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Data on short-term peripheral intravenous catheter–related bloodstream infections per 1,000 peripheral venous catheter days (PIVCR BSIs per 1,000 PVC days) rates from Latin America are not available, so they have not been thoroughly studied.
International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) members conducted a prospective, surveillance study on PIVCR BSIs from January 2010 to March 2018 in 100 intensive care units (ICUs) among 41 hospitals, in 26 cities of 9 countries in Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican-Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, and Venezuela). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Health Safety Network (NHSN) definitions were applied, and INICC methodology and INICC Surveillance Online System software were used.
In total, 10,120 ICU patients were followed for 40,078 bed days and 38,262 PVC days. In addition, 79 PIVCR BSIs were identified, with a rate of 2.06 per 1,000 PVC days (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.635–2.257). The average length of stay (ALOS) of patients without a PIVCR BSI was 3.95 days, and the ALOS was 5.29 days for patients with a PIVCR BSI. The crude extra ALOS was 1.34 days (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.0975–1.6351; P = .040).
The mortality rate in patients without PIVCR BSI was 3.67%, and this rate was 6.33% in patients with a PIVCR BSI. The crude extra mortality was 1.70 times higher. The microorganism profile showed 48.5% gram-positive bacteria (coagulase-negative Staphylococci 25.7%) and 48.5% gram-negative bacteria: Acinetobacter spp, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella spp (8.5% each one), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.7%), and Candida spp (2.8%). The resistances of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were 0% to amikacin and 50% to meropenem. The resistance of Acinetobacter baumanii to amikacin was 0%, and the resistance of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus to oxacillin was 75%.
Our PIVCR BSI rates were higher than rates from more economically developed countries and were similar to those of countries with limited resources.
The aim was to analyse invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) serotypes in children aged ⩽17 years according to clinical presentation and antimicrobial susceptibility. We conducted a prospective study (January 2012–June 2016). IPD cases were diagnosed by culture and/or real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Demographic, microbiological and clinical data were analysed. Associations were assessed using the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Of the 253 cases, 34.4% were aged <2 years, 38.7% 2–4 years and 26.9% 5–17 years. Over 64% were 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) serotypes. 48% of the cases were diagnosed only by real-time PCR. Serotypes 3 and 1 were associated with complicated pneumonia (P < 0.05) and non-PCV13 serotypes with meningitis (OR 7.32, 95% CI 2.33–22.99) and occult bacteraemia (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.56–8.76). Serotype 19A was more frequent in children aged <2 years and serotypes 3 and 1 in children aged 2–4 years and 5–17 years, respectively. 36.1% of cases were not susceptible to penicillin and 16.4% were also non-susceptible to cefotaxime. Serotypes 14, 24F and 23B were associated with non-susceptibility to penicillin (P < 0.05) and serotypes 11, 14 and 19A to cefotaxime (P < 0.05). Serotype 19A showed resistance to penicillin (P = 0.002). In conclusion, PCV13 serotypes were most frequent in children aged ⩽17 years, mainly serotypes 3, 1 and 19A. Non-PCV13 serotypes were associated with meningitis and occult bacteraemia and PCV13 serotypes with pneumonia. Non-susceptibility to antibiotics of non-PCV13 serotypes should be monitored.
Previously, we showed the usefulness of the REF scale to assess referential thinking (Rodríguez-Testal et al., 2001; 2009) although it isn’t specific for patients with psychotic disorders (Rodríguez-Testal et al., 2008).
This instrumental work aims to replicate the exploratory factor analysis about the Referential Thinking Scale (REF scale) already developed by Lenzenweger et al. (1997) to examine its multidimensionality.
Participants: The analyzed sample consisted of 193 participants (67.36% women, mean 28.36 years old, SD = 10.35), of whom 131 were patients.
Design, materials and procedure: We used the REF-scale (Lenzenweger et al., 1997) adapted to Spanish language. This questionnaire consists of 34 items that assess the frequency of referential thinking on a dichotomic scale (true/false). We used SPSS 15.0 to conduct a principal-components factor analysis with a varimax and oblimin rotation.
