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The present work achieves a mathematical, in particular syntax-independent, formulation of dynamics and intensionality of computation in terms of games and strategies. Specifically, we give game semantics of a higher-order programming language that distinguishes programmes with the same value yet different algorithms (or intensionality) and the hiding operation on strategies that precisely corresponds to the (small-step) operational semantics (or dynamics) of the language. Categorically, our games and strategies give rise to a cartesian closed bicategory, and our game semantics forms an instance of a bicategorical generalisation of the standard interpretation of functional programming languages in cartesian closed categories. This work is intended to be a step towards a mathematical foundation of intensional and dynamic aspects of logic and computation; it should be applicable to a wide range of logics and computations.
The onset of magnetic reconnection in space, astrophysical and laboratory plasmas is reviewed discussing results from theory, numerical simulations and observations. After a brief introduction on magnetic reconnection and approach to the question of onset, we first discuss recent theoretical models and numerical simulations, followed by observations of reconnection and its effects in space and astrophysical plasmas from satellites and ground-based detectors, as well as measurements of reconnection in laboratory plasma experiments. Mechanisms allowing reconnection spanning from collisional resistivity to kinetic effects as well as partial ionization are described, providing a description valid over a wide range of plasma parameters, and therefore applicable in principle to many different astrophysical and laboratory environments. Finally, we summarize the implications of reconnection onset physics for plasma dynamics throughout the Universe and illustrate how capturing the dynamics correctly is important to understanding particle acceleration. The goal of this review is to give a view on the present status of this topic and future interesting investigations, offering a unified approach.
Excessive radiation exposure has adverse effects on health. In Fukushima, psychological issues such as anxiety are still affecting people nine years after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in 2011. In light of the lessons learned from Fukushima communities, a joint Japanese and Mongolian research team introduced a community program to the Zuunbayan district in Mongolia, which is located near a uranium deposit, to promote good health by strengthening radiation emergency preparedness. The program, which commenced in 2017, aimed to increase community participation, education, information dissemination, and capacity of community preparedness. After two years a monitoring study showed that, out of 227 respondents, the proportions who thought that any level of radiation was dangerous decreased from 53.3% in 2017 to 33.9% in 2019. Moreover, half of the respondents knew that there were safe and unsafe radiation levels and that their community was safe. This global collaboration demonstrated that a lesson learned from a disaster can be applied to other countries and changed people’s recognition and behavior toward good health and disaster/emergency preparedness.
Early functional neural development is increasingly recognized as important for revealing the developmental origins of human cognitive-motor function and related disorders. Previous studies focusing on fetuses and neonates have revealed sophisticated behaviors and cognitive repertoires, indicating that fetuses begin learning through sensorimotor experience even inside the uterus. Despite accumulating evidence supporting the importance of sensorimotor experience in neural development as early as the fetal period, the developmental mechanisms by which intrauterine sensorimotor experience guides cortical learning, including factors in prenatal experience that are needed for normal development, remain unclear. However, investigating causal links between sensorimotor experience and cortical learning is particularly challenging in human fetuses owing to technical and ethical difficulties. Therefore, computational approaches based on comprehensive biological data about nervous system, body, and environment have been developed to probe mechanisms underlying early functional brain development. In this chapter, we show how an embodied approach focusing on interactions among brain, body, and environment offers opportunities to explore relations between functional neural development and sensorimotor experience.
Exercise stress echocardiography and layer-specific strains are emerging as important tools for cardiac assessment. This study was aimed to evaluate layer-specific strains and torsion parameters during exercise in order to investigate the characteristics of cardiac dysfunction in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot and to detect subclinical left ventricular dysfunction.
Materials and Methods:
Thirteen patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (median age, 17.3 [interquartile range, 14.5–22.9] years; 6 males) and 13 controls (median age, 28.5 [interquartile range, 27.6–31.6] years; 13 males) underwent echocardiography at rest and during supine exercise. Layer-specific longitudinal strain and circumferential strain of three myocardial layers (endocardium, midmyocardium, and epicardium), torsion, and untwisting rate were measured using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography.
