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Fatty acid taste (FAT) perception is involved in the regulation of dietary fat intake, where impaired FAT is associated with increased fatty food intake. There are a number of FAT receptors identified on human taste cells that are potentially responsible for FAT perception. Manipulating dietary fat intake, and in turn FAT perception, would elucidate which receptors are associated with long-term regulation of FAT perception. This study aimed to assess associations between diet-mediated changes to FAT receptors and FAT perception in humans. A co-twin randomized controlled trial was conducted, where each matching twin within a pair were randomly allocated to either an 8-week low-fat (LF; <20% energy fat) or high-fat (HF; >35% energy fat) diet. At baseline and week 8, fungiform papillae were biopsied in the fasted state and FAT receptor gene expressions (CD36, FFAR2, FFAR4, GPR84 and KNCA2) were measured using RT-PCR; and fatty acid taste threshold (FATT) was assessed using 3-alternate forced choice methodology. Linear mixed models were fitted, adjusting for correlation between co-twins. Intakes were compliant with the study design, with the LF and HF groups consuming 14.8% and 39.9% energy from fat, respectively. Expression of FFAR4 increased by 38% in the LF group (P=0.023; time-diet interaction P=0.063). Δ FFAR4 (Δ, week 8 – baseline) was associated with Δfat intake (g) (ˆβ=-159.4; P<0.001) and ΔFATT (ˆβ=-8.8; P=0.016). In summary, FFAR4 is involved in long-term diet-mediated changes to FAT perception. Manipulating dietary fat intake, and therefore FFAR4 expression, might aid in reducing taste-mediated passive overconsumption of fatty foods.
Space probes suffer from a fundamental problem, which is the limited energy available for their operation. Energy supply is essential for continuous operation and ultimately the most important sub-system for its sustainable functioning. Considering, for instance, the last space probe put on Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, called “Philae”, which was sent by Rosetta (http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Rosetta), to operate and to monitor comet activity, its operation was jeopardized due to the fact that it landed on a shadowed zone (no direct sunlight). Since its operational energy was only based on solar harvesters, the energy for its operation was limited by solar energy availability. In this paper a study on a viable alternative based on wireless power transmission is presented and discussed at the system level. It is proved that, using current technology, it is possible to create alternatives or supplement to existing power sources such as solar panels to power up these important space probes and to secure their operation.
The amount of the four caseins (αs1, αs2, β and κ-CN) in donkey milk was evaluated by Urea-PAGE analysis at pH 8.6, followed by immuno-detection with polyclonal antibodies, coupled to densitometric analysis. The results showed the percentage of each casein in decreasing order: β (54.28) > αs1 (35.59) > αs2 (7.19) > κ-CN (2.79). The mRNA quantification of donkey casein transcripts, carried out by RT-qPCR, showed that the average percentage of corresponding gene transcripts (CSN2, CSN1S1, CSN1S2 I and CSN3) was 70.85, 6.28, 14.23 and 8.65, respectively. The observed translation efficiency, assessed as percentage of single milk casein fraction out of single percentage of transcript, was 0.76, 5.66, 0.50 and 0.32, respectively. The analysis of the sequences flanking the start codon, the codon usage frequencies and the coding sequence length might explain, at least in part, the differential transcriptional and translational rate observed among the casein transcripts.
This work describes the design of a rectenna array exploiting orthogonal, closely-spaced UHF monopoles for orientation-independent RF energy harvesting to energize a passive tag, designed for UWB localization, with wake-up radio (WUR) capabilities. To reach this goal, different RF networks are studied to simultaneously realize RF decoupling of the antenna elements and matching of the radiating elements to the non-linear network of rectifiers. The design is performed for a wide power range of the RF incoming signals that need to be exploited for both energizing the passive tag and for providing energy autonomy to a WUR sub-system, used to minimize the long-term power consumption during tag standby operations. Two meandered cross-polarized monopoles, located in close proximity, and thus highly coupled, are adopted for orientation-insensitive operations. The combining RF network is reactive and includes an unbalanced power divider to draw a fraction of the harvested energy to a secondary way for WUR operations. The performance of the harvester is first optimized by EM/non-linear co-design of the whole system over an interval of low RF power levels. The system has been realized and experimentally validated: the superior results obtained, in terms of both dc voltage and power, with respect to a standard single-monopole rectenna, justify the deployment of the presented tag for the energy autonomy of future generation radio-frequency identification tags for indoor localization.
