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The anti-Aristotelian movement which grew from the humanist critique of the late fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and culminated in the new philosophical and scientific outlook of the seventeenth century based many of its objections to the Stagirite on sound philosophical and scientific principles. It brought with it, however, also much rhetorical bombast which was meant to cast aspersions on Aristotle's doctrine. We read time and again, in the writings of Valla, Agricola, or Ramus on logic or of Bruno, Patrizi, or Bacon on natural philosophy, critical judgments of Aristotle and of the Aristotelians which are not so much soundphilosophy and science as clever oratory. To attempt to separate the two strands of the critique would be by no means an easy task, though it may well be worth while and interesting. Let me hasten to add that I do not intend to do so here.
‘Quoad congeriem vero, conficimus historiam non solum naturae liberae ac solutae
(cum scilicet ilia sponte fluit et opus suum peragit), qualis est historia coelestium, meteororum,
terrae et maris, mineralium, plantarum, animalium; sed multo magis naturae
constrictae et vexatae; nempe, cum per artem et ministeriurn humanum de statu suo
detruditur, atque premitur et fingitur.’
—Francis Bacon, Novum Organum (1620), ‘Distributio operis, pars tertia’
‘Experimentum est experientia, quae versatur circa facta naturae, quae nonnisi interveniente
opera nostra contingunt.’
—Christian Wolff, Psychologia empirica (1732)
One of the tendencies which clearly marked the intellectual development of the seventeenth century was an increasing emphasis on experience. In philosophy this took the form of an empiricism which developed progressively from Gassendi to Locke; in science there emerged ever more clearly a definable ‘experimental method’, which was progressively refined from Francis Bacon to Newton. By the end of the seventeenth century the classic works illustrating these tendencies had appeared and set the trend for much of eighteenth-century intellectual activity.
Among the philosophers of the sixteenth century who deserve wider attention than they have hitherto received is Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola (1469- 1533).x As nephew and near contemporary of the more famous member of the Pico family, Giovanni (1463-1494), he has often been obscured by his uncle's brilliance and originality in the eyes of later scholars. His own work as a philosopher, however, is not without interest, both for its content and for its historical importance.
Gianfrancesco Pico was a man of many interests and his personal life was filled with enough exciting episodes to make it sometimes seem more like fiction than fact. Widely praised by his contemporaries as a poet, humanist, and scholar, he was friend and correspondent to some of the foremost figures of his time.2 It will be my purpose here to determine what, if any, philosophical influence his works had on thinkers of the sixteenth and early seventeenth century.
Background: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) accounts for approximately 20% of pediatric epilepsy cases. Of those, many are considered medically intractable and require surgical interventions. In this study, we hypothesized that mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) was less common in patients who had undergone surgery for intractable pediatric TLE than in adult series. We further hypothesized that there was a radiological and pathological discordance in identifying the cause of pediatric TLE. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of pediatric patients with TLE who had undergone surgical treatments as part of the University of Alberta’s Comprehensive Epilepsy Program between 1988 and 2018. Along with preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reports, post-surgical pathology results and seizure outcomes were studied Results: Of the 83 pediatric patients who had undergone temporal lobe epilepsy surgery, 28% had tumors, 22% had dual pathologies, 18% had MTS, 11% had focal cortical dysplasia, and 22% had other pathologies. In addition, for 36% of these patients, discordance between their pre-surgical MRI reports and post-surgical pathology reports were found. Conclusions: This was one of the largest retrospective cohort studies of pediatric patients who had undergone surgery for intractable TLE. This study showed that tumors, and not MTS, were the most common pathology in surgical pediatric TLE.
We investigated the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) carriage in slaughterhouse workers and the association with occupational exposure to slaughter animals and products. Stool samples from 334 employees in a Dutch pig slaughterhouse were obtained. Presence of ESBL was determined by selective plating, microarray analysis, and gene sequencing. Questionnaires were used to collect personal and occupational information. The overall prevalence of ESBL carriage was 4·8% (16/334). All ESBL-producing isolates were Escherichia coli. The ESBL genes detected were blaCTX-M-1 (n = 8), blaCTX-M-15 (n = 3), blaCTX-M-27 (n = 2), blaCTX-M-24 (n = 1), blaCTX-M-55 (n = 1), and blaSHV-12 (n = 1). A higher prevalence of ESBL was seen in workers in jobs with as tasks ‘removal of lungs, heart, liver, tongue’ (33%), and ‘removal of head and spinal cord’ (25%). For further analysis, participants were divided in two groups based on potential exposure to ESBL as related to their job title. One group with an assumed higher exposure to ESBL (e.g. stable work, stabbing, dehairing, removal of organs) and another group with an assumed lower exposure to ESBL (e.g. refrigeration, packaging and expedition). In the ‘higher exposure’ group, ten out of 95 (10·5%) were carrying ESBL vs. six out of 233 (2·6%) in the ‘lower exposure’ group. Human ESBL carriage was significantly associated with job exposure in the slaughterhouse (OR 4·5, CI 1·6–12·6). Results suggest that ESBL carriage in slaughterhouse workers overall is comparable with the Dutch population. Within the slaughterhouse population a difference in carriage exists depending on their position along the slaughter line and tasks involved.
Combined ISO SWS and LWS spectroscopy is presented of the late WC-type planetary nebula nucleus CPD-56†8032 and its carbon-rich nebula. The extremely broad coverage (2.4–197 μm) enables us to recognize the clear and simultaneous presence of emission features from both oxygen- and carbon-rich circumstellar materials. Removing a smooth continuum highlights bright emission bands characteristic of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (hereafter PAHs) in the 3–15 μm region, bands from crystalline silicates longwards of 18 μm, and the 43- and 62-μm bands of crystalline water ice. We discuss the probable evolutionary state and history of this unusual object in terms of (a) a recent transition from an O-rich to a C-rich outflow following a helium shell flash; or (b) a carbon-rich nebular outflow encountering an O-rich comet cloud orbiting in a Kuiper-belt-like distribution.
In order to ensure the quality of the source catalogue derived from the SASS processing an automatic as well as a visual screening procedure was applied to 1378 survey fields. Most (94%) of the 18,811 sources were confirmed by this screening process. The rest is flagged for various reasons. Broad band images are available for a subset of the flagged sources. Details of the screening process can be found at www.rosat.mpe-garching.mpg.de/survey/rass-bsc/doc.html.
On 1980 February 20 we conducted an 8-station intercontental VLBI experiment in order to study the nucleus and jet of M87 at 1666.6 MHz in right circular polarization. Our array was sensitive to structures from 0.001 to 0.1 arcsec. We made a hybrid map of the nucleus of M87, and also searched for compact structures within the knots of the jet. The map (Figure 1) shows that the nucleus of M87 contains a one-sided jet. This morphology is similar to that observed in many compact extragalactic sources. The position angle of the nuclear jet is 290.5 (±1) degrees, which precisely matches that of the 20 arcsec jet. No bending of the jet through an angle greater than about 2 degrees is observed. The nucleus also contains a large component (>0.1 arcsec) which is elongated along the same position angle as the jet and has a flux density of roughly 1 Jy. This component is fully resolved by the vast majority of our (u, v) points, and we could not map it with standard techniques.
Inclusion compounds made of a water ice network, clathrate hydrates, are investigated by
infrared spectroscopy. Because they can trap important “guest” volatiles species, they may
influence the equilibrium, exchange and flux of volatiles in many bodies of the solar
system. Their spectroscopic behaviour at low temperature (10–200 K) are shown and the
search for their signatures by comparison to solar system objects remote spectra are