Peak endocardial papillary circumferential strain (−21.1 ± 2.6% vs. −25.8 ± 3.8%, p = 0.007), midmyocardial apical circumferential strain (−11.1 ± 4.0% vs. −15.6 ± 3.2%, p = 0.001), epicardial apical circumferential strain (−11.1 ± 4.0% vs. −15.6 ± 3.2%, p = 0.021), and torsion (8.9 ± 6.0 vs. 14.9 ± 4.8 degree, p = 0.021) were significantly lower in the repaired tetralogy of Fallot group than in the control group during exercise, though no significant difference was found between patients and controls at rest.
Analysis of layer-specific strains and torsion parameters during exercise could detect subclinical left ventricular dysfunction in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot, which might reflect potential myocardial damage, at a stage where these parameters have normal values at rest. This finding provides new insight into the mechanisms of cardiac dysfunction in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot.
The basal ganglia represents a key component of the pathophysiological model for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This brain region is part of several neural circuits, including the orbitofronto-striatal circuit and dorsolateral prefronto-striatal circuit. There are, however, no published studies investigating those circuits at a network level in non-medicated patients with OCD. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained from 20 non-medicated patients with OCD and 23 matched healthy volunteers. Voxelwise statistical parametric maps testing strength of functional connectivity of three striatal seed regions of interest (ROIs) with remaining brain regions were calculated and compared between groups. We performed additional correlation analyses between strength of connectivity and the severity scores for obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression, and anxiety in the OCD group. Positive functional connectivity with the ventral striatum was significantly increased (Pcorrected <.05) in the orbitofrontal cortex, ventral medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex of subjects with OCD. There was no significant correlation between measures of symptom severity and the strength of connectivity (Puncorrected <.001). This is the first study to investigate the corticostriatal connectivity in non-medicated patients with OCD. These findings provide the first direct evidence supporting a pathophysiological model involving basal ganglia circuitry in OCD.
Growing evidence indicated that the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system is central to the neurobiology and treatment of mood and anxiety disorders. Riluzole, a drug currently used to slow the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, is one of the candidate drugs that modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system. Recently, several open-label clinical trials have suggested that riluzole reduces symptoms of treatment-resistant major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. Previously, we reported that riluzole rapidly attenuates the hyperemotional responses found in the olfactory bulbectomized rats. This animal model exhibits hyperemotional behavior that may mimic anxiety, aggression and irritability found in depressed patients, suggesting the possible use of riluzole in combating the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Interestingly, we first found that a single riluzole treatment had rapid anti-hyperemotional effects in the rats. In addition, we demonstrated that single riluzole treatment significantly decreased extracellular glutamate levels in medial prefrontal cortex of the rats by in vivo microdialysis examination. Our results propose a hypothesis that riluzole rapidly improve symptoms in depressed patients, as a non-monoamine-based antidepressant. In conclusion, our results suggest that a glutamate-modulating drug, riluzole, is one of the candidate drugs for new generation antidepressants and/or anxiolytics.
There is paucity of published literature on antidepressants in a cost-consequence study design.
Measuring clinical outcomes of pharmacotherapy.
Costs and consequences determination in depressive episode acute medical care.
Cost-consequence analysis;Setting-Serbian tertiary university clinic(2010-2012). Patient visits to attending psychiatrists:baseline, 3,8 weeks. HDRS-17 and Q-LES-Q-SF scale were applied in each of control visits. Resource use patterns and costs were evidenced for up to 14 weeks from study entry. Micro-costing approach allowed for most direct and indirect costs measurement. Costs were expressed in national currency-Central Serbian Dinar(1€≈115.85CSD;2012). Societal perspective and 14 weeks time horizon were adopted. Random selection of 65 depressive patients was based on clinical criteria and their assignment to either one of three different treatment protocols.5 patients were lost to follow up.
There was no statistically significant difference in terms of therapeutic response by the HDRS scores before and after introducing treatment groups(χ2=4.339; ?=0.362). QALY value increased by 11.77(SSRI group);8.93(SNRI)and 12.54 (heterocyclics). Mean cost per QALY was 9,937.51 CSD for SSRI; 7,138.27 CSD in SNRI; and 6,164.96 CSD for heterocyclics. There were 28.69 depression with free days in SSRI, 21.78 days in SNRI, and 30.59 days in heterocyclic group. Cost-effectiveness assessment was was 346.38 CSD per day(SSRI); 327.74 CSD(SNRI), and 201.54 CSD(heterocyclics).
Heterocyclic antidepressants provide highest'value for money' in terms of QALY in depressive episode treatment and its treatment is most cost effective. Cost-consequence evaluations have heavier impact to clinical decision making with regards to major depressive disorder treatment in the absence of clear clinical superiority of any major pharmacological protocol.