The principal-components factor analysis method led to 5 factors that explain 37.35% of variance for the rotated solution. Because of inter-factors correlations are small, we considered these factors as being independent. The five factors were labeled as: Laughter, Commentaries (it accounted for 8.92% of variance); Guilt (it accounted for 8.77% of variance); Causal Explanations (it accounted for 7.17% of variance); Songs, Newspapers, Books (it accounted for 6.44% of variance); and Attention, Appearance (it accounted for 6.04% of variance).
It's obtained the five factors isolated in previous studies (Lenzenweger et al., 1997; Rodríguez-Testal et al., 2001). However, the multidimensionality of the REF scale must be viewed with caution because of a small percentage of explained variance.
In Spain, consumption of psychotropic drugs is high and benzodiazepines represent 74% of the total. His prescription in primary care is very common and their use continues to grow. They are safe and effective drugs, but patients with prolonged use are elaborating the most adverse effects, particularly the dependency.
Descriptive ans cross-sectional.
Primary Health Care.
We seleted 202 patients treated with benzodiazepines, consecutive sample, belonging to the health center Los Barrio who were seen in consultation during 2009.
We conducted through a questionnaire that cointained the treatment and demographic characteristics.
We detect a frequency of use of benzodiazepines 9% (95% CI 4,7-12,1%). The profile of the consumer responds to middle-aged woman, with primary and housewives. Somatic diseases were associated in 72.6% (CI 67,2-77,5%) and had mental pathology at 59.7% (CI 53,9-65,3%). 35% (95% 29,6-40,6%) of prescribed benzodiazepines were clorazape dipotassium. Consumption was constant for over a year. The prescription from primary care represents 81% (95% 76,3-85,4%) and in 65% (CI 59,3-70,3%) is associated with other psychoactive drug.
In our area, highlights the prescription of benzodiazepines from primary care on demand and consumption during prolonged time. Interventions should be conducted on the prescription of benzodiazepines in medical and other interventions for patient support.
Kernberg's classification of personality disorders (1987) differentiates psychic organization according to the severity: neurotic, borderline and psychotic. Lenzenweger et al. (2001) used a reduced version of IPO with 57 items developed by Kernberg and Clarkin (1995).
Objectives and hypothesis
IPO was applied in a sample of patients and a control group. We expected to find an adequate reliability and validity of the inventory. Scales adequately distinguish content borderline, neurotic and psychotic.
Participants: 288 subjects (64.9% women), 116 patients attended to private clinical practice from February 2007 to September 2009. 172 control subjects matched by sex, social class and sincerity (EPI).
Transversal design, a measure collective in the comparison group and individual in patients ones. A group of patients was selected for the retest (n = 88).
Instruments. We applied IPO, the BPRS, MCMI-II and MIPS. Diagnoses according to DSM-IV-TR.
Internal consistency (Cronbach) was adequate for the three scales: .83; .90 and .89. The testretest reliability was correct for a mean interval of 44 days (.78; .81; .78). The validity analyses differed between diagnostic groups in Axis I (p< .05), but not in the clusters of personality (p>.05). No differences in BPRS with scale of borderline, but yes with neurotic and psychotic ones. The MCMI-II was properly differentiated by the three scales of the IPO.
The IPO is an useful scale with reliability and validity. The main drawback concerns certain aspects of the borderline scale.
Sexuality is a crucial area of human life. A proper examination to assess and detect problems in this field, it seems imperative to intervene when transsexual patients. Therefore accurately known, the sexual practices of these patients, allows us to work directly on possible alterations in the functioning of sexual life during the therapeutic process.
Describe patterns of sexual behavior in patients diagnosed with transsexualism
Gender and Identity Disorder Unit (GIDU)
Selected by consecutive sampling, 200 transsexuals treated at GIDU Malaga, aged between 20 and 40 years and who agreed to participate in the study. Comprising 142 transgender male-to-woman (MtW) and 58 women-to-man (WtM).
Was conducted through a heterocompleted questionnaire that included questions about sexuality, personality traits and demographic characteristics. These were filled in the consultation and were anonymous.
11.6% of MtW transsexuals have never had sex. 26.8% of the MtW and 29% of WtM are more than 3 months without masturbating. 54.1% of the MtW avoid having sex due to the rejection of his genitals, lack of sexual desire and previous traumatic experience. Transgender respondents had secondary education, stable jobs and they were single.