The production of Amarone wine is governed by a disciplinary guideline to preserve its typical features; however, postharvest infections by the fungus Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea) not only represent a phytosanitary problem but also cause a significant loss of product. In this study, we tested a treatment with mild ozoniztion on grapes for Amarone wine production during withering in the fruttaio (the environment imposed by the disciplinary guideline) and evaluated the impact on berry features by a multimodal imaging approach. The results indicate that short and repeated treatments with low O3 concentrations speed up the naturally occurring berry withering, probably inducing a reorganization of the epicuticular wax layer, and inhibit the development of B. cinerea, blocking the fungus in an intermediate vegetative stage. This pilot study will pave the way to long-term research on Amarone wine obtained from O3-treated grapes.
The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been associated with prolonged survival in the general population, but no meta-analysis has apparently investigated the potential health benefits in relation to mortality in the elderly. We performed a longitudinal analysis on 5200 individuals aged ≥65 years identified within the general population recruited in the Moli-sani study cohort (2005–2010). Adherence to the MD was appraised by the a priori Mediterranean diet score (MDS; range 0–9). Survival estimates were derived using Cox regression and competing risk models. For the meta-analysis, PubMed and Scopus databases were searched from inception until April 2018 to identify prospective studies on the MD and death risk in the elderly. Over a median follow-up of 8·1 years, a total of 900 deaths were ascertained in the elderly sub-sample of the Moli-sani cohort. A one-point increase in the MDS was associated with lower risk of all-cause, coronary artery disease/cerebrovascular and non-cardiovascular/non-cancer mortality (multi-variable hazard ratio (HR)=0·94; 95 % CI 0·90, 0·98; HR=0·91; 95 % CI 0·83, 0·99 and HR=0·89; 95 % CI 0·81, 0·96, respectively). In a meta-analysis of seven prospective studies, including our results, for a total of 11 738 participants and 3874 deaths, one-point increment in MDS was associated with 5 % (4–7 %) lower risk of all-cause death. An inverse linear dose–response relationship was found from a meta-analysis including three studies. In conclusion, a prospective cohort study and a meta-analysis showed that closer adherence to the MD was associated with prolonged survival in elderly individuals, suggesting the appropriateness for older persons to adopt/preserve the MD to maximise their prospects for survival.
Significant experimental evidence supports fat as a taste modality; however, the associated peripheral mechanisms are not well established. Several candidate taste receptors have been identified, but their expression pattern and potential functions in human fungiform papillae remain unknown. The aim of this study is to identify the fat taste candidate receptors and ion channels that were expressed in human fungiform taste buds and their association with oral sensory of fatty acids. For the expression analysis, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) from RNA extracted from human fungiform papillae samples was used to determine the expression of candidate fatty acid receptors and ion channels. Western blotting analysis was used to confirm the presence of the proteins in fungiform papillae. Immunohistochemistry analysis was used to localise the expressed receptors or ion channels in the taste buds of fungiform papillae. The correlation study was analysed between the expression level of the expressed fat taste receptors or ion channels indicated by qRT-PCR and fat taste threshold, liking of fatty food and fat intake. As a result, qRT-PCR and western blotting indicated that mRNA and protein of CD36, FFAR4, FFAR2, GPR84 and delayed rectifying K+ channels are expressed in human fungiform taste buds. The expression level of CD36 was associated with the liking difference score (R −0·567, β=−0·04, P=0·04) between high-fat and low-fat food and FFAR2 was associated with total fat intake (ρ=−0·535, β=−0·01, P=0·003) and saturated fat intake (ρ=−0·641, β=−0·02, P=0·008).
This paper discusses some significant design issues that are faced in resonant inductive system for wireless power transfer ‘on the move’. The targeted system adopts a single AC source to power a sequence of transmitting (Tx) coils, placed along the Rx path, whose geometry is optimized to minimize the variations of coupling for every possible Rx position. To retain a constant coupling coefficient, two nearby Tx coils are series-connected and simultaneously activated, establishing a path without any theoretical bound on its length, by a suitable switching network. This work analyzes the effects of asynchronous switching times, which are rigorously accounted for and minimized by a proper design of the compensating circuit elements, minimizing both the voltage spikes and the over currents on the coils, while keeping the system at resonance. A prototype operating at 6.78 MHz is built and experimental validations are carried out to verify the feasibility of a constant coupling link without experiencing the mentioned effects, but the adopted procedure is general and independent on its size or frequency.