The primary goal of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a community-based multimodal intervention program for suicide prevention in regions where the suicide rate was relatively high compared to control regions. The secondary goal was to explore the effectiveness of a community-based multimodal intervention program for suicide prevention in highly populated regions.
NOCOMIT-J is a community-based large-scale non-randomized controlled trial, involving seven intervention regions with accompanying control regions, all with populations of statistically sufficient size. The program consists of
1) Establishing social support networks in the public health system for suicide prevention and mental health promotion;
2) A primary prevention measures of awareness campaign for the public and key personnel;
3) Secondary prevention measures for screening, counseling and outreach services for high-risk individuals;
4) After-care for individuals bereaved by suicide;
5) Suicide prevention measures especially for individuals with mental illness and work-related problems.
This study protocol was reviewed and approved by the Central Ethics Committee of the J-MISP. Additionally, the regional leaders obtained written authorization from the local governors.
The intervention started in July 2006, and continued for 3.5 years. Participants are Japanese and foreign residents living in the intervention and control regions, a total of population of 2,120,000 individuals.
Because treatment and prevention of suicide are complex and encompass many factors, success will need multi-sector collaboration. We hope that the results of NOCOMIT-J will help to develop effective strategies to reduce future suicide rate. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00737165)
Reduced white matter integrity in the corpus callosum (CC) has been reported in treatment-resistant depression (TRD). rTMS is assumed to have remote effect on interconnected area with the stimulation site, and this effect is speculated to be one of the therapeutic mechanisms of rTMS treatment. In this preliminary study, we examined changes of callosal fiber integrity in 5 segments of the CC before and after rTMS treatment for TRD.
The subjects were 2 patients with treatment-resistant unipolar depression and 1 patient with treatment-resistant bipolar depression, and 24 healthy controls (HC group). The patients underwent 4-week high frequency rTMS to their left DLPFC. In diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography, the CC was divided into 5 segments (orbital, frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital) based on their cortical projection zones, and fractional anisotropy (FA) value of each segment was estimated. We compared FA in the CC between the patients and the HC groups, and examined changes of FA in the CC after rTMS treatment in the patients.
The patients showed reduced FA in the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital-callosal segments compared to the HC group. All patients responded to the rTMS treatment, and FA in the orbital, frontal, parietal, temporal-callosal segments increased after the rTMS treatment.
Our results suggest that white matter integrity in the CC is reduced in TRD and that increased white matter integrity in the CC might be related with the therapeutic mechanisms of rTMS treatment.
A history of previous suicide attempt is a potent risk factor for suicide later on. Crisis intervention initiated at emergency medical facilities for suicide attempters are considered important components for suicide prevention. The primary aim of this trial is to examine the effectiveness of an extensive intervention for suicide attempters in prevention of recurrent suicidal behavior, as compared with standard intervention.
ACTION-J is a single blinded randomized controlled trial. In this trial, case management intervention were provided at 19 emergency medical facilities in Japan. After psychiatric evaluation and psychological education, subjects were randomly assigned to either a group receiving continuous case management or standard care. Suicidal ideation, depressive symptoms, and general health condition were evaluated as secondary measures. The stratified logrank test based on allocation factors will be performed for all eligible participants in the intent-to-treat analysis. The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the Central Ethics Committee of the J-MISP. The protocol was also reviewed and approved by the On-site Research Ethics Committee at each participating hospital.
The intervention was initiated in July 2006. By December 2009, 914 subjects were randomized. Subject follow-up continued for 1.5 to 5 years, till the end of June 2011. ACTION-J would provide valuable information on suicide attempters and may develop effective case management to reduce future risk for suicide attempters. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00736918.)
In bipolar disorder (BD), reduced white matter (WM) integrity in the corpus callosum has been reported, but its detailed localization difference has not been clarified. In this study, we examined fiber integrity in 7 segments of the corpus callosum and their relationships with clinical symptoms in BD.
Patients with BD (BD group, n = 17) and age-matched healthy controls (HC group, n = 24) were examined using diffusion tensor imaging tractography. The corpus callosum was divided into 7 segments (orbital frontal, anterior frontal, superior frontal, superior parietal, posterior parietal, temporal, and occipital) based on their cortical projection zones, and fractional anisotropy (FA) value of each segment was estimated. Differences in FA of each segment between the groups were examined using ANOVA with repeated measures. Correlations between FA of each segment and clinical symptoms (HAM-D, YMRS) were assessed using Spearman's rank correlation test in the BD group.