It is vital that we explore the sex lives of transsexual patients. This information must be integrated in a systematic and rigorous evaluation process. According to the results presented, the hyposexuality would be the most significant feature that describes sexuality for this population.
Previously (Rodríguez-Testal et al., 2001) we analysed the multidimensionality of Referential Thinking Scale, obtaining similar results to original research of Lenzenweger et al. (1997) but warning about the construction of subscales.
In this study we intended to analyse if the REF Scale is a good indicator to differentiate the two subtypes of paranoia “Bad Me” and “Poor Me” (Trower & Chadwick, 1995).
Participants: We analyzed data from a different sample of previous studies with 326 participants (64.11% women, mean age 30.8, SD = 10.84), of whom 212 were patients.
Design, materials and procedure: We used the REF-scale (Lenzenweger et al., 1997) adapted to Spanish language, of which we deleted two items because of psychometric criteria, resulting 32 dichotomic items. We used SPSS 15.0 to conduct a principal-components factor analysis with a varimax and oblimin rotation, retaining two factors.
Two factors explained 31.32% of the variance (rotated solution). We interpreted factor through factor loadings higher than .42. Factor 1 accounted for 18.28% of the variance and it's associated with referential laughter, commentaries and guilt. Factor 2 accounted for 13.05% of the variance and it's associated with referential concerns related to the media.
Since the inter-factor correlation is moderate (.44) and there are no relevant clinical differences about the content between the two factors, the REF scale is a one-dimensional measure. Therefore, two big factors don’t emerge from the REF scale related to referential concerns about laughter-commentaries and guilt that correspond to “Poor Me” and “Bad Me”, respectively.
In previous works we demonstrated the utility of the REF scale for the assessment referential thinking (Rodríguez-Testal et al., 2001) although it wasn't specific for patients with psychotic disorder (Rodríguez-Testal et al., 2008).
Objectives and hypotheses
We analyzed the psychometric properties of reliability and validity of the REF scale. We compared the differences in referential thinking between subjects with and without psychopathology. In the patient group we will not obtain differences in referential-thinking between diagnosis types of Axis I, Axis II, or patients with diagnoses on both axes.
Participants: 120 subjects, 70 patients attending a private center of clinic psychology, 64.3 % women, mean age = 35.21 (SD = 10.5) and 50 controls selected from the normal population, 54 % women, mean age = 33.48 (SD = 10.83).
It was applied a cross design for a correlation method of comparison between groups. All the analysis were accepted at p< .05.
We reached adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha= .90, split-half reliability= .83 and .82). The test-restest reliability was significant (mean interval of 44 days). There are significant differences in referential thinking between subjects with and without psychopathology (t=3.8; p=.001). There are significant differences in referential thinking between types of diagnoses (F=3.99; p=.001).
The REF scale has adequate psychometric properties (reliability and validity). It discriminated between patients and no-patients, and between the different types of diagnoses, especially for those who suffer psychotic disorders.
Stress and trauma have been reported as leading contributing factors in schizophrenia. And certainly child abuse (neglect, emotional, physical and sexual abuse among others) has a lasting negative impact, which is well established in literature.
To consider the presence of infant trauma and its relationship with psychopathology in paranoid schizophrenics.Methods. 37 patients (mean age 29±6.3; years from onset 9.20±4.7), meeting DSM IV paranoid schizophrenia criteria, undergoing treatment in a university hospital are studied. The PANSS is administered in order to rate psychopathology.
27 patients had infant trauma (55.8%). Main traumas are: sexual abuse (12.8%), child abuse (7.7%), both sexual and child abuse (5.18%), parental separation (7.7%), extra-rigid parents (2.6%), alcoholic parents (18.2%), child abuse and mother's death in childhood (2.6%). Infant trauma and psychopathology showed a significant relationship concerning Hostility (No 1.75±1.209, Yes 2.26±1.759), Unnatural Movements and Posture (No 1.55±0.945, Yes 1.16±0.545), Depression (No 1.25±0.550, Yes 1.74±1.284) and Preoccupation (No 2.75±1.410, Yes 3.26±1.996).
Infant trauma is common in paranoid schizophrenia and our findings give some evidence to a relationship with psychopathology, especially with dimensions as Hostility, Unnatural Movements and Posture, Depression and Preoccupation. Despite sample size, a high proportion (55.8%) of the patients presented infant trauma and future research is needed in order to open new avenues in this field, particularly studies concerning infant trauma and symptomatology specificity will be greatly appreciated as well as the plausible link to personality traits and personality disorders.
In previous works we used the REF scale of referential thinking as criterion of therapeutic evolution (Benítez-Hernández et al., 2006; Rodríguez-Testal et al., 2009).
Objectives and hypotheses
We designed a group therapy of social skills for monitoring and modification of the referential thinking. We predict a decrease of referential thinking (frequency and intensity) both in pretest and posttest measures for each session, as in the progress of the all sessions as a whole.
Participants: 5 women from 24 to 38 years old with the diagnoses: Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia and history of Sexual Abuse; generalized Social Phobia; Avoidance Personality Disorder; Bipolar I Disorder; Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Avoidance Personality Disorder. It's employed a longitudinal design (brief time-series) of REF measurement (frequency and intensity) at a weekly interval. C Young (p < 0.01) was used for the statistical analysis of the data, t (paired samples) and the method of least squares to obtain the trend line.
#1: frequency-posttest (p=.01).
#2: intensity-pretest (p =.01); intensity-posttest, C =.663 (p< .01).
#3: intensity-pretest, C =.772 (p< .01), intensity-posttest, C =.681 (p< .01).
#4: frequency-pretest, C =.695 (p< .01), frequency- posttest, C =.74 (p< .01).
#5: frequency-pretest and frequency-posttest (p>.01).
Preliminary analysis indicates an improvement of referential thinking in the frequency and intensity both intra and inter-sessions. More therapy sessions are needed to reflect a change statistically significant.
In previous works we found that REF scale (Lenzenweger et al., 1997) is a stable and reliable measure (Rodríguez-Testal et al., 2009).
In this study we assess the sensitivity of REF scale to detect the disorganization of patient's mental state longitudinally.
Participants: It's a 35-year-old man diagnosed with Schizotypal Personality Disorder. He had a psychotic breakdown and he is being treated with haloperidol. The psychological intervention is cognitive type.
Design, materials and procedure: We used an experimental adaptation of the REF-scale. This self-applied scale consists of 34 items that evaluate the referential thinking in Likert format. We employed a longitudinal design (brief time-series). C Young (p < 0.01) was used for the statistical analysis of the data and the method of least squares to obtain the trend line. We included 103 measures registered at an interval of 3 days.
It's observed a significant declining trend in the whole of the measures both intensity and frequency from the beginning of therapy. However, we observed a significant declining trend in intensity but not in frequency when we analyzed the data from the 50th measurement, which was the period during which the patient got worse.
It's confirmed again that the REF-scale is a stable and reliable measure. It's able to detect changes in the patient's evolution of the referential thinking from the beginning of therapy. In addition, the REF-scale is sensitive detecting decompensations in patients. Therefore, we conclude REF scale is a useful measure for the subsequent decision-making therapeutic.
We created an experimental adaptation of the REF scale (Lenzenweger et al., 1997), in a Likert format for discriminate between frequency and intensity of referential thinking (Rodríguez-Testal et al., 2008).
Objectives and hypotheses
We try to verify if the Likert format of the REF discriminates between controls and patients, and also in patients with different diagnoses. We predict that there will be differences in frequency and intensity between patients and controls.
Participants: 108 subjects, 40 patients from a private center of clinical psychology, 55% women, mean age = 35.70 (SD = 12.42) and 68 controls selected from the normal population, 50% women, mean age = 36.35 (SD = 12.99).
It was applied a cross design for a correlation method of comparison between groups. All the analysis were accepted at p< .05.
No differences in referential thinking between patients and controls with Likert format in frequency (t = 1.496, P = 1.14), although there were differences in intensity (t = 2.30, p =.023). No significant differences in referential thinking between types of diagnoses with the Likert format (X2 = 6.63, p =. 249).
The Likert format of the REF scale adequately discriminates between patients and controls in intensity but not in frequency. This format doesn't discriminate between different diagnoses. The Likert format induces and overestimates the response.
