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Calorie restriction (CR) has been shown to be one of the most effective methods in alleviating the effects of ageing and age-related diseases. Although the protective effects of CR have been reported, the exact molecular mechanism still needs to be clarified. This study aims to determine differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs and altered gene pathways due to long-term chronic (CCR) and intermittent (ICR) CR in the brain of mice to understand the preventive roles of miRNAs resulting from long-term CR. Ten weeks old mice were enrolled into three different dietary groups; ad libitum, CCR or ICR, and fed until 82 weeks of age. miRNAs were analysed using GeneChip 4.1 microarray and the target of DE miRNAs was determined using miRNA target databases. Out of a total 3,163 analysed miRNAs, 55 of them were differentially expressed either by different CR protocols or by ageing. Brain samples from the CCR group had increased expression levels of mmu-miR-713 while decreasing expression levels of mmu-miR-184-3p and mmu-miR-351-5p compared to the other dietary groups. Also, current results indicated that CCR showed better preventive effects than that of ICR. Thus, CCR may perform its protective effects by modulating these specific miRNAs since they are shown to play roles in neurogenesis, chromatin and histone regulation. In conclusion, these three miRNAs could be potential targets for neurodegenerative and ageing-related diseases and may play important roles in the protective effects of CR in the brain.
Enabled by advances in high throughput genomic sequencing and an unprecedented level of global data sharing, molecular genetic research is beginning to unlock the biological basis of eating disorders. This invited review provides an overview of genetic discoveries in eating disorders in the genome-wide era. To date, five genome-wide association studies on eating disorders have been conducted – all on anorexia nervosa (AN). For AN, several risk loci have been detected, and ~11–17% of the heritability has been accounted for by common genetic variants. There is extensive genetic overlap between AN and psychological traits, especially obsessive-compulsive disorder, and intriguingly, with metabolic phenotypes even after adjusting for body mass index (BMI) risk variants. Furthermore, genetic risk variants predisposing to lower BMI may be causal risk factors for AN. Causal genes and biological pathways of eating disorders have yet to be elucidated and will require greater sample sizes and statistical power, and functional follow-up studies. Several studies are underway to recruit individuals with bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder to enable further genome-wide studies. Data collections and research labs focused on the genetics of eating disorders have joined together in a global effort with the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Molecular genetics research in the genome-wide era is improving knowledge about the biology behind the established heritability of eating disorders. This has the potential to offer new hope for understanding eating disorder etiology and for overcoming the therapeutic challenges that confront the eating disorder field.
In this study, it was aimed to evaluation of alexithymia in male patients before open-heart surgery. The correlation between alexithymia and psychopathology was also investigated.
Thirty-two male patients who had cardiovascular disease were enrolled before open-heart surgery. Socio-demographic characteristics and clinical features of the patients were determined. Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were applied.
The mean age of the patients was 55.20± 11.72 years. The mean scores were 51.71±9.90 for alexithymia, 6.44±3.86 for anxiety, 5.06±3.61 for depression, 38.91±10.21 for state anxiety and 41.22±7.46 for trait anxiety. The positive correlations between Toronto Alexithymia Score and Depression, Interpersonal sensitivity, Hostility, Paranoid Ideation, Psychoticism and Global Severity Index subscales of SCL-90-R were statistically significant. There were no statistically significant correlations between TAS and HADS, and STAI scores.
The most interesting finding was that there is a correlation between alexithymia and paranoid ideation, and psychoticism in these patients. Contrary to expectations, this study did not find a significant correlation between alexithymia and anxiety and depression. Further research should be done to investigate the comparative studies in patients with different diseases at pre-and post-operative period.
Most previous studies investigating the relationship between visual perception and anxiety have found that anxiety-provoking stimuli are perceived as relatively larger in size. Thus, the present study used neutral stimuli to investigate the relationships among anxiety, anxiety sensitivity (AS), and visual perception in a group of male and female university students.
The Visual Size Perception Assessment Test (V-SPAT), which requires subjects to define a neutral figure in a dichotomous manner (i.e., tall/short, large/small, wide/narrow, crowded/deserted) was administered to all participants (n = 76). Additionally, the anxiety level and AS of each participant was determined using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3), respectively.
The BAI and ASI-3 total and cognitive scores of female participants were correlated with perceptions of 'deserted”, whereas their ASI-3 social scores were correlated with perceptions of 'short”. The ASI-3 cognitive scores of male participants were correlated with perceptions of 'crowded”, and their ASI-3 physical scores were correlated with perceptions of 'tall”.
The present findings indicate that the visual perception of neutral objects is correlated with anxiety and AS. Furthermore, these data revealed sex differences in the relationship between AS and visual perception in that males perceived the objects as larger and females perceived them as smaller.
