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In 2015, excavations at Stainton Quarry, Furness, Cumbria, recovered remains that provide a unique insight into Early Neolithic farming in the vicinity. Five pits, a post-hole, and deposits within a tree-throw and three crevices in a limestone outcrop were investigated. The latter deposits yielded potentially the largest assemblage of Carinated Bowl fragments yet recovered in Cumbria. Lipid analysis identified dairy fats within nine of these sherds. This was consistent with previous larger studies but represents the first evidence that dairying was an important component of Early Neolithic subsistence strategies in Cumbria. In addition, two deliberately broken polished stone axes, an Arran pitchstone core, a small number of flint tools and debitage, and a tuff flake were retrieved. The site also produced moderate amounts of charred grain, hazelnut shell, charcoal, and burnt bone. Most of the charred grain came from an Early Neolithic pit and potentially comprises the largest assemblage of such material recovered from Cumbria to date. Radiocarbon dating indicated activity sometime during the 40th–35th centuries cal bc as well as an earlier presence during the 46th–45th centuries. Later activity during the Chalcolithic and the Early Bronze Age was also demonstrated. The dense concentration of material and the fragmentary and abraded nature of the pottery suggested redeposition from an above-ground midden. Furthermore, the data recovered during the investigation has wider implications regarding the nature and use of the surrounding landscape during the Early Neolithic and suggests higher levels of settlement permanence, greater reliance on domesticated resources, and a possible different topographical focus for settlement than currently proposed.
Re-establishing trust presents a complex challenge for a firm after it commits corporate misconduct. We introduce a new construct, moral salience, which we define as the extent to which the firm’s behavior is morally noticeable to the stakeholder. Moral salience is a function of both the moral intensity of the firm’s behavior and the relational intensity of the firm-stakeholder psychological contract. We apply this moral salience construct to firm misconduct to develop a model of trust repair that is based on goodwill, and moderated by the firm’s stakeholder culture.
Background: Substantial epidemiological research has shown that psychotic experiences are more common in densely populated areas. Many patients with persecutory delusions find it difficult to enter busy social urban settings. The stress and anxiety caused by being outside lead many patients to remain in-doors. We therefore developed a brief CBT intervention, based upon a formulation of the way urban environments cause stress and anxiety, to help patients with paranoid thoughts to feel less distressed when outside in busy streets. Aims: The aim was to pilot the new intervention for feasibility and acceptability and gather preliminary outcome data. Method: Fifteen patients with persecutory delusions in the context of a schizophrenia diagnosis took part. All patients first went outside to test their reactions, received the intervention, and then went outside again. Results: The intervention was considered useful by the patients. There was evidence that going outside after the intervention led to less paranoid responses than the initial exposure, but this was only statistically significant for levels of distress. Conclusions: Initial evidence was obtained that a brief CBT module specifically focused on helping patients with paranoia go outside is feasible, acceptable, and may have clinical benefits. However, it could not be determined from this small feasibility study that any observed improvements were due to the CBT intervention. Challenges in this area and future work required are outlined.
This article describes a 12-week intervention targeting positivity towards asylum seekers, Indigenous Australians and Muslim Australians. The study also assessed change in the intention to engage in bystander activism in four different scenarios: two Indigenous (old-fashioned and modern prejudice), one Muslim and one asylum seeker. There was a significant increase in positivity towards asylum seekers, Indigenous Australians and Muslim Australians. There was also a significant increase in ‘speaking out intention’, a form of bystander anti-prejudice, in three of the scenarios, but not in response to the Indigenous old-fashioned prejudice scenario. The study indicates that structured education on cross-cultural issues can improve attitudes to perceived ‘outgroups’ and, for the most part, increase participants' intention to speak out against prejudice.
