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Atrioventricular interval optimisation is important in patients with dual-chamber pacing, especially with heart failure. In patients with CHD, especially in those with Fontan circulation, the systemic atrial contraction is supposed to be more important than in patients without structural heart disease.
We retrospectively evaluated two patients after Fontan procedure with dual-chamber pacemaker with a unique setting of optimal sensed atrioventricular interval.
The optimal sensed atrioventricular interval determined by echocardiogram was extremely short sensed atrioventricular interval at 25 and 30 ms in both cases; however, the actual P wave and ventricular pacing interval showed 180 and 140 ms, respectively. In both cases, the atrial epicardial leads were implanted on the opposite site of the origin of their own atrial rhythm. The time differences between sensed atrioventricular interval and actual P wave and ventricular pacing interval occurred because of the site of the epicardial atrial pacing leads and the intra-atrial conduction delay.
We need to consider the origin of the atrial rhythm, the site of the epicardial atrial lead, and the atrial conduction delay by using electrocardiogram and X-ray when we set the optimal sensed atrioventricular interval in complicated CHD.
The problem of linear instability of a nonlinear travelling wave in a canonical Hamiltonian system with translational symmetry subject to superharmonic perturbations is discussed. It is shown that exchange of stability occurs when energy is stationary as a function of wave speed. This generalizes a result proved by Saffman (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 159, 1985, pp. 169–174) for travelling wave solutions exhibiting a wave profile with reflectional symmetry. The present argument remains true for any non-canonical Hamiltonian system that can be cast in Darboux form, i.e. a canonical Hamiltonian form on a submanifold defined by constraints, such as a two-dimensional surface wave on a constant shearing flow, revealing a general feature of Hamiltonian dynamics.
We conducted a preliminary test of the coupled system of an elemental analyzer and the automated graphitization equipment Ionplus AGE3 (EA-AGE3 method) for accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon (AMS 14C) measurements of CaCO3 samples, by comparing with the conventional method where the samples are hydrolyzed in phosphoric acid and resulting CO2 gas is manually graphitized in a vacuum line (HPA method). The samples used in the test were the IAEA C2 travertine, fossil and modern corals from the Ryukyu Islands and the Ogasawara Islands, respectively (both are located in the northwestern subtropical Pacific). Results indicate that, relative to the HPA method, the EA-AGE3 method tends to cause an increase of ~0.4–0.5 pMC with more widely scattered data. This is presumably due to 14C contamination in the EA (the most likely cause seems to be a memory effect of 14C); this effect could be reduced by careful optimization of conditions and procedures in the EA process. The 14C data of pre-bomb annual bands (1931–1949 AD) in the modern Ogasawara coral obtained by the HPA method were used to estimate the marine reservoir 14C-age correction (ΔR) of this region; it ranges from –109 yr to –28 yr with the mean value with standard deviation of –81 ± 29 yr.
Recent evidence from both oceanic observations and global-scale ocean model simulations indicate the existence of regions where low-mode internal tidal energy dominates over that of the geostrophic balanced flow. Inspired by these findings, we examine the effect of the first vertical mode inertia–gravity waves on the dynamics of balanced flow using an idealized model obtained by truncating the hydrostatic Boussinesq equations on to the barotropic and the first baroclinic mode. On investigating the wave–balance turbulence phenomenology using freely evolving numerical simulations, we find that the waves continuously transfer energy to the balanced flow in regimes where the balanced-to-wave energy ratio is small, thereby generating small-scale features in the balanced fields. We examine the detailed energy transfer pathways in wave-dominated flows and thereby develop a generalized small Rossby number geophysical turbulence phenomenology, with the two-mode (barotropic and one baroclinic mode) quasi-geostrophic turbulence phenomenology being a subset of it. The present work therefore shows that inertia–gravity waves would form an integral part of the geophysical turbulence phenomenology in regions where balanced flow is weaker than gravity waves.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Recent development of pulsed laser deposition technique makes it possible to build up different kinds of perovskite oxides and to create new electric and magnetic properties of heterointerfaces, which can neither be realized in bulk properties of the constitute oxides and nor be treated as the simple combination of them. The extraction of unique properties of interfaces thus crucially relies on the development of a new method to selectively detect their electronic properties accompanied with magnetism. Here we show a new approach with use of the optical magnetoelectric (ME) effect to address the unique properties of ferromagnetic oxide superlattices (SLs). The ME effect, that is, the control of the polarization P by a magnetic field H or inversely the control of the magnetization M by an electric field E, can be considered as a typical manifestation of cross-correlation phenomena in solids. Even at optical frequencies, such a cross-correlation response coming from the ME effect is known to show up in materials with a lack of both space-inversion and time-reversal symmetries. This is referred to as the optical ME effect. The optical ME response emerges as a change of reflection and transmission when the wavevector k of light is set to parallel or antiparallel to the toroidal moment T defined as P X M, which in turn enables us to control the intensity of light by changing the directions of E and/or H. In this work, we fabricated