSO structures were thermal stable. After aging treatment, the aging peak hardness reached 138 HV at 225 °C for 48 h. The significant increase in hardness was attributed to the formation of the metastable β′ phase. The lattice parameters of a and b axes for β′ phases are a = 0.65 nm, b = 2.20 nm, and c = 0.52 nm by HAADF-STEM. The interaction between the LPSO phase and the β′ can be found. The atomic-scale interactions between the LPSO and β′ phases are divided into two parts: under-aging and peak-aging conditions between the building blocks.
Clozapine treatment increases the risk of agranulocytosis, but findings on the epidemiology of agranulocytosis have been inconsistent. This meta-analysis examined the prevalence of agranulocytosis and related death in clozapine-treated patients.
A literature search in the international (PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE) and Chinese (WanFang, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Sinomed) databases was conducted. Prevalence estimates of agranulocytosis and related death in clozapine-treated patients were synthesized with the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis program using the random-effects model.
Thirty-six studies with 260 948 clozapine-treated patients published between 1984 and 2018 were included in the meta-analysis. The overall prevalence of agranulocytosis and death caused by agranulocytosis were 0.4% (95% CI 0.3–0.6%) and 0.05% (95% CI 0.03–0.09%), respectively. The prevalence of agranulocytosis was moderated by sample size, study quality, year of publication, and that of data collection.
The prevalence of clozapine-associated agranulocytosis is low. Agranulocytosis-related death appears rare.
The paper presents an experimental investigation on the flow-induced vibrations of two tandem circular cylinders for spacing ratio
and reduced velocity
is the cylinder centre-to-centre spacing and
is the cylinder diameter. Both cylinders are allowed to vibrate only laterally. Extensive measurements are conducted to capture the cylinder vibration and frequency responses, surface pressures, shedding frequencies and flow fields using laser vibrometer, hotwire, pressure scanner and PIV techniques. Four vibration regimes are identified based on the characteristics and generation mechanisms of the cylinder galloping vibrations. Several findings are made on the mechanisms of vibration generation and sustainability. First, the initial states (vibrating or fixed) of a cylinder may have a pronounced impact on the vibration of the other. Second, alternating reattachment, detachment, rolling up and shedding of the upper and lower gap shear layers all contribute to the vibrations. Third, the gap vortices around the base surface of the upstream cylinder produce positive work on the cylinder, sustaining the upstream cylinder vibration. Fourth, reattachment, detachment and switching of the gap shear layers result in largely positive work on the downstream cylinder, playing an important role in sustaining its vibration.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the antiparasitic activity of extracellular products of Streptomyces albus. Bioactivity-guided isolation of chloroform extracts affording a compound showing potent activity. The structure of the compound was elucidated as salinomycin (SAL) by EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. In vitro test showed that SAL has potent anti-parasitic efficacy against theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis with 10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h (effective concentration) EC50 (95% confidence intervals) of 2.12 (2.22–2.02), 1.93 (1.98–1.88), 1.42 (1.47–1.37), 1.35 (1.41–1.31) and 1.11 (1.21–1.01) mg L−1. In vitro antiparasitic assays revealed that SAL could be 100% effective against I. multifiliis encysted tomonts at a concentration of 8.0 mg L−1. In vivo test demonstrated that the number of I. multifiliis trophonts on Erythroculter ilishaeformis treated with SAL was markedly lower than that of control group at 10 days after exposed to theronts (P < 0.05). In the control group, 80% mortality was observed owing to heavy I. multifiliis infection at 10 days. On the other hand, only 30.0% mortality was recorded in the group treated with 8.0 mg L−1 SAL. The median lethal dose (LD50) of SAL for E. ilishaeformis was 32.9 mg L−1.
Effective degradation of organic pollutants in wastewater is of great importance to the environment and human society. TiO2-based electrospun nanofibrous materials combining the properties of the large specific surface area, high aspect ratio, tunable compositions and structures, as well as easy to recycle, show great promise for the efficient removal of organic pollutants. In this Prospective paper, the recent progress in the degradation of organic water contaminants over visible-light-responsive TiO2-based nanofibrous materials is summarized, with emphasis on the strategies for improving the visible-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2-based nanofibrous materials. Finally, the current challenges and future outlook in this field are discussed.
Nacre-mimetic (PE/TiO2)4 nanolayered composites (NLCs) with the nanocrystalline TiO2 layer thickness less than 30 nm and different thickness ratios of inorganic/organic layers were successfully prepared by using layer-by-layer self-assembly and chemical bath deposition method. Mechanical properties, especially fatigue properties of the NLCs with different thickness ratios were evaluated. The elastic modulus, hardness and fracture toughness, strain amplitude to fatigue limits of the NLCs reached 27.78 ± 5.69 GPa, 1.33 ± 0.31 GPa, and 4.16 ± 0.20 MPa m1/2, respectively. Fatigue performance of the NLCs in the high and low cycle fatigue regimes was optimized by tailoring the thickness ratio of the TiO2/PE layers. The PE/TiO2 NLCs with the larger thickness ratio of ∼3 has the high fatigue limit (the critical strain amplitude of 0.0853%) in the high-cycle fatigue regime, while that with the smaller thickness ratio of ∼1 and ∼0.5 are of the good fatigue strength in the low-cycle fatigue regime. The basic mechanism for the enhanced fatigue performance is elucidated.