The BD group showed reduced FA in the orbital frontal, superior frontal, and posterior parietal-callosal segments compared to the HC group. In addition, the BD group showed a significant negative correlation between FA in the orbital frontal-callosal segment and HAM-D scores.
Our results suggest that WM integrity in the anterior part of the corpus callosum is reduced in BD and that orbital frontal-callosal disintegrity may be related with severity of bipolar depression.
How are resources distributed when administrative units merge? We take advantage of recent, large-scale municipal mergers in Japan to systematically study the impact of municipal mergers within merged municipalities and, in particular, what politicians do when their districts and constituencies suddenly change. We argue that when rural and sparsely populated municipalities merge with more urban and densely populated municipalities, residents of the former are likely to see a reduced share of public spending because they lost political leverage through the merger. Our empirical analyses detect changes in public spending before and after the municipal mergers with remote sensing data, which allows for flexible units of analysis and enables us to proxy for spending within merged municipalities. Overall, our results show that politicians tend to reduce benefits allocated to areas where there are a small number of voters, while increasing the allocation to more populous areas. The micro-foundation of our argument is also corroborated by survey data. The finding suggests that, all things being equal, the quantity rather than quality of electorates matters for politicians immediately after political units change.
The increasing number of dementia is of major public health concern. This study aims to calculate the projected number and prevalence of dementia in Japan, using data from the Toyama Dementia Survey.
The Toyama Dementia Survey was conducted 6 times in 1983, 1985, 1990, 1996, 2001, and 2014. In the 2014 survey, the subjects were randomly chosen from residents aged 65 or more in Toyama prefecture, with a sampling rate of 0.5%. Of those, 1303 men and women agreed to participate (participation rate: 84.8%). An interview with a screening questionnaire was conducted by public health nurses. Psychiatrists and public health nurses further investigated for the suspected cases of dementia and diagnosed whether the cases had dementia. The 1985–2001 surveys were conducted in a similar way, and, therefore, data from the 1985–2014 surveys were used in the analysis.
The prevalence of dementia in Toyama prefecture increased from 4.7% in 1985 to 15.7% in 2014. Using the age and sex-specific prevalence of dementia in the 2014 survey, the projected number of dementia is approximately 4.8 million (prevalence rate: 14.1%) in 2015, 6.1 million (16.7%) in 2025, and 7.2 million (19.2%) in 2035. Using the age and sex-specific prevalence of dementia as estimated by linear regression models, the projected number of dementia is approximately 4.7 million (13.9%) in 2015, 7.1 million (19.5%) in 2025, and 9.7 million (25.8%) in 2035.
The number of dementia in Japan could double in the next 20 years, which corresponds to 1 in 4 elderly people.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
In recent decades, in the research community of macroeconometric time series analysis, we have observed growing interest in the smoothing method known as the Hodrick–Prescott (HP) filter. This article examines the properties of an alternative smoothing method that looks like the HP filter, but is much less well known. We show that this is actually more like the exponential smoothing filter than the HP filter although it is obtainable through a slight modification of the HP filter. In addition, we also show that it is also like the low-frequency projection of Müller and Watson (2018, Econometrica 86, 775–804). We point out that these results derive from the fact that all three similar smoothing methods can be regarded as a type of graph spectral filter whose graph Fourier transform is discrete cosine transform. We then theoretically reveal the relationship between the similar smoothing methods and provide a way of specifying the smoothing parameter that is necessary for its application. An empirical examination illustrates the results.
The linguist Toyama (1992) has argued that speakers of English use an ‘introduction-oriented’ style of communication where key points are stated upfront, while speakers of Japanese use a ‘conclusion-oriented’ style where key points are left to the end. In my study of group-internal American and Japanese bank meetings, I found that American managers were ‘introduction-oriented’ in so far as they confronted business matters upfront, discussing ‘done’ deals and conclusive points first, and less conclusive deals and points later. Likewise, Japanese managers were ‘conclusion-oriented’ in so far as they tended to focus on tested points and topics that included and integrated meeting members first, reserving the more controversial topics of business for later.
Americans and Japanese organise their communication differently because of different goals in meeting management. The American goal is to manage business tasks at hand, whereas the Japanese goal is to manage the on-going relationship among colleagues. Following in the theoretical framework of interactional sociolinguistics begun by Gumperz (1982) and extended by Tannen (1984), my argument concludes that the American focus on tasks and the Japanese focus on relationships prevail because each group of managers has a different interactional goal. The Americans aim to achieve independence through explicit communication, while the Japanese aim to achieve interdependence through communication that aims to distance talk from the interaction.
Both the American task-driven organisation and the Japanese relationship-driven organisation have a logic of their own. But cross- and inter- cultural research (see for example, the seminal studies of Gumperz 1982; Kochman 1981; Scollon and Scollon 1981; Tannen 1984) shows that differences in conversational organisation create misunderstandings and fuel negative stereotypes. For example, the Japanese executives in the meeting examined here begin their conversation with what Graham and Sano (1984) call ‘nontask sounding’, talk that serves to sound out participants’ positions prior to a discussion of business matters. This initial sounding-out aims to establish the cohesiveness of the group, to confirm goodwill among meeting members and is essential to the organising of Japanese meetings. However, nontask sounding is often misinterpreted in inter-cultural communication as pointless small talk that only provides irrelevant or old information. Worse still, its lengthiness is often misunderstood as a Japanese stalling tactic. American executives waiting for the ‘real business’ to begin may find themselves doubting whether or not their Japanese counterparts genuinely want to do business.
Abnormalities in neurotransmission via N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) play a role in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. The impact of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on NMDAR-related amino acids remains unknown. We aim to investigate the effects of rTMS on NMDAR-related amino acids in serum of post-stroke patients.
Ninety-five consecutive post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis were recruited. In 27 patients, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score was 10 or higher. Twelve depressed patients underwent rehabilitation in combination with rTMS and 15 non-depressed patients underwent rehabilitation only without rTMS for 14 days. 1 Hz rTMS was applied to the primary motor area in the non-lesional hemisphere. BDI was conducted before and after treatment. Serum glutamine, glutamate, glycine, l-serine, and d-serine levels were measured before and after treatment.
There were no differences between depressed patients and non-depressed patients in clinical characteristics, levels of the five amino acids in serum, and the ratio of amino acids. However, in 27 depressed patients, there was a significant correlation between levels of glutamate in serum and BDI (ρ = 0.428, p = 0.026). BDI decreased significantly in depressed patients after treatment with or without rTMS. d-serine decreased in the rehabilitation with rTMS group, but increased in the rehabilitation without rTMS group. l-serine increased in the rehabilitation with rTMS group, but decreased in the rehabilitation without rTMS group.
The results suggest that rTMS can modulate NMDAR-related amino acids in blood, producing beneficial effects.
Habitats characterized by geographic isolation such as islands have been studied using different organisms as models for understanding the dynamic and insular patterns of biodiversity. Determinants of parasite richness in insular host populations have been conducted mainly with mammals and birds, showing that parasite richness decreases in insular areas. In the present study, we predicted that the type of environment (insular or continental) can influence the richness, diversity and abundance of parasites associated with the endemic frog Haddadus binotatus (Spix, 1824). We sampled frogs in two insular and two mainland fragments to survey their helminth parasites. The total richness was composed of 15 taxa of Nematoda and two of Acanthocephala, and the community composition of the two islands had more similarities between them than the two mainland localities. The insular effect was positive for richness and abundance of helminths, and no significant effect was observed on helminth diversity – even the mean diversity presented high numbers for the islands. We presumed that insular hosts could have lost some parasites in the colonization process when these continental islands were separated from the mainland, approximately 11,000 years ago. However, the high richness and abundance on islands can be explained by an epidemiological argument, which considers high population density due to insularity and other features of the host as factors that increase parasite transmission success among individuals.
The earliest colonisation of oceanic islands by Homo sapiens occurred ~50 000–30 000 years ago in the Western Pacific, yet how this was achieved remains a matter of debate. With a focus on East Asia, the research presented here tests the hypothesis that bamboo rafts were used for these early maritime migrations. The authors review the evidence for Palaeolithic seafaring in East Asia as the context for an experimental archaeology project to build two bamboo watercraft. Sea trials demonstrate the unsuitability of bamboo, at least in East Asia, indicating that more sophisticated and durable vessels would have been required to traverse the Kuroshio Current.