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Identify and characterise the food industry’s involvement in nutrition and dietetics national and regional events in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Between February and April 2020, we conducted desk-based searches for nutrition and dietetics events held in the region between January 2018 and December 2019. Online freely accessible, publicly available information was collected on the involvement of the food industry through: sponsorship of events; sponsorship of sessions; speakers from the food industry; scholarships, fellowship, grants, awards and other prizes and; exhibition space/booths.
Nutrition and dietetics events in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Thirty-one events held in twenty countries of the region had information publicly available online at the period of data collection. There was a lack of transparency on the involvement of industry actors in these events. When information was publicly available, we found that a total of ninety-two food industry actors sponsored 88 % of these events.
There is a mostly unreported, but likely extensive, involvement of food industry actors in nutrition and dietetics events in Latin America and the Caribbean.
A set of embedded atom model (EAM) interatomic potentials was developed to represent highly idealized face-centered cubic (FCC) mixtures of Fe–Ni–Cr–Co–Al at near-equiatomic compositions. Potential functions for the transition metals and their crossed interactions are taken from our previous work for Fe–Ni–Cr–Co–Cu [D. Farkas and A. Caro: J. Mater. Res. 33 (19), 3218–3225, 2018], while cross-pair interactions involving Al were developed using a mix of the component pair functions fitted to known intermetallic properties. The resulting heats of mixing of all binary equiatomic random FCC mixtures not containing Al is low, but significant short-range ordering appears in those containing Al, driven by a large atomic size difference. The potentials are utilized to predict the relative stability of FCC quinary mixtures, as well as ordered L12 and B2 phases as a function of Al content. These predictions are in qualitative agreement with experiments. This interatomic potential set is developed to resemble but not model precisely the properties of this complex system, aiming at providing a tool to explore the consequences of the addition of a large size-misfit component into a high entropy mixture that develops multiphase microstructures.
Using an ensemble of close- and long-range remote sensing, lake bathymetry and regional meteorological data, we present a detailed assessment of the geometric changes of El Morado Glacier in the Central Andes of Chile and its adjacent proglacial lake between 1932 and 2019. Overall, the results revealed a period of marked glacier down wasting, with a mean geodetic glacier mass balance of −0.39 ± 0.15 m w.e.a−1 observed for the entire glacier between 1955 and 2015 with an area loss of 40% between 1955 and 2019. We estimate an ice elevation change of −1.00 ± 0.17 m a−1 for the glacier tongue between 1932 and 2019. The increase in the ice thinning rates and area loss during the last decade is coincident with the severe drought in this region (2010–present), which our minimal surface mass-balance model is able to reproduce. As a result of the glacier changes observed, the proglacial lake increased in area substantially between 1955 and 2019, with bathymetry data suggesting a water volume of 3.6 million m3 in 2017. This study highlights the need for further monitoring of glacierised areas in the Central Andes. Such efforts would facilitate a better understanding of the downstream impacts of glacier downwasting.
The coconut crab Birgus latro, the largest terrestrial decapod, is under threat in most parts of its geographical range. Its life cycle involves two biomes (restricted terrestrial habitats near the coast, and salt water currents of the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans). Its dependence on coastal habitat means it is highly vulnerable to the habitat destruction that typically accompanies human population expansion along coastlines. Additionally, it has a slow reproductive rate and can reach large adult body sizes that, together with its slow movement when on land, make it highly susceptible to overharvesting. We studied the distribution and population changes of coconut crabs at 15 island sites in coastal Tanzania on the western edge of the species' geographical range. Our aim was to provide the data required for reassessment of the extinction risk status of this species, which, despite indications of sharp declines in many places, is currently categorized on the IUCN Red List as Data Deficient. Pemba Island, Zanzibar, in Tanzania, is an important refuge for B. latro but subpopulations are fragmented and exploited by children and fishers. We discovered that larger subpopulations are found in the presence of crops and farther away from people, whereas the largest adult coconut crabs are found on more remote island reserves and where crabs are not exploited. Remoteness and protection still offer hope for this species but there are also opportunities for protection through local communities capitalizing on tourist revenue, a conservation solution that could be applied more generally across the species' range.
Conservation scientists continue to debate the strengths and weaknesses of REDD+ as an instrument to slow greenhouse gas emissions in the developing world. We propose that general positions on this debate are less helpful than drawing lessons from specific investigations into the features of individual projects that make them successful or not. Here, focusing on a site-specific REDD+ intervention in Pemba, Zanzibar (Tanzania), we examine the circumstances under which REDD+ has a chance of success, teasing out specific features of both REDD+ interventions and the socio-economic and institutional contexts that render REDD+ a potentially valuable complement to community forestry. Additionally, we highlight some unanticipated positive outcomes associated with the design features of REDD+ projects. Our broader goal is to move away from ideologically-driven debate to empirically-based identification of general conditions where REDD+ could work, and to provide policy recommendations.
To estimate the prevalence of depression and anxiety in caregivers of dependent grade II and III of a health center. Calculate the perceived social support for caregivers. Estimating the degree of caregiver stress. Assess the socio-demographic factors associated.
Descriptive and transversal.
Primary Health Care.
We selected 55 dependent caregivers grade II and III consecutive sample, according to the law of dependence, belonging to the health center Algeciras-North and were registered in the database of the Center on January 31, 2009. Exclude those who would not participate in the study, did not understand the Spanish language or could not contact with them.
We conducted through a questionnaire that contained heteroadministrated Hamilton scales for depression and anxiety, social support scale of the Duke, caregiver overload of Zarit and sociodemographic variables. The accomplishment was held at the home of the caregiver.
We detected the presence of depressive disorders in 47.3% (95% 14,6-39%) respondents and anxiety disorders in 25.5% (95% 23-6-61,1%). 36.4% (CI 95% 23,8-50,4%) of caregivers had low social support and overhead was 57.1% (CI 95% 43,2-70,9%).
Caregivers of Dependent grade II and III in our area are at risk of depressive disorders and anxiety. At the same time, they feel helpless, so we think it would be interesting to be given greater attention from health centers in order to identify them early.
About 27% of teenagers have some type of mental health disorder such as anxiety, depression and substance abuse. Depression is a serious disorder, most common in teenagers and often goes unnoticed. However, they can be detected early by teachers and we have effective treatments. Studies in European countries estimated the prevalence of adolescent depression around 12.55%, being more frequent in women. The prevalence increases with age and there are population studies that suggest that the high prevalence of depression is common in adolescents. One of the most important and most frequently associated with depression is suicide, becoming a serious health problem and constitute the third leading cause of death among adolescents between 15 and 24.
To estimate the prevalence of depression in adolescents in Spain. Rate sociodemographic variables associated.
Study desing: Observational, descriptive.
Study scope: Primary Care Health.
Subject of the study: Spanish students of 14 to 18 years old.
Variables to measure:Depression: Beck's depression index. Sociodemographics: Age, sex, course, repeater, number of siblings, smoker, drinker, toxic consumer, marital status of parents.
Sample size: It is calculated by accepting a signification level of 95%. A sample size of 2347 patients is estimated, including losses.
We will do an univariate analysis of qualