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Little is known about the neural substrates of suicide risk in mood disorders. Improving the identification of biomarkers of suicide risk, as indicated by a history of suicide-related behavior (SB), could lead to more targeted treatments to reduce risk.
Participants were 18 young adults with a mood disorder with a history of SB (as indicated by endorsing a past suicide attempt), 60 with a mood disorder with a history of suicidal ideation (SI) but not SB, 52 with a mood disorder with no history of SI or SB (MD), and 82 healthy comparison participants (HC). Resting-state functional connectivity within and between intrinsic neural networks, including cognitive control network (CCN), salience and emotion network (SEN), and default mode network (DMN), was compared between groups.
Several fronto-parietal regions (k > 57, p < 0.005) were identified in which individuals with SB demonstrated distinct patterns of connectivity within (in the CCN) and across networks (CCN-SEN and CCN-DMN). Connectivity with some of these same regions also distinguished the SB group when participants were re-scanned after 1–4 months. Extracted data defined SB group membership with good accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity (79–88%).
These results suggest that individuals with a history of SB in the context of mood disorders may show reliably distinct patterns of intrinsic network connectivity, even when compared to those with mood disorders without SB. Resting-state fMRI is a promising tool for identifying subtypes of patients with mood disorders who may be at risk for suicidal behavior.
Quality Improvement and Patient Safety (QIPS) plays an important role in addressing shortcomings in optimal healthcare delivery. However, there is little published guidance available for emergency department (ED) teams with respect to developing their own QIPS programs. We sought to create recommendations for established and aspiring ED leaders to use as a pathway to better patient care through programmatic QIPS activities, starting internally and working towards interdepartmental collaboration.
An expert panel comprised of ten ED clinicians with QIPS and leadership expertise was established. A scoping review was conducted to identify published literature on establishing QIPS programs and frameworks in healthcare. Stakeholder consultations were conducted among Canadian healthcare leaders, and recommendations were drafted by the expert panel based on all the accumulated information. These were reviewed and refined at the 2018 CAEP Academic Symposium in Calgary using in-person and technologically-supported feedback.
Recommendations include: creating a sense of urgency for improvement; engaging relevant stakeholders and leaders; creating a formal local QIPS Committee; securing funding and resources; obtaining local data to guide the work; supporting QIPS training for team members; encouraging interprofessional, cross-departmental, and patient collaborations; using an established QIPS framework to guide the work; developing reward mechanisms and incentive structures; and considering to start small by focusing on a project rather than a program.
A list of 10 recommendations is presented as guiding principles for the establishment and sustainable deployment of QIPS activities in EDs throughout Canada and abroad. ED leaders are encouraged to implement our recommendations in an effort to improve patient care.
We generalize work by Bourgain and Kontorovich [On the local-global conjecture for integral Apollonian gaskets, Invent. Math. 196 (2014), 589–650] and Zhang [On the local-global principle for integral Apollonian 3-circle packings, J. Reine Angew. Math. 737, (2018), 71–110], proving an almost local-to-global property for the curvatures of certain circle packings, to a large class of Kleinian groups. Specifically, we associate in a natural way an infinite family of integral packings of circles to any Kleinian group
satisfying certain conditions, where
is an imaginary quadratic field, and show that the curvatures of the circles in any such packing satisfy an almost local-to-global principle. A key ingredient in the proof is that
possesses a spectral gap property, which we prove for any infinite-covolume, geometrically finite, Zariski dense Kleinian group in
containing a Zariski dense subgroup of
Gunnar Stange, Assistant Professor in Human Geography at the Department of Geography and Regional Research, University of Vienna, Austria.,
Antje Missbach, Senior Research Fellow in Anthropology at the School of Social Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
The time for peace — real peace, permanent peace — is now. Those who continue to espouse conflict represent not the interest of the Acehnese but only themselves. They will be sidelined by the people of Aceh
Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
This chapter looks at how the Indonesian government under Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (SBY) succeeded in finding a resolution to the armed conflict that had raged for almost three decades in Aceh. After a short overview on the causes of conflict and its main stages, a number of failed peace initiatives are discussed. The main attention in the first section is on the Helsinki peace process that resulted in a memorandum of understanding (MoU) between the Indonesian government and the Aceh separatists and formed the basis for the ongoing peace process in Aceh. The second section discusses the process leading up to the highly controversial Law on the Governing of Aceh, which served to implement the MoU's stipulations but fell short of doing so in many respects. The concluding remarks reflect on the extent to which SBY's foreign policy decision-making helped bring a preliminary and, hopefully, sustainable end to thirty years of violent conflict in Aceh.