Small islands can guide visualization of the diverse information requirements of future context-relevant coastal governance. On small marine islands (<20 000 km2), negative effects of coastal challenges (e.g., related to population growth, unsustainable resource use or climate change) can develop rapidly, with high intensity and extreme impacts. The smallest and most remote islands within small-island states and small islands in larger states can be threatened by intrinsic governance factors, typically resulting in access to fewer resources than larger islands or administrative centres. For these reasons, efforts to support coastal change governance are critical and need to be targeted. We propose a conceptual framework that distinguishes key governance-related components of small-island social–ecological systems (SESs). To prioritize areas of vulnerability and opportunity, physical, ecological, social, economic and governance attributes are visualized to help show the ability of different types of small-island SESs to adapt, or be transformed, in the face of global and local change. Application of the framework to an Indonesian archipelago illustrates examples of local rule enforcement supporting local self-organized marine governance. Visualization of complex and interconnected social, environmental and economic changes in small-island SESs provides a better understanding of the vulnerabilities and opportunities related to context-specific governance.
We analyse acoustic streaming flows using an arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) perspective. The formulation stems from an explicit separation of time scales resulting in two subproblems: a first-order problem, formulated in terms of the fluid displacement at the fast scale, and a second-order problem, formulated in terms of the Lagrangian flow velocity at the slow time scale. Following a rigorous time-averaging procedure, the second-order problem is shown to be intrinsically steady, and with exact boundary conditions at the oscillating walls. Also, as the second-order problem is solved directly for the Lagrangian velocity, the formulation does not need to employ the notion of Stokes drift, or any associated post-processing, thus facilitating a direct comparison with experiments. Because the first-order problem is formulated in terms of the displacement field, our formulation is directly applicable to more complex fluid–structure interaction problems in microacoustofluidic devices. After the formulation’s exposition, we present numerical results that illustrate the advantages of the formulation with respect to current approaches.
All performance involves some kind of communication between performer and spectator. After the socialist realist model was established in the mid-1980s, Soviet professional theaters typically relied on conventional input from patrons: attendance, emotional reactions during performances, and applause. Known for its exceptional interaction with audiences, the Taganka Theater decorated its lobby to correspond to a production and even asked spectators to cast ballots indicating whether they enjoyed the performance of Ten Days that Shook the World. But for professionals, such efforts to bridge the gulf between the stage and the house were unusual.
The job and joy of readers of short stories are, in part, to visualize what is on the pages. Inevitably, each reader sees the text differently, as the words connote – imply and suggest meaning – in ways that instigate connections with a reader's knowledge and past experiences. When filmmakers adapt short stories to large and small screens they take these highly connotative print texts and translate their readings of them into moving images that come with or without attending spoken words. Their way of visualizing – of reading – the literary text invariably differs from viewers’ readings, which should deepen each viewer's own discernment of the literary work, while simultaneously asking that a perspective other than one's own be considered.
In translating a short story into a cinematic text, the complex question of fidelity to the literature arises. Readers often assume that a page-to-screen filmmaker should be faithful to the literature by recreating the story, setting and characters in exacting compliance to what was written. Many filmmakers do see this as their key goal and strive for visual duplication of the literal world as described in the short story. This literal mode of adaptation, at its best, can create the sensation of film conjuring reality, of making readers feel that, as they watch the story-based movie, they are experiencing – entering and getting lost in – the very world that the writer has created.
However, the majority of short story-based films are not literal adaptations: they are traditional ones. A traditional adaptation allows filmmakers to alter particular details of the short story as they deem appropriate and necessary, while staying close to the narrative contours of the literature. These alterations may be in service of the filmmaker's inventive, stylistic or interpretive values, or for more practical concerns such as contemporary tastes, mores, political climate, censorship, equipment limitations, pressures in casting and budget restrictions. Short stories are particularly prone to traditional film adaptations as their brevity may require expansion of their source material to fit a feature-length movie.
The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) are medically important species that vector several arboviruses. Globally, populations of both species experience (and are sensitive to) photoperiodic variations. The present study aims to test if photoperiod regimes affect the population performance of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. Since mosquitoes have sex-specific strategies to maximize fitness, we also tested the hypothesis that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti would exhibit differences in the male and female response (sexually dimorphic response) to various photoperiod treatments. We reared cohorts of first instar larvae to adulthood in three photoperiod treatments: short day (10 h light), control (12 h light) and long day (14 h light). We measured and compared survival to adulthood, population growth, development time of males and females, and wing length across treatments. Although we detected no effects of photoperiod on the population performance of both species, we found evidence of a sexual dimorphic response to photoperiod in Ae. albopictus, but not in Ae. aegypti, with Ae. albopictus females being more sensitive to variations in photoperiod. The observed differences between sexes of Ae. albopictus are consistent with sex-specific developmental constraints. The absence of a sexually dimorphic response to photoperiod in Ae. aegypti can be attributed to different strategies evolved in this species to prepare for unfavourable conditions associated with shorter day length. We discuss the ecological and medical implications of our findings.