It was suggested that impulsivity is a temperamental risk factor for alcohol use and may be a fundamental mechanism in both the onset of excessive alcohol use and the relapse to alcohol use. Aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in impulsivity scores among alcohol dependents 12 month after inpatient treatment.
Among 78 consecutively admitted male alcohol dependents, 58 were examined by face to face interview 12 months after discharge from hospital. Patients were investigated with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, version 11 (BIS-11) (10) both at the baseline and at the end of 12 months.
Among 58 alcohol dependent inpatients 61.8% (n=32) were considered as relapsed to heroin use during 12 month follow-up. Sociodemographic variables did not differ between the groups. Mean impulsivity scores did not differ between remission and relapsed groups at baseline, whereas only non-planning impulsivity was higher in relapsed group at follow-up. Impulsivity score decreased during 12 month follow-up in remission group, whereas increased in relapsed group. Among dimensions of impulsivity non-planning impulsivity decreased in remission group, whereas attentional impulsivity increased.
Results of the present study may suggest that while attentional impulsiveness may be the cause of alcohol use, non-planning impulsiveness may also be a vulnerability factor for alcohol dependency and relapse.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in impulsivity scores among those who are still using buprenorphine as maintenance substitution treatment and those relapsed to heroin use in heroin dependent inpatients at the end of 12 month follow-up. We also controlled depression and trait state anxieties on the relationship between impulsivity and relapse.
Among 78 consecutively admitted male heroin dependents, 52 (66.7%) were examined by face to face interview 12 months after discharge from hospital. Patients were investigated with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, version 11 (BIS-11), Beck Depression Inventory and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory at the end of 12 months.
Among 52 heroin dependent patients that were avalible to examine by face to face interview 23 (44.2%) were considered as relapsed to heroin use during the last year, whereas 29 (55.8%) were still in the maintenance treatment. Relapsed group has less attended to polyclinic control, outpatient treatment, they did not change their social environment, continue to see their dependent friends and used other drugs during 12 monts. Mean impulsivity, depression and anxiety scores were higher in the relapsed group. State anxiety and impulsivity, particularly motor impulsivity determined the relapse in regression analyses.
Together with state anxiety, which may be mediated by craving, motor impulsivity predicted relapse. In response to stress or environmental cues, an individual with substance abuse could use the substance in a rapid unplanned action without regard to the consequences.
The role of adiponectin and leptin signalling pathways has been suggested to play important roles in the protective effects of energy restriction (ER) on mammary tumour (MT) development. To study the effects of ER on the methylation levels in adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and leptin receptor overlapping transcript (Leprot) genes using the pyrosequencing method in mammary fat pad tissue, mouse mammary tumour virus-transforming growth factor-α (MMTV-TGF-α) female mice were randomly assigned to ad libitum (AL), chronic ER (CER, 15 % ER) or intermittent ER (3 weeks AL and 1 week 60 % ER in cyclic periods) groups at 10 weeks of age until 82 weeks of age. The methylation levels of AdipoR1 in the CER group were higher than those in the AL group at week 49/50 (P < 0·05), while the levels of methylation for AdipoR1 and Leprot genes were similar among the other groups. Also, the methylation levels at CpG2 and CpG3 regions of the promoter region of the AdipoR1 gene in the CER group were three times higher (P < 0·05), while CpG1 island of Leprot methylation was significantly lower compared with the other groups (P < 0·05). Adiponectin and leptin gene expression levels were consistent with the methylation levels. We also observed a change with ageing in methylation levels of these genes. These results indicate that different types of ER modify methylation levels of AdipoR1 and Leprot in different ways and CER had a more significant effect on methylation levels of both genes. Epigenetic regulation of these genes may play important roles in the preventive effects of ER against MT development and ageing processes.
This prospective study aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum ischaemia-modified albumin levels and Bell's palsy severity.
The study included 30 patients diagnosed with Bell's palsy and 30 healthy individuals. The patients were separated into three disease severity groups (grades 2, 3 and 4) according to House–Brackmann classification. Blood samples were collected from all participants and the results compared between groups.
Significant differences in serum ischaemia-modified albumin were found between the study and control groups (p < 0.001); values were significantly higher in the study group than in the control group.
The significantly higher levels of serum ischaemia-modified albumin in the study group suggest that Bell's palsy pathogenesis is associated with oxidative stress.
To evaluate the effects of CyberKnife stereotactic radiotherapy for the treatment of vestibular schwannoma on hearing, as evaluated by audiological tests.
Patients with vestibular schwannoma were evaluated before and after CyberKnife radiosurgery. Evaluation included pure tone thresholds, speech discrimination scores, auditory brainstem responses and radiological signs.