SLs composed of LaMnO3, SrMnO3, and LaAlO3 and exploited the use of their unique properties of heterointerfaces as a medium for optical ME effect. Such 'tricolor' SLs are expected to artificially break both space-inversion and time-reversal symmetries, which are induced by asymmetric stacking sequences of three different oxides and by the charge-transfer-induced magnetism at LaMnO3/SrMnO3 interfaces, respectively. We patterned the grating structure with a period of 4 ìm on SLs and employed the Bragg diffraction geometry to sensitively detect the optical ME effect. The optical ME effect was clearly observed when the diffracted light was used as a probe. The optical ME response depending on PABC X Minterface is a direct consequence of the symmetry breaking at interfaces. Its magnitude per interface was thus estimated to be tilde operator = varies with = similar to 0.01% in H of 2 kOe, which are relatively large as compared to previously reported values in bulk materials showing the optical ME effect. Our data provide that the present method would be used as a tool for the study of oxide heterointerfaces.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
Unlike the conventional layer by layer growth ,three dimensional growth experiments of SiC single crystal by the Chemical Particle Deposition (CPD)method were carried out both on the polar and nonpolar plane of the SiC seed crystal. The comparison of the morphology of the grown crystals on both samples indicated that the electric field formed by the seed crystal strongly effected the diffusion of the supplied Si and C atoms and their compounds to grow the epitaxial crystal. In spite of the low ionicity of Si-C bonds, this remarkable effect of the electric field on the three dimensional crystal growth mechanism in the CPD method strongly suggested its contribution to the ordering of the stacked layers with its long working range, beyond the deformed boundary layers between the seed surface and the grown crystal.
In medical practice, a patient’s loss of competency is a major obstacle when choosing a treatment and a starting treatment program smoothly. A large number of studies have revealed the lack of medical competency in patients with dementia. However, there have been only a few reports focusing on the capacity of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to make a medical choice.
In this study, we evaluated the competency of 40 patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI) and 33 normal subjects to make a medical choice using the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Treatment (MacCAT-T). We compared the judgement of a team conference using the recorded semi-structured interview with the clinical judgement of a chief clinician.
A team conference concluded that 12 aMCI patients had no competency, and the clinical judgement, without any special interview, judged that five aMCI patients had no competency. All subjects in the control groups were judged to be competent to consent to treatment by both clinicians and the team conference.
Without supplementary tools such as explanatory documents, not a few patients with aMCI were judged by a team conference to have no competency to consent to therapy even in a relatively simple and easy case. In contrast, clinical physicians tended to evaluate the competency of aMCI patients in a generous manner.
Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis of “low Z” elements, Ti, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and “high Z” elements, Zr, W, Au, Pb, are required for micro scale semiconductor device production processes. In the past, the W–Lβ X-rays have been used for the analysis of S to Zn.
This paper describes a new three crystal monochromator coupled with a gold direct-drive rotating anode target. This development has produced significant improvements in the sensitivities and LLD's for all measured elements. The monochromator makes the Au Lα (9.71 keV), Au Lβ (11.44 keV) and Au Lγ (13.33 keV) available for routine use in TXRF analyses. The Au Lα X-ray is best used for the lower Z elements, Na to Cu. The best result for W, Cu and Zn are obtained with the Au Lβ X-ray. This is the result of both increased peak intensity and lower background. For the heavier elements, such as Au and Pb, the Au L X-ray yields intensities 100 times higher than what has been achieved in the past.
A new type of scanning X-ray diffracto-microscope (SXDM) / X-ray powder diffractometer (XPD) which uses a converged incident beam, was designed, manufactured, and some of its basic characteristics were examined. The optical system consists of asymmetric reflection type curved crystal monochromators for both incident and reflection beams, a detector (FSPC, X-ray film, IP, nuclear plate), a translation mechanism for the specimen and also for the detector.
A Debye-Scherrer camera (radius 572 mm) was designed for the use at the Photon Factory BL-6A2. It uses 4 pieces of the Imaging Plate to cover 0° ∼ 160° in 2θ. The profiles measured by the camera had 0.083° full width at half maximum (FWHM) and were rather symmetric compared with conventional X-ray source. The observed profiles were well represented by either the split Pearson VII or pseudo-Voigt function. In order to examine the performance of the new camera, the whole powder data of LiF was analyzed by the Maximum Entropy Method(MEM). The MEM analysis of LiF was successfully accomplished using 20 measured structure factors and gave R(Bragg) 0.25%. The density distribution obtained represented a characteristic feature of ionic crystals and was consistent with the theoretical result of the self-consistent LCAO method.
The problem of background radiation in X-ray fluorescence trace element analysis of fused-glass iron ore samples is addressed. A first-order model of coherent and Comptcn scattering with primary absorption is presented and used to correct measurements. Overlap coefficients for elements in iron ores are presented. The importance of these corrections is demonstrated. The accuracy achieved with X-ray measurements after background corrections compares well with the accuracy of chemical analysis.