SBY's strong motivation to end the Aceh conflict as expressed in the above quote must not be solely seen as part of his overall presidential agenda to improve Indonesia's international reputation from 2004 onwards. His involvement in supporting dialogue to end the Aceh conflict started way before he campaigned for presidency and finally took office as Indonesia's fifth president in September 2004. The Cessation of Hostilities Agreement by which GAM and Indonesia had tried to negotiate a lasting solution collapsed in May 2003. Only shortly after, Jusuf Kalla (then Coordinating Minister for People's Welfare), in a closed meeting, proposed to then President Megawati Sukarnoputri in the presence of Gen. Endriartono Sutarto (then TNI Commander-in-Chief) and SBY (then Coordinating Minister for Security and Politics) to take another attempt to engage GAM in dialogue. All participants of this meeting gave at least oral support of his endeavour. This came as no surprise as SBY himself had long believed that “conflict had gone on too long; there were too many victims on both sides. And it was expensive, costing us about $130 million per year in security operations” (Morfit 2007, p. 125).
Quality improvement (QI) and patient safety are two areas that have grown into important operational and academic fields in recent years in health care, including in emergency medicine (EM). This is the third and final article in a series designed as a QI primer for EM clinicians. In the first two articles we used a fictional case study of a team trying to decrease the time to antibiotic therapy for patients with sepsis who were admitted through their emergency department. We introduced concepts of strategic planning, including stakeholder engagement and root cause analysis tools, and presented the Model for Improvement and Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles as the backbone of the execution of a QI project. This article will focus on the measurement and evaluation of QI projects, including run charts, as well as methods that can be used to ensure the sustainability of change management projects.
Lumbar punctures (LPs) are painful for children, and analgesia is recommended by academic societies. However, less than one-third of pediatric emergency physicians (EPs) adhere to recommendations. We assessed the willingness to provide analgesia among pediatric and general EPs and explored patient and provider-specific barriers.
We surveyed physicians in the Pediatric Emergency Research Canada (PERC) or Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP) databases from May 1 to August 1, 2016, regarding hypothetical scenarios for a 3-week-old infant, a 3-year-old child, and a 16-year-old child requiring an LP. The primary outcome was the willingness to provide analgesia. Secondary outcomes included the type of analgesia, reasons for withholding analgesia, and their perceived competence performing LPs.
For a 3-week old infant, 123/144 (85.4%) pediatric EPs and 231/262 (88.2%) general EPs reported a willingness to provide analgesia. In contrast, the willingness to provide analgesia was almost universal for a 16-year-old (144/144 [100%] of pediatric EPs and 261/262 [99.6%] of general EPs) and a 3-year-old (142/144 [98.6%] of pediatric EPs and 256/262 [97.7%] of general EPs). For an infant, the most common barrier cited by pediatric EPs was the perception that it produced additional discomfort (13/21, 61.9%). The same reason was cited by general EPs (12/31, 38.7%), along with unfamiliarity surrounding analgesic options (13/31, 41.9%).
Compared to a preschool child and adolescent, the willingness to provide analgesia for an LP in a young infant is suboptimal among pediatric and general EPs. Misconceptions and the lack of awareness of analgesic options should be targets for practice-changing strategies.