The study comprised 26 patients diagnosed with vestibular schwannoma and subsequently treated with CyberKnife radiosurgery. The mean follow-up time was 16.4 months. The mean post-treatment hearing preservation rate was 69.23 per cent. There was no significant relationship between hearing loss after treatment and patient age, radiation dosage during treatment, or size of tumour. With regard to auditory brainstem responses, patients with hearing loss following treatment had a significantly higher inter-peak latency between waves I–III than patients with preserved hearing.
Stereotactic CyberKnife radiosurgery is an excellent alternative treatment modality for patients with vestibular schwannoma, and results in acceptable preservation of hearing. Residual hearing following CyberKnife therapy is not significantly affected by factors such as age, size of tumour or dosage of treatment.
To compare functional and oncological treatment outcomes among patients with supraglottic laryngeal cancers who underwent transoral robotic supraglottic laryngectomy and open supraglottic laryngectomy.
A retrospective chart review was conducted of 17 patients treated by transoral robotic supraglottic laryngectomy and 20 patients treated by open supraglottic laryngectomy.
No tracheostomy or prolonged intubation was needed in the transoral robotic surgery group. Furthermore, that group had a shorter oral feeding time, hospitalisation and recovery period. There was no difference between groups in terms of complications. There were no differences in overall survival time and disease-specific survival time between groups.
Transoral robotic supraglottic laryngectomy for supraglottic laryngeal cancer is an oncologically safe and functional procedure with better results when compared to conventional open surgery.
Premature ventricular contractions are accepted as benign in structurally normal hearts. However, reversible cardiomyopathy can sometimes develop. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have anti-arrhythmic properties in animals and humans.
We evaluated left ventricular function in children with premature ventricular contractions with normal cardiac anatomy and assessed the impact of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on left ventricular function in a prospective trial.
A total of 25 patients with premature ventricular contraction, with more than 2% premature ventricular contractions on 24-hour Holter electrocardiography, and 30 healthy patients were included into study. All patients underwent electrocardiography, left ventricular M-mode echocardiography, and myocardial performance index testing. Patients with premature ventricular contraction were given omega-3 fatty acids at a dose of 1 g/day for 3 months, and control echocardiography and 24-hour Holter electrocardiography were performed. Neither placebo nor omega-3 fatty acids were given to the control group.
Compared with the values of the control group, the patients with premature ventricular contraction had significantly lower fractional shortening. The myocardial performance index decreased markedly in the patient groups. The mean heart rate and mean premature ventricular contraction percentage of Group 2 significantly decreased in comparison with their baseline values after the omega-3 supplementation.
In conclusion, premature ventricular contractions can lead to systolic cardiac dysfunction in children. Omega-3 supplementation may improve cardiac function in children with premature ventricular contractions. This is the first study conducted in children to investigate the possible role of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on treatment of premature ventricular contractions.
We aim to discover the accuracy of photometric mass ratios (qph) determined for eclipsing binary stars, in the case of the system having at least one ‘flat bottom’ as a minimum profile, as well as the accuracy of data used in that sense. Within this context, we present the results of two-dimensional grid search (q – i) for some W UMa-type eclipsing binaries showing total eclipses, based on the high precision photometric data provided by the KEPLER Mission. The radial velocity data obtained for KIC10618253 in this study, enables us to compare both qph and the corresponding spectroscopic mass ratio (qsp) values. The results indicate that the high precision photometric data for overcontact eclipsing binaries showing total eclipses allow us to obtain the photometric mass ratios as accurate as the spectroscopic values.
This study evaluated type D personality, anxiety, depression and personality traits in patients with isolated itching of the external auditory canal.
A hundred consecutive out-patients with isolated itching of the external auditory canal and 100 controls were enrolled in the study. The Type D Scale, the abbreviated form of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used for data collection. Patients were also evaluated using the Modified Itch Severity Scale.
In all, 43 per cent of patients and 15 per cent of controls met the criteria for a type D personality. Patients with a type D personality had higher anxiety and itching severity but lower extraversion compared with those without a type D personality. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that extraversion and type D personality were independently associated with itch severity.
These data suggest that clinicians should consider psychological and personality features when evaluating and treating patients with isolated itching of the external auditory canal.
Azelastine nasal spray is a topical antihistaminic drug for the symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinitis. This study aimed to investigate the effects of azelastine on nasal and nasopharyngeal microflora.
Swab samples from 25 patients prescribed azelastine nasal spray monotherapy were collected just before treatment and after 1 month of treatment. After incubation of inoculates, the number of bacteria present in cultures was measured (in colony-forming units per millilitre).