The effect of soil properties and weather on herbicide persistence and injury to following crops were studied at a site near Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, with undulating topography that included no-tillage and conventional tillage systems on adjacent fields. Soil pH ranged from 5.2 (lower slope no-tillage) to 7.8 (upper slope conventional tillage) and soil organic matter content ranged from 2.3% (upper slope conventional tillage) to 4.4% (lower slope no-tillage). During the years when the experiments were conducted rainfall ranged from < 50% of normal to > 150% of normal. During dry years atrazine and metsulfuron severely injured wheat and lentil crops, seeded 1 yr after herbicide application, on upper slope locations. The most severe injury occurred on the upper slope conventional tillage location. In years with high rainfall, no crop injury occurred 1 yr after atrazine and metsulfuron application on either upper or lower slope locations in both tillage systems. Imazamox plus imazethapyr caused almost 100% injury in the lower slope position in the no-tillage system (pH 5.2) in the driest year. Following-crop injury due to the imidazolinone herbicides decreased with increasing rainfall and increasing soil pH. The most severe injury to following crops seemed to occur when herbicide dissipation was dependent on microbial activity and rainfall was below normal.
To determine the anatomic sites and natural history of colonization with gram-negative multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs).
Prospective, longitudinal cohort study.
Walter Reed Army Medical Center, a 236-bed tertiary care center in Washington, DC.
Deployed subjects (ie, inpatients medically evacuated from Iraq or Afghanistan) or nondeployed subjects admitted to the same hospital.
Consenting patients had 6 anatomic sites cultured every 3 days for 2 weeks and then weekly. Gram-negative organisms resistant to 3 or more classes of antibiotics were considered MDROs. Isolates were genotyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Clinical data, data on antibiotic use, and clinical culture results were collected.
Of 60 deployed subjects, 14 (23%) were colonized with an MDRO at admission, and 13 (22%) had incident colonization during hospitalization. The groin was the most sensitive anatomic site for detecting MDRO colonization, and all but one subject remained colonized for the duration of their hospitalization. Sixty percent of subjects with incident Acinetobacter colonization and 25% of subjects with incident Klebsiella colonization had strains that were related to those isolated from other subjects. Of 60 nondeployed subjects, 5 (8%) were colonized with an MDRO at admission; all had recent healthcare contact, and 1 nondeployed subject had an isolate related to a strain recovered from a deployed subject.
Colonization with gram-negative MDROs is common among patients with war-related trauma admitted to a military hospital and also occurs among nondeployed patients with recent healthcare contact. The groin is the most sensitive anatomic site for active surveillance, and spontaneous decolonization is rare.
The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with increased incidence of overweight and obesity, and a factor underlying this putative link could be the relatively low levels of satiety that may be induced by these beverages. Although many sugar-sweetened beverages are carbonated, little attention has been given to the potential effects of level of carbonation on satiety and subsequent intakes. We hypothesized that increasing the level of carbonation in a sugar-sweetened beverage would increase satiety and decrease intakes in the short term. Using a randomized, within-subject cross-over design, thirty non-obese subjects (fifteen women, fifteen men) participated on three occasions, 1 week apart. Following a standard breakfast, subjects consumed a beverage preload 10 min before consuming a lunch ad libitum. Preloads were the same sugar-sweetened beverage (400 ml, 639 kJ) with three levels of carbonation, which were low (1·7 volumes), medium (2·5 volumes) and high (3·7 volumes). Satiety was assessed using visual analogue scales and intakes were measured at the lunch and for the rest of the day. Compared with the beverage with low carbonation, consumption of the beverages with medium and high carbonation led to significantly (P < 0·05) higher satiety until lunch, when intakes of food and energy were significantly (P < 0·05) lower. There were no significant effects on satiety following lunch or on intakes for the rest of the day. This short-term study suggests that the level of carbonation may need to be taken into account when assessing potential effects of beverages on satiety and intake.
Reattribution is frequently taught to general practitioners (GPs) as a structured consultation that provides a psychological explanation for medically unexplained symptoms.
To determine if practice-based training of GPs in reattribution changes doctor–patient communication, thereby improving outcomes in patients with medically unexplained symptoms of 3 months' duration.