Introduction: Undertreated pain is known to cause short and long-term harm in children. Limb injuries are a common painful condition in emergency department (ED) patients, accounting for 12% of ED visits by children. Our city has one pediatric ED in a freestanding children’s hospital and 3 general ED’s that treat both adults and children. 68% of pediatric limb injuries in our city are treated in the pediatric ED and 32% are treated in a general ED. A quality improvement (QI) initiative was developed at the children’s hospital ED in April 2015 focusing on “Commitment to Comfort.” After achieving aims at the childrens hospital, a QI collaborative was formed among the pediatric ED and the 3 general ED’s to 1) improve the proportion of children citywide receiving analgesia for limb injuries from 27% to 40% and 2) reduce the median time to analgesia from 37 minutes to 15 minutes, during the time period of April-September, 2016. Methods: Data were obtained from computerized order entry records for children 0-17.99 years visiting any participating ED with a chief complaint of limb injury. Project teams from each site met monthly to discuss aims, develop key driver diagrams, plan tests of change, and share learnings. Implementation strategies were based on the Model for Improvement with PDSA cycles. Patient and family consultation was obtained. Process measures included the proportion of children treated with analgesic medication and time to analgesia; balancing measures were duration of triage and length of stay for limb injury and all patients. Site-specific run charts were used to detect special cause variation. Data from all sites were combined at study end to measure city-wide impact using 2 and interrupted time series analysis. Results: During the 3.5-year time period studied (April 1, 2014-September 30, 2017), there were 45,567 visits to the participating ED’s by children 0-17.99 years with limb injury. All visits were included in analysis. Special cause was detected in run charts of all process measures. Interrupted time series analysis comparing the year prior to implementation at the childrens hospital in April 2015 to the year following completion of implementation at the 3 general hospitals in October 2016 demonstrated that the proportion of patients with limb injury receiving analgesia increased from 27% to 40% (p<0.01), and the median time from arrival to analgesia decreased from 37 to 11 minutes (p<0.01). Balancing measure analysis is in progress. Conclusion: This multisite initiative emphasizing “Commitment to Comfort” was successful in improving pain outcomes for all children with limb injuries seen in city-wide ED’s, and was sustained for one year following implementation. A QI collaborative can be an effective method for spreading improvement. The project team is now spreading the Commitment to Comfort initiative to over 30 rural and regional EDs throughout the province through establishment of a provincial QI collaborative.
Introduction: Bronchiolitis is a viral respiratory infection and the most common reason for hospitalization of infants. Despite evidence that few interventions are beneficial in patients with bronchiolitis, other studies would have shown that a significant proportion of patients undergo various forms of low value care. This objective of this project was to 1. establish baseline management of bronchiolitis in the Calgary Zone, and 2. deliver audit and feedback (A&F) reports to pediatric emergency physicians (PEP) to identify opportunities and strategies for practice improvement. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included all patients 12 months old that presented to a Calgary emergency department or urgent care center with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis from April 1, 2013 to March 31, 2017. Using data from various electronic health data sources, we captured age, vital signs, CTAS, common therapeutic interventions (bronchodilators, steroids, antibiotics) and investigations (chest x-ray (CXR), viral studies, antibiotics). Results were stratified by site and by admission status. Descriptive statistics were used to report baseline characteristics and interventions. Interhospital ranges (IHR) were provided to compare different hospitals in the zone. For the A&F component of the project, consenting PEP received a report of both their individual and peer comparator data and an in-person multi-disciplinary facilitated feedback session. Results: We included 4023 patients from all 6 sites (range from 28 to 3316 patients). Admission rates were 21.7% (IHR 0-29%). Mean age was 5.4 months old. Bronchodilator use was 27.0% (IHR 21-41%). 22.0% of patients received a CXR (IHR 0-57%) and 30.3% had viral studies done (IHR range 0.8-33%). PEP had higher usage of viral studies (30% vs 5.7%), whereas non-PEP had higher CXR usage (46.2% vs 23.4%). 41 of 66 PEP consented to receive their individual A&F reports (62%). In the facilitated feedback session PEP 1. identified two areas (bronchodilators and viral studies) where improvements could be made and 2. discussed specific strategies to decrease practice variation and minimize low value care including development of a multi-disciplinary care pathway, alignment with in-patient management, education and repeated A&F reports. Conclusion: Significant variability exists in management of patients with bronchiolitis across different hospitals in our zone. A facilitated feedback session identified areas for improvement and multi-disciplinary strategies to reduced low value care for patients with bronchiolitis. Future phases of this project include repeated data in 6 months and implementation of a provincial care pathway for the management of bronchiolitis.