In previous works, referential thinking was predicted by clinical and dispositional variables such as social anxiety or vulnerability to depression (Rodríguez-Testal, Senín-Calderón & Fernández-Jiménez, submitted to revision).
Objectives and hypotheses
We propose to find personality variables to characterize the emergence of referential thinking. We predict a greater referential thinking in subjects with a high sensitivity to punishment and higher scores on social anxiety.
Participants: 366 subjects selected from the general population, 66.6% women, mean age = 33.18 (SD = 12.79).
We used the REF-scale (Lenzenweger et al., 1997) adapted to Spanish language, GHQ-28 (Goldberg, 1996), SPSRQ (Torrubia et al., 2001) and The Revised Self-Consciousness Scale (Scheier & Carver, 1985).
It was applied a cross-sectional design and a correlation method. All the analysis were accepted at p < .05.
The multiple linear regression analysis showed the importance of the clinical variable of depression, public self-consciousness, and sensitivity to reward and punishment as predictors of referential thinking (34% of the variance explained). The discriminant analysis according to scores in referential thinking was significant (Lambda = .87, p = .001). The combination of the above variables correctly classified 85.1% of cases.
Subjects more concerned about how they are perceived by others tend to a greater presence of self-references, although they don’t show a high score in social anxiety. Susceptibility to reward and high vulnerable to punishment are the personality variables that best predicted referential thinking.
The introduction of the first atypical antipsychotic with a long acting formulation has open new therapeutic options for the treatment of schizophrenic patients. Our objective consists of comparing psychopathology levels and global functioning in patients with paranoid schizophrenia treated in monotherapy either with long-acting injectable risperidone (LAIR) or conventional depot antipsychotics (DA).
Patients attending at the community mental health center during the six-month recruitment period were eligible to enter the study. Scores achieved in positive and negative subscales of PANNS and EEAG scale of (Global Activity Evaluating Scale) were evaluated at baseline and 6 months later. Six patients treated with RLAI and six patients treated with DA were recruited. Data were analyzed both with the real sample (N=6 per group) and extrapoling the same results to a bigger sample size (N=24 per group).
Mean increase in scores for both PANNS positive and negative subscales were lower in patients treated with RLAI that in those treated with DA (positive subscale: 0.018±0.06 vs. 0.048±0.03, RLAI and DA, respectively, p=0.387; negative subscale: 0.232±0.076 vs. 0.3095±0.123, RLAI and DA, respectively, p=0.579). EEAG scores were higher for patients treated with RLAI than those treated with DA (1.250±0.56 vs. 0.333±0.225, p=0.144). When these results are extrapolated to a sample of 24 patients per group, differences in EEAG reach statistical significance (p=0.034).
After 6 months of treatment, patients treated with RLAI tend to show a greater improvement in their global activity than those treated with DA.
Natural polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) are low molecular weight highly protonated aliphatic molecules that physiologically modulate NMDA, AMPA/kainate glutamatergic receptors and limbic dopaminergic neurotransmission. Previous studies had demonstrated that polyamine metabolism might be disrupted in schizophrenia, what could potentially be linked to glutamatergic dysfunction. In particular, polyamine levels in blood and fibroblast cultures from patients with schizophrenia had previously been found to be higher than in healthy controls. Indeed, a significant positive correlation between blood polyamine levels and severity of illness may exist.
In order to test potential differences in blood polyamine levels between drug-free schizophrenia in-patients (n = 12), and healthy controls (n = 26, blood donors), spermidine (spd), spermine (spm), and spermidine/spermine index (spd/spm) were determined using HPLC after dansylation.
No significant differences were found between groups (t = 0,974; df = 36; P = 0,337 for spd, t = l0, 52; df = 36; P = 0,959 for Spm, and, t = 0, 662; df = 36; P = 0,512 for spd/spm).
Though we couldn’t replicate previous findings suggesting disturbances in blood polyamine levels in schizophrenia, this issue may be a promising target. Future research should take into account possible factors such as sex, nutritional state, and stress.
In a previous study (Senín-Calderón et al., 2010) we observed that the REF scale of referential thinking (Lenzenweger et al., 1997) didn’t discriminate among different mental disorders.