Cluster randomised controlled trial in 16 practices, 74 GPs and 141 patients with medically unexplained symptoms of 6 hours of reattribution training v. treatment as usual.
With training, the proportion of consultations mostly consistent with reattribution increased (31 v. 2%, P=0.002). Training was associated with decreased quality of life (health thermometer difference −0.9, 95% CI −1.6 to −0.1; P=0.027) with no other effects on patient outcome or health contacts.
Practice-based training in reattribution changed doctor–patient communication without improving outcome of patients with medically unexplained symptoms.
Previous research indicates that vegetables yield relatively high satiety scores, and that fibre content and structure may both contribute to these effects. This study evaluated the effects of the fibre content and physical structure (gross anatomy and cell structure) of carrots on postprandial satiety and subsequent food intakes when consumed as part of a mixed meal. Using a randomised, repeated-measures, within-subject cross-over design, young women consumed a standardised breakfast and test lunches on three occasions, 4 weeks apart. The test lunches (3329kJ) comprised boiled rice (200g) with sweet and sour sauce (200g) that included chicken (200g) and carrots (200g) in three conditions: whole carrots (fibre and structure; n 34), blended carrots (fibre but no structure; n 34) or carrot nutrients (no fibre or structure; n 32). The carrot nutrients had the same energy, major nutrients and portion weight as the other two conditions. Post-lunch satiety was assessed by visual analogue scales. Intakes were covertly weighed at a meal eaten ad libitum (3h later), and for the remainder of the day using food diaries. Compared with the meal with carrot nutrients, meals with whole carrots and blended carrots resulted in significantly (P<0·05) higher satiety. There were significant (P<0·05) differences between conditions in intakes at the meal eaten ad libitum and for the remainder of the day, and intakes consistently decreased in the order: carrot nutrients, blended carrots, whole carrots, indicating that both fibre content and structure played a role in these effects.
Each medium develops its own ways of telling stories. These different ways of telling stories encompass the devices of the plot, the technical aspects of the medium, and the codes and conventions of types of stories. Another way of putting this, which employs terms you will have encountered in earlier chapters, is that different media allow different possibilities of diegesis (telling the story) and mimesis (performance) and the relation between the two. Whether as readers (audiences) of texts or as producers of them, we recognise these combinations and categorise them, in order to advise or predict what kind of story this is going to be.
These categories of story may be identified as genres (the French word for types or kinds). On the one hand, genres can be seen as offering an important way of framing texts that assists comprehension. Genre knowledge orientates competent readers towards appropriate attitudes, assumptions and expectations about a text, which are useful in making sense of it. On the other hand, genres may be seen ideologically, as constraining interpretation, as limiting the available meanings of the text. What is a genre? Texts concerned with the study of television, such as Williams (1990), Tulloch (2000) or Creeber (2001), offer genres (or forms, as Williams calls them) of television program, such as news, drama, ‘variety’, sport, advertising, ‘cop series’, soap opera, documentary, cartoons, situation comedy, children's television and ‘popular entertainment’. Some of these are broken down still further by Creeber (2001).
There are many ways to think about film as a medium; its narrative properties represent only one component of a very complex whole. For example, it would be perfectly legitimate to approach film from its technological aspect, or to consider its function in sustaining a certain political culture, or to concentrate on its pictorial aesthetic qualities, or on its musical, rhythmic or chromatic properties. Nevertheless, both within the purview of this book, and more generally in the way we tend to think about and discuss the medium, films are predominantly considered as narrative forms. Indeed, it would be possible to contend that film was the dominant narrative medium of the twentieth century; a fact not without its own interesting history, some of which we will glance at below.
As a narrative medium, film – like other narrative media: epics, novels, dramas, operas and the various media considered in this book – has established many interlocking conventions to make its storytelling comprehensible. Many of these conventions concern the unique art of editing: the splicing together of different shots to make one coherent narrative whole. But other conventions have to do with how the image is composed ‘within the frame’ of any given shot. Traditionally, these two distinct areas in film aesthetics are known as, respectively, montage and mise en scène.