Introduction: Pediatric pain is often under-treated in emergency departments (EDs), which is known to cause short and long-term harm. A recent quality improvement collaborative (QIC) was successful in improving treatment of children’s pain across 4 EDs in our city. A new QIC was then formed among EDs across our province to improve treatment of presenting and procedural pain. Aims were to improve the proportion of children <12 years of age who receive topical anesthetic before needle procedures from 13% to 50%; and for children <17 years of age with fractures: to 1) improve the proportion who receive analgesic medication from 35% to 50%; 2) improve the proportion who have a documented pain score from 23% to 50%, and 3) reduce median time to analgesia from 59 minutes to 30 minutes, within 1 year. Methods: Invitations to participate in the QIC were sent to all 113 EDs in the province that treat children and had not participated in the previous QIC. Each site was asked to form a project team, participate in monthly webinars, develop key driver diagrams and project aims, undertake PDSA tests of change, and audit charts to assess performance. Sites are given a list of 20 randomly selected charts per month for audit. Audit data was entered into REDCap and uploaded to a provincial run chart dashboard. All participating sites received a “comfort kit” consisting of distraction items for children as well as educational materials. Measures of presenting pain included proportion of children <17 years with a diagnosis of fracture who have a documented pain score, proportion who receive an analgesic medication, and minutes to analgesia. The measure for procedural pain was the proportion of children <12 years who receive topical anesthetic prior to a needle procedure for a laboratory test. Length of stay for pediatric patients and all patients were balancing measures. Run charts were used to detect special cause. Difference in proportions were compared using 2. Final analysis will include interrupted time series. Results: 34 of 113 invited sites (30%) agreed to participate, including rural and regional representation from all geographic zones; 4222 visits since June 2016 were analyzed. Implementation began June 2017. Comparing the first 4 months following implementation to the preceding year, the proportion of children receiving topical anesthetic prior to needles increased from 13% to 25% (p<0.001). For children with fractures, the proportion with pain scores increased from 23% to 35% (p<0.001), proportion receiving analgesic medication increased from 35% to 42% (p<0.001), and median minutes to analgesia decreased from 59 to 43. Insufficient time points at this stage preclude identification of special cause. Conclusion: This province-wide QIC has already resulted in significant progress toward aims during the first 4 months of implementation. The QIC approach shows promise for improving pain outcomes in children visiting diverse EDs across a province.
Introduction: Prior research has shown that audit and feedback (A &F) can be an effective tool for practice change. However, questions remain about how to optimize A&F. The objectives of this project were to determine if: 1) there are differences in practice between physicians who do, and do not, consent to receive a confidential report on their practice and; 2) if there is a relationship between consenting physicians self-predicted and actual practice. Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study embedded in a larger quality improvement (QI) initiative to align physician practice with best evidence in the emergency department (ED) care of infants with bronchiolitis. All physicians practicing in the ED of a tertiary care pediatric hospital were offered the opportunity to consent to receive an individual, confidential data report on their practice. Prior to receiving their data, consenting physicians completed a survey which asked them to predict the proportion of bronchiolitic patients for whom they ordered diagnostic tests or treatments. We used chi-squared testing to compare the proportion of consenting and non-consenting physicians whose diagnostic test (Chest X-ray (CXR), viral study) and treatment (steroid, Ventolin) ordering was above the median for all ED physicians. We used Pearsons correlation to assess the relationship between consenting physicians self -predicted and actual practice. Results: 56% (37/66) of physicians consented to receive a data report. The median proportion of patients with an x-ray ordered was 20%, 63% of non-consenters were above the median, compared to 36% of consenters (X2 (1, N=66)=4.91 p=0.03). For viral testing, 31% of patients had a test ordered, with 50% of non-consenters and 50% consenters above the median (( X2 (1, N=66) =0 p=1); 11% of patients had steroids ordered, with 53% of non-consenters and 47% of consenters above the median ( X2 (1, N=66)=0.24 p-0.621); and 18% of patients had Ventolin ordered, with 60% of non-consenters and 42% of consenters above the median ( X2 (1, N=66) =2.2 p=0.138). There was a moderate correlation between physicians predicted and actual practice with respect to viral testing (r=0.67), but minimal correlation for CXR (0.05), steroids (r=0.17) or Ventolin (r=0.33) ordering. Conclusion: The finding that physicians have a limited ability to accurately predict their own performance emphasizes the importance of providing physicians with feedback. However, our results suggest that the consent process may be a potential barrier to effective A &F.