Objectives and hypotheses
We try to verify if self-references in various disorders are related to the severity of psychopathology (patients from public hospital and a private clinical). We predict that there will be differences between patients and controls, but not between the clinical samples. Psychotic disorders will be characterized by a significantly greater presence of self-references.
Participants: 287 subjects, 47 patients from a private clinical center, 57.4% women (mean age = 35.02, SD = 12.69), 30 patients from a public hospital, 53.3% women (38.36 years, SD = 9.53), and 210 controls selected from the general population, 50.5% women (33.80 years, SD = 11.79). Cross-sectional design, correlation method. All analysis were accepted at p < .05.
There are significant differences in self-references between patients and controls in frequency (t (285) = 2.33, p = . 021) and intensity (t (83.98) = 3.59, p = . 001). No significant differences between patients groups (p>.05) (REF-intensity without homogeneity, p < .05). No significant differences in self-references between types of diagnoses except psychotic patients versus adjustment disorder (frequency and intensity).
Self-references are highlighted in psychosis but, with the exception of adjustment disorders, doesn’t discriminate between personality, mood or anxiety disorders. Differences are more related to the clinical severity (BPRS) than with referential thinking.
A growing interest in the potential role of polyamines in stress, mood disorders and suicidal behavior has recently emerged. In particular, the expression of polyamine's rate-limiting catabolic enzyme (SAT-1, Spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase-1) may be reduced in ventral prefrontal cortex and posterior cyngulate gyrus of patients who committed suicide. However, there is some controversy regarding the involvement of potential cis-acting loci controlling SAT-1 gene expression (rs6526342 or rs17286006) in suicidal behavior. Moreover, a significant association between SAT-1 rs1960264 SNP and anxiety disorders has been found in a male caucasian spanish sample.
In order to test the potential association of SAT-1 -1415T/C SNP (rs1960264) with suicidal behavior, genotype frequencies for that SNP were compared between 193 suicidal attempters (126 female and 67 male) and 650 non-suicidal patients (314 female and 336 male) from an in-patient sample.
We could not find a significant difference in the distribution of the genotypes for rs1960264 SNP between suicide attempters versus non-suicidal individuals (Linear-by-Linear association X2 = 0,203; df = 1; P = 0,652, females; Linear-by-Linear association X2 = 0,000; df = 1; P = 0,990, males). Neither could we demonstrate a relationship between rs1960264 genotype and past history of suicidal attempts (Linear-by-Linear association X2 = 2,966 ; df = 1; P = 0,085, females; Linear-by-Linear association X2 = 1,171; df = 1; P = 0,279, males).
Although we did not find a link between rs1960264 genotype and suicidal behavior, SAT-1 may be an interesting target to investigate the biology of this phenotype. Future studies should take into account other genetic polymorphisms at SAT-1, and definitively evaluate whether or not rs6526342 and rs1960264 have any functional implications.
Interest in the premorbid personality of schizophrenic patients is well established in the psychiatric literature. The relationship between personality disorders and acute phase proteins (APP) in schizophrenia is not well known.
Investigating the relationship among acute phase proteins and personality disorders in schizophrenic patients in a sample of adult schizophrenic patients under psychiatric treatment in a general hospital health setting.
Material and Methods:
37 adult paranoid schizophrenics undergoing treatment in the University Hospital of the Canary Islands with DSM-IV diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia are included. Years from onset 9.20 s.d. 6.29, age at onset 19.75 s.d. 4.73. The record of personality disorders as a secondary diagnosis in the medical chart was taking into account. A blood sample as routine standard analysis was carried out in each patient.
In 21 patients (56.7%) a personality disorder, mainly with paranoid and schizotypal traits, was registered. The percentage of each personality disorder is as follows, Schizotypal (16.2%), Paranoid (13.5%), Schizoid (2.7%), Paranoid and Schizotypal (24.3%). The results point to no significant correlation according to APP (C3, C4, alpha2-macroglobulin, alpha1-glicoprotein, ceruloplasmin) in the different diagnostic groups.
Discussion and conclusions:
In our study there is no evidence to support a significant correlation among APP and the different personality disorders in our sample of schizophrenics in spite of a positive correlation of APP and some psychopathology dimensions that has been communicated earlier elsewhere. In order to set some possible specificity of acute phase proteins and other clinical features in schizophrenia further research is required.