The optimal design problem for a wireless power transfer link based on a resonant inductive coupling is addressed in this paper. It is assumed that the magnetic coupling coefficient and the inductor quality factors are known. By employing the conjugate image impedances, the values of the inductances realizing the optimal design with respect to given values of the network input and load impedances are derived. It is demonstrated that there is just one optimal design maximizing both the power delivered to the load and the power transfer efficiency of the link. The four possible schemes corresponding to the use of a parallel or a series arrangement for the two coupled resonators (Parallel-Parallel, Series-Series, Parallel-Series, and Series-Parallel) are considered and discussed. Closed form analytical formulas are derived and validated by circuital simulations.
An unworked quartz vein-hosted gold deposit occurs in the Clew bay area of County Mayo, western Ireland. The veins are late-Caledonian in age and transect greenschist-facies poly-deformed Silurian quartzites. The veins contain disseminated arsenopyrite that may be a primary mineral source for elevated levels of arsenic (As) found in groundwater samples recovered from wells related spatially to the gold deposit. Levels from 5 to 188 μg/L (significantly above the 7.5 μg/L threshold for safe drinking water) have been detected. A series of element distribution maps using a scanning electron microscope (Hitachi model S-4700) linked to an energy-dispersive spectrometer (INCA® Oxford Instruments) and mineral distribution maps generated by QEMSCAN® (Quantitative Evaluation of Minerals by Scanning electron microscopy) were used to map the distribution of the primary arsenopyrite and related secondary As-bearing phases. Laser Raman microspectroscopy was used to identify the secondary As-bearing phases. 'Island weathering' of primary arsenopyrite together with hydrated pseudomorphs of arseniosiderite, pharmacosiderite and scorodite after arsenopyrite are recorded. Circulating groundwater hydrates the primary arsenopyrite, providing the release mechanism that forms the secondary As-bearing phases that occur as microfracture infills together with muscovite and biotite. The textural relationships between the primary and secondary As minerals indicate their potential as mineral sources of As that could enter transport pathways leading to its release into groundwater.
The sizeable presence of migrant care workers in the private care market in many European countries is confirmed by several studies that have explained the phenomenon through functional arguments, stressing the economic convenience of transnational markets and the crucial role played by public regulation. This paper focuses instead on the public and institutional discourses that have contributed to legitimising this private care market, characterised by the worsening of employment conditions and the decrease in care quality. The main argument of this paper is that the social recognition of these workers provides the public with the new concepts and rationales that determine the actual shape of the private care market.
Migrant care workers are usually, compared to other migrant workers, more welcome in the host society and less targeted by xenophobic attitudes, especially where their labour helps to meet a lack of public provision as is happening in Southern European countries. Nevertheless, their rights are not fully granted either as citizens or as workers: basic requirements in this migrant care market include for instance reduced wages, great flexibility, and informal contracts.
Our hypothesis is tested through the reconstruction of the public regulation and a content analysis of the public discourse that has accompanied this regulation for ten years (2002–2012) in Italy. The two main national newspapers have been taken into account. This analysis provides evidence on how market dynamics have been shaped by a deliberate political construction, which has relieved governments of the task of finding a public solution to care needs and has relegated migrant care workers to a subordinate social position, which is functional in making the care market work.
Volcanic rocks in south County Waterford include flow-top hyaloclastite, pillow lavas and peperite, which are formed typically by sub-aqueous eruption or intrusion into unconsolidated sediment. Element mobility in wet sediment during emplacement of volcanic intrusions was reconstructed on a variety of spatial scales using bulk-rock and mineral analysis. Magma-sediment and magma-water interactions enhanced hydrothermal alteration. The chemistry of chlorite was a function of mixing between an Fe-rich magmatic fluid and a Mg-rich meteoric fluid. Chlorite geothermometry yields temperatures of formation between 230 and 388°C compatible with other metamorphic indicators. Fluid inclusion microthermometric data from genetically-related mineralized quartz veins reveal a hydrothermal vein mineralization event that occurred at lower temperatures during the end stage of volcanic activity. A convection driven mixing trend reflects the trapping of co-existing brine with entrained seawater concomitant with, the late stages of emplacement of the Bunmahon Volcano intrusions.