The suboptimal provision of analgesia to children in the emergency department (ED) is well-described. A yet unexplored barrier is caregiver or child refusal of analgesia. We sought to evaluate the frequency of caregiver/child acceptance of analgesia offered in the ED.
We conducted a two-centre cross-sectional study of 743 caregivers of children 4–17 years presenting to the pediatric ED with an acutely painful condition using a survey and medical record review. The primary outcome was the proportion of children/caregiver pairs who accepted analgesia in the ED.
The median (IQR) age of children was 11 (7) years, and 339/743 (45.6%) were female. The overall survey response rate was 73% (743/1018). In the 24 hours preceding ED arrival, the median (IQR) maximal pain score rated by children and caregivers was 8/10 (4) and 5/10 (2), respectively, and 30.4% (226/743) of caregivers offered analgesia. In the ED, children reported a median (IQR) pain score of 8/10 (2) and 54.9% (408/743) were offered analgesia. When offered in the ED, analgesia was accepted by 91% (373/408). Overall, 55.7% (414/743) of children received some form of analgesia.
Most caregivers/children accept analgesia when offered by ED personnel, suggesting refusal is not a major barrier to optimal management of children’s pain and highlighting the importance of ED personnel in encouraging adequate analgesia. A large proportion of children in pain are not offered analgesia by caregivers or ED personnel. Educational strategies for recognizing and treating pain should be directed at children, caregivers, and ED personnel.
Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs) and Practice-Based Research Networks (PBRNs) have complementary missions. We replicated a 2008 survey of CTSA-PBRN leaders to understand how organizational relationships have evolved.
We surveyed 60 CTSA community engagement (CE) Directors and 135 PBRN Directors and analyzed data using between and within-group comparisons.
In total, 43% of CTSA CE Directors (26/60) and 42% of PBRN Directors (57/135) responded. Quantitative responses revealed growing alignment between CTSA/PBRN perceptions, with a few areas of discordance. CE Directors noted declining financial support for PBRNs. PBRN Directors identified greater CTSA effectiveness in PBRN engagement, consultation, and collaborative grant submissions. Qualitative data revealed divergent experiences across CTSA/PBRN programs.
Relationships between CTSAs and PBRNs are maturing; for some that means strengthening and for others a growing vulnerability. Findings suggest a mutual opportunity for PBRNs and CTSAs around applied research. Studies to characterize exemplar CTSA-PBRN collaborations are needed.