Previous studies have indicated that some food items and nutrients are associated with uric acid metabolism in humans. However, little is known about the role of dietary patterns in hyperuricaemia. We designed this case–control study to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia in Chinese adults. A total of 1422 cases and 1422 controls were generated from 14 538 participants using the 1:1 ratio propensity score matching methods. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered FFQ. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. Hyperuricaemia was defined as concentrations of serum uric acid higher than 7 mg/dl (416·5 μmol/l) for men and 6 mg/dl (357 μmol/l) for women. Three dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis: sweet pattern; vegetable pattern; animal foods pattern. The animal foods pattern characterised by higher intake of an animal organ, seafood and processed meat products was associated with higher prevalence of newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia (Pfor trend<0·01) after adjustment. Compared with the participants in the lowest quartile of the animal foods pattern, the OR of newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia in the highest quartile was 1·50 (95 % CI 1·20, 1·87). The other two dietary patterns were not associated with the prevalence of newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia after adjustment. In conclusion, a diet rich in animal organ, seafood and processed meat products is associated with higher prevalence of newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia in a Chinese population. Further cohort studies and randomised controlled trials are required to clarify these findings.
Several studies have suggested that higher carotenoid levels may be beneficial for atherosclerosis patients, but few studies have examined this relationship in the Chinese population. This cross-sectional study examined the association between the levels of carotenoids in diet and serum and carotid intima–media thickness (IMT) in Chinese adults aged 50–75 years in Guangzhou, China. Dietary intake was assessed using a FFQ. HPLC was used to assay the serum concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein+zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene. The IMT at the common carotid artery (CCA) and bifurcation of the carotid artery was measured by B-mode ultrasound. A total of 3707 and 2947 participants were included in the analyses of dietary and serum carotenoids. After adjustment for demographic, socio-economic and lifestyle factors, all the serum carotenoids levels except lycopene were found to be inversely associated with the IMT at the CCA and bifurcation (Ptrend<0·001 to 0·013) in both men and women. The absolute mean differences in the IMT between the subjects in the extreme quartiles of serum carotenoid levels were 0·034 mm (α-carotene), 0·037 mm (β-carotene), 0·032 mm (lutein+zeaxanthin), 0·030 mm (β-cryptoxanthin), 0·015 mm (lycopene) and 0·035 mm (total carotenoids) at the CCA; the corresponding values were 0·025, 0·053 0·043, 0·050, 0·011 and 0·042 mm at the bifurcation. The favourable associations were also observed between dietary carotenoids (except lycopene) and the CCA IMT. In conclusion, elevated carotenoid levels in diet and serum are associated with lower carotid IMT values (particular at the CCA) in Chinese adults.
A coaxial-output rolled strip pulse-forming line (RSPFL) with a dry structure is researched for the purpose of miniaturization and all-solid state of pulse-forming lines (PFL). The coaxial-output RSPFL consists of a coaxial-output electrode (COE) and a rolled strip line (RSL). The COE is characterized by quasi-coaxial structure, making the output pulse propagate along the axial direction with a small output inductance. The RSL is rolled on the COE, whose transmission characteristics are analyzed theoretically. It shows that the RSL can be regarded as a planar strip line when the rolling radius of the strip line is larger than 60 times of the thickness of the insulation dielectric layer of RSL. CST modeling was carried out to simulate the discharging characteristic of the coaxial-output RSPFL. It shows that the coaxial-output RSPFL can deliver a discharging pulse with a rise time <6 ns when the impedance of the RSL matches that of the COE, which confirms the theoretical analysis. A prototype of the coaxial-output RSPFL was developed. A 49-kV discharging pulse on a matched load was achieved when it was charged to 100 kV. The discharging waveform has a pulse width of 32 ns, with a rise time of 6 ns, which is consistent with the simulation waveform. An energy-storage density of 1.9 J/L was realized in the coaxial-output RSPFL. By the method of multi-stage connection in series, a much higher output voltage is convenient to be obtained.
Previous studies have demonstrated adverse mental health effects of Pb exposure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between consumption of preserved egg (PE), a high-Pb-containing food and depressive symptoms among adults in China. A sample of 25 213 adults (mean age 41·4 (sd 11·8) years; males, 53·9 %) in Tianjin, China, was studied in a cross-sectional analysis. Dietary intake including PE was assessed using a valid self-administered FFQ. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). The association was estimated by OR using logistic regression models adjusted for multiple confounders. The prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms was 6·6 % (SDS≥50). Compared with the least frequent PE consumption (<once/week), multivariable adjusted OR for elevated depressive symptoms were 1·52 (95 % CI 1·28, 1·81), 2·24 (95 % CI 1·76, 2·81) and 3·31 (95 % CI 2·52, 4·30) for consumption of once, 2–3 times and ≥4 times/week, respectively (Pfor trend<0·0001), indicating a clear dose–response relationship. The results suggested that higher consumption of PE was strongly associated with depressive symptoms among adults in China. These findings underscore the need to consider dietary Pb exposure as a risk factor for psychological distress.
This paper presents a systematic study of the cross-flow-induced vibration on a spring-supported circular cylinder of diameter
placed in the wake of a fixed cylinder of smaller diameter
. The ratios
are varied from 0.2 to 1.0 and from 1.0 to 5.5, respectively, where
is the distance between the centre of the upstream cylinder to the forward stagnation point of the downstream cylinder. Extensive measurements are conducted to capture the cylinder vibration and frequency responses, surface pressure, shedding frequencies and flow fields using laser vibrometer, hot-wire, pressure scanner and particle image velocimetry techniques. Six distinct flow regimes are identified. It has been found that a violent vibration may erupt for the spring-supported cylinder, and its dependence on
is documented. A careful examination and analysis of the flow structure, along with the simultaneously captured pressure distribution around and vibration of the downstream cylinder, cast light upon the mechanisms behind this vibration and its sustainability. The roles of added mass, flow-induced damping and physical aspects in the process of initiating the vibration are discussed in detail.