Evaluation of the number of microflora revealed increased bacterial reproduction after treatment, but this difference was not statistically significant. The use of azelastine nasal spray decreased the reproduction of three potentially pathogenic bacteria; however, it did not affect the reproduction of other potentially pathogenic bacteria.
The use of azelastine nasal spray for one month did not have a statistically significant effect on the numbers of nasal and nasopharyngeal microflora; it is therefore safe from a microbiological viewpoint.
We investigated a gastroenteritis outbreak in Erzurum city, Turkey in December 2012 to identify its cause and mode of transmission. We defined a probable case as onset of diarrhoea (⩾3 episodes/day) or vomiting, plus fever or nausea or abdominal pain during 19–27 December, 2012 in an Erzurum city resident. In a case-control study we compared exposures of 95 randomly selected probable cases and 95 neighbourhood-matched controls. We conducted bacterial culture and real-time multiplex PCR for identification of pathogens. During the week before illness onset, 72% of cases and 15% of controls only drank water from antique neighbourhood fountains; conversely, 16% of cases and 65% of controls only drank bottled or tap water (adjusted odds ratio 20, 95% confidence interval 4·6–84, after controlling for age and sex using conditional logistic regression). Of eight stool specimens collected, two were positive for Shigella sonnei, one for astrovirus, one for astrovirus and norovirus, and one for astrovirus and rotavirus. Water samples from the fountains had elevated total coliform (38–300/100 ml) and Escherichia coli (22–198/100 ml) counts. In conclusion, drinking contaminated fountain water caused this multi-pathogen outbreak. Residents should stop drinking water from these fountains, and clean water from the water treatment plant should be connected to the fountains.
We aimed to identify the role of major respiratory viruses in the aetiology of human nasal polyps using polymerase chain reaction technique.
Thirty patients with nasal polyps and a group of 20 healthy patients (control group) were included in this study. Mucosa was obtained from the polyps of patients with nasal polyposis and from the middle turbinate of the control group patients by means of biopsy. The samples were stored at −80 °C until molecular analysis by polymerase chain reaction was carried out.
In the control group, the human coronavirus and human rhinovirus were diagnosed in one of the patients and the human respiratory syncytial virus in another. In the group with nasal polyposis, the influenza B virus was identified in one of the patients and the human coronavirus in another.
The results did not demonstrate a statistically significant relationship between nasal polyposis and respiratory viruses.
Mutations in the genes for connexin 26 (GJB2) and connexin 30 (GJB6) play an important role in autosomal recessive, non-syndromic hearing loss. This study aimed to detect the 35delG and 167delT mutations of the GJB2 gene and the del(GJB6-D13S1830) mutation of the GJB6 gene in paediatric patients diagnosed with congenital, non-syndromic hearing loss and treated with cochlear implantation in Mediterranean Turkey.
Materials and method:
We included 94 children diagnosed with congenital, non-syndromic hearing loss and treated with cochlear implantation. Blood samples were collected, DNA extracted and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay performed to enable molecular diagnosis of mutations.
Of the 94 children analysed, the 35delG mutation was detected in 12 (12.7 per cent): 10 (83.3 per cent) were homozygous and 2 (16.7 per cent) heterozygous mutant. The 167delT and del(GJB6-D13S1830) mutations were not detected.
The GJB2-35delG mutation is a major cause of congenital, non-syndromic hearing loss in this study population.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious psychiatric illness associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There is little empirical support for specific treatments and new approaches are sorely needed. This two-site study aimed to determine whether olanzapine is superior to placebo in increasing body mass index (BMI) and improving psychological symptoms in out-patients with AN.
A total of 23 individuals with AN were randomly assigned in double-blind fashion to receive olanzapine or placebo for 8 weeks together with medication management sessions that emphasized compliance. Weight, other physical assessments and measures of psychopathology were collected.
End-of-treatment BMI, with initial BMI as a covariate, was significantly greater in the group receiving olanzapine [F(1, 20)=6.64, p=0.018]. Psychological symptoms improved in both groups, but there were no statistically significant group differences. Of the 23 participants, 17 (74%) completed the 8-week trial. Participants tolerated the medication well with sedation being the only frequent side effect and no adverse metabolic effects were noted.
This small study suggests that olanzapine is generally well tolerated by, and may provide more benefit than placebo for out-patients with AN. Further study is indicated to determine whether olanzapine may affect psychological symptoms in addition to BMI.
The purpose of this paper is to study finiteness conditions on injective hulls of simple modules over Noetherian down-up algebras. We will show that the Noetherian down-up algebras A(α, β, γ) which are fully bounded are precisely those which are module-finite over a central subalgebra. We show that injective hulls of simple A(α, β, γ)-modules are locally Artinian provided the roots of X2 − αX − β are distinct roots of unity or both equal to 1.