The topics of quality improvement (QI) and patient safety have become important themes in health care in recent years, particularly in the emergency department setting, which is a frequent point of contact with the health care system for patients. In the first of three articles in this series meant as a QI primer for emergency medicine clinicians, we introduced the strategic planning required to develop an effective QI project using a fictional case study as an example. In this second article we continue with our example of improving time to antibiotics for patients with sepsis, and introduce the Model for Improvement. We will review what makes a good aim statement, the various categories of measures that can be tracked during a QI project, and the relative merits and challenges of potential change concepts and ideas. We will also present the Model for Improvement’s rapid-cycle change methodology, the Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycle. The final article in this series will focus on the evaluation and sustainability of QI projects.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: (1) To propose an iterative decision-making model of care planning for CSHCN. (2) To identify targets warranting measurement in future studies of SDM in care planning for CSHCN. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Conceptual model developed by a multidisciplinary team iteratively considering the complex relationships among diverse factors affecting care planning for CSHCN, informed by clinical and implementation science experience and a scoping literature review of medical and cognitive sciences literature addressing interpersonal decision-making, communication, negotiation, and trust among children, their parents, and their clinicians. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Decision-making interventions in pediatrics tend to focus narrowly on single acute decisions, providing minimal guidance for decisions related to chronic disease management over time. Few models account for the role of the child in the decision-making process, despite their ongoing development. Therefore, we propose a model of shared decision-making in the context of managing chronic illness in children that recognizes all actors and can support both the design of clinical care and research. This model—The SDM Learning Loop Model—highlights the dynamic iterative nature of exchanges between and among the clinical team and the parent-child dyad and recognizes the child as the center of each decision-making cycle. The model accounts for key practice, family, experiential, and emotional contexts influencing the decision-making encounter. In this model, change in child health status and developmental capacity resulting from a given cycle’s care plan will directly influence the relationship between clinician and parent-child dyad (eg, mutual trust, attunement) and impact each party’s engagement in the next round of decision-making. The relationship between experience and outcome stimulates learning. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our proposed SDM Learning Loop Model suggests that increasing the shared nature of decision making is not only likely to optimize care planning, but creates “buy-in” that can both reinforce the impact of positive outcomes, and moderate the negative impact on relationships when the outcome is other than desired. We hypothesize that this model can guide care planning and shape research to the benefit of both clinical outcomes and clinician-family relationships. Future work should focus on the development and validation of measures to account for the experiential and emotional contexts in which such decisions are made, and the outcomes of care in this population.
Emergency medicine (EM) providers work in a fast-paced and often hectic environment that has a high risk for patient safety incidents and gaps in the quality of care. These challenges have resulted in opportunities for frontline EM providers to play a role in quality improvement (QI) projects. QI has developed into a mature field with methodologies that can dramatically improve the odds of having a successful project with a sustainable impact. However, this expertise is not yet commonly taught during professional training. In this first of three articles meant as a QI primer for EM clinicians, we will introduce QI methodology and strategic planning using a fictional case study as an example. We will review how to identify a QI problem, define components of an effective problem statement, and identify stakeholders and core change team members. We will also describe three techniques used to perform root cause analyses—Ishikawa diagrams, Pareto charts and process mapping—and how they relate to preparing for a QI project. The next two papers in this series will focus on the execution of the QI project itself using rapid-cycle testing and on the evaluation and sustainability of QI projects.
To determine parental experiences and preferences regarding the conduct of pediatric research in an emergency department (ED) setting.
We conducted a cross-sectional study of parents of children ages 0 – 14 years who visited the ED of a tertiary care children’s hospital. Parents completed a Web-based survey designed to assess perceptions regarding: 1) background/training of research personnel, 2) location and timing of research discussions, and 3) factors influencing their consent/refusal decision.
Parents totalling 339 were approached, and 227 (67%) surveys were completed. Overall, 87% (197/227; 95% confidence interval [CI] 83, 92) reported they would be comfortable being approached by a university student to discuss research. This proportion did not change when stratified by the child’s gender, illness severity, or season of visit. Whereas only 37% (84/227; 95% CI 31, 43) of respondents would be comfortable being approached in the waiting room, 68% (154/227; 95% CI 62, 75) would be comfortable if approached in a separate area of the main waiting room. The majority reported comfort with follow-up via email (83%; 188/227; 95% CI 78, 88) or telephone (80%; 182/227; 95% CI 75, 85); only 51% (116/227; 95% CI 44, 57) would be comfortable with a scheduled follow-up visit in the hospital. Participants identified potential complications or side effects as the most common reason for declining consent (69%; 157/227; 95% CI 63, 75).
The majority of parents are comfortable being approached by trained university students, preferably in a separate area of an ED waiting room, and email and telephone follow-ups are preferred over a scheduled re-visit.