In his book on American television culture, Amusing Ourselves to Death (1985), Neil Postman argued that ‘television speaks in only one persistent voice – the voice of entertainment’ (Postman 1985, chap. 5). In its lack of contextualisation, analysis and seriousness, he says, television news has become pure entertainment. This kind of ‘tabloid television’, deplored by many commentators (Smith 1992; Langer 1998), is the visual reflex of a type of narrative news first popularised in tabloid newspapers and now a staple item of most mainstream newspapers. The increasing narrativisation of news, both in print and on television and radio, is seen as an inevitable result of market forces exerting pressure on news outlets to become substantially more focused on profits and audience size.
This chapter begins by accounting for some of the ways in which news is structured and circulated as ‘stories’ at an institutional level. It will then examine and critique a conventional division between ‘information’ and ‘narrative’ models of print news, suggesting that this division needs to be collapsed and restated as a generic distinction between (non-narrative) ‘information’ and (narrative) ‘news’. In setting out the narrative strategies of news stories, I argue that these strategies undermine journalistic ideals of objectivity. Finally, I review some of the ideological consequences of constructing and reading print news as narrative.
News as construct
Although it has become a truism of media studies to assert that news is a construct, it is worth explaining this idea in terms of how ‘news’ circulates in the form of deliberately structured stories that people tell to each other.
The relations between narration proper and the points of view of the characters being narrated are every bit as complex as the relations between story time and ‘plot’ time. In any narrative form, there is a spectrum of what we can call ‘distances’ between a narrator's ‘voice’ and the mental and sensory states of his or her characters: from alpine and godlike superiority, through gradations of nearer proximity and outright identity to the point where the characters know more than the narrator. This spectrum of relations clearly hinges on a question of apparent ‘knowledge’, although we also know that, in some ultimate sense, the film ‘knows itself’ throughout; it produces various narrators to tantalise us with their different degrees of knowledge.
Consider for a moment the intricate patterns of knowing and unknowing in Brian Singer's Usual Suspects (1995). One principal narrator, ‘Verbal’ Kint, spins a dizzying yarn to one principal narratee, Dave Kujan. Internal to Kint's story, various other narrators tell their stories (Keaton, Kobayashi and so on). Meanwhile, external to it, Kujan interrupts with his own versions of some events, while a survivor of a mysterious waterfront atrocity is telling, in Turkish, the story of seeing Keyser Söze. By interlacing these distinct voices, Singer achieves a formidable density of narrative texture and moreover works towards his astonishing final revelation: that Kint is himself Keyser Söze, and that almost everything he has been telling Kujan (and us) is a welter of lies, fiction and misrepresentation.
I think that the same process is involved in the construction of any event televisually … You constantly draw on the inventory of discourses which have been established over time. I think in that sense we make an absolutely too simple and false distinction between narratives about the real and the narratives of fiction.
(Stuart Hall 1983)
Recognition of a text as belonging to a particular genre can help readers (listeners, viewers) make judgements about the ‘reality status’ of the text, most fundamentally whether it is fictional or non-fictional. News is a very recognisable non-fiction genre. That it is non-fiction does not mean it will not use narrative, however, despite the fact that we might associate narrative (storytelling) with the imagined and invented. Television news is not only a popular source of information but also it enjoys a high degree of credibility. Public opinion polls and ratings surveys have shown that since the 1990s television news has become both the primary and the most believed source of news for a majority of viewers, in countries such as the USA, the UK and Australia.
This reflects the phenomenon referred to in chapter 10, observed by Ellis (1992) and Williams (1990), that television images appear to be ‘really happening’ in the present moment. The characteristic visual and audio codes and narrative structures of television news work together to construct such news values as truth and balance, as well as to convey authority and immediacy.