We aimed to examine missing data in FFQ and to assess the effects on estimating dietary intake by comparing between multiple imputation and zero imputation.
We used data from the Okazaki Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study. A self-administered questionnaire including an FFQ was implemented at baseline (FFQ1) and 5-year follow-up (FFQ2). Missing values in FFQ2 were replaced by corresponding FFQ1 values, multiple imputation and zero imputation.
A methodological sub-study of the Okazaki J-MICC study.
Of a total of 7585 men and women aged 35–79 years at baseline, we analysed data for 5120 participants who answered all items in FFQ1 and at least 50% of items in FFQ2.
Among 5120 participants, the proportion of missing data was 3·7%. The increasing number of missing food items in FFQ2 varied with personal characteristics. Missing food items not eaten often in FFQ2 were likely to represent zero intake in FFQ1. Most food items showed that the observed proportion of zero intake was likely to be similar to the probability that the missing value is zero intake. Compared with FFQ1 values, multiple imputation had smaller differences of total energy and nutrient estimates, except for alcohol, than zero imputation.
Our results indicate that missing values due to zero intake, namely missing not at random, in FFQ can be predicted reasonably well from observed data. Multiple imputation performed better than zero imputation for most nutrients and may be applied to FFQ data when missing is low.
The apparent diffusion coefficients of strontium in compacted bentonites were investigated at various concentrations of NaHCO3. Purified sodium bentonite Kunipia-F® was compacted with a jig into cylindrical pellets 10 mm in diameter and 10 mm high with dry densities of 1.0 to 1.6 Mg/m3. Each bentonite pellet was inserted into an acrylic resin column and saturated with carbonated water containing 0.1 to 1.0 M NaHCO3 for more than 1 month. The face of the bentonite specimen was spiked with 5 μL of 1.0 M SrCl2 tracer solution. After a few weeks, the strontium diffusion profiles were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The apparent diffusion coefficients of strontium decreased slightly with increasing dry density. NaHCO3 concentrations of 0.5 M decreased the apparent diffusion coefficients of strontium by half at a dry density of 1.0 Mg/m3 and quarter at 1.6 Mg/m3. At a higher NaHCO3 concentration of 1.0 M, no strontium diffusion profile was observed, whereas white precipitate was observed on the face of the bentonite specimen where it was spiked with strontium. This white precipitate could be strontianite, which is strontium carbonate. Diffusion experiments using cesium were carried out for comparison, and the presence of carbonate had no effect on the apparent diffusion coefficient.
We attempt to reveal how electrolyte additives affect the structural evolution of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film on the anode surface of a lithium-ion secondary battery. Employing the hybrid Monte-Carlo/molecular-dynamics method, we theoretically investigate the SEI film structures in organic liquid-electrolyte systems with and without an organosilicon additive. The results show that the excessive growth of the SEI film is suppressed by introducing the organosilicon additives. It is further elucidated that the decomposition products of the organosilicon molecules are stably aggregated in the vicinity of the anode surface, and protect the electrolyte solvents and the lithium salts from the further reductive decomposition. These findings imply that the organosilicon additive possibly improves the cycle performance of LIBs owing to the formation of the effective SEI film.
Nickel thin films were prepared by electroless plating in a foam of electrolyte generated by bubbling nitrogen into a hypophosphite-based electroless plating solution added with surfactants of sulfuric acid monododecyl ester sodium salt and ammonium pentadecafluorooctanoate (APFO). Ferroxyl test revealed that the films deposited in foam had substantially higher corrosion resistance than those deposited in liquid. Even with a film thickness of only 1.5 µm, the fraction of corroded area was as small as 0.002% when the film was deposited in the foam. The notable improvement in the corrosion resistance was made possible by adding APFO as the surfactant.
Various herbivorous invertebrates in seagrass beds are considered to be generalists in food use and their diets may temporally fluctuate according to the availability of food sources. We assessed whether food sources of herbivorous gastropods vary in a subtropical seagrass bed in Nagura Bay, Ishigaki Island, where coexisting seaweeds grow densely in spring but minimally in summer. Abundant gastropods and their possible food sources were collected in spring and summer of 2013 and 2015, and their stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were measured. Between the two seasons, each possible food source had similar isotopic values, but all the herbivorous gastropod species in summer were more enriched in 13C than the gastropod samples in spring. The mixing models in SIAR (Stable Isotope Analysis in R) showed that the total contribution rates of seaweeds, i.e. rhodophytes, phaeophytes and chlorophytes, for all herbivorous gastropod species decreased from spring to summer; in contrast, the contribution rate of seagrasses increased. Linear Mixed Models showed that the seasonal variation in δ13C of the herbivorous gastropods was larger than that of the possible food sources, adding further evidence to the seasonal change in food sources of the herbivorous gastropods. This seasonal change in food use appears to correspond to the change in seaweed biomass, suggesting that herbivorous gastropods flexibly change their diets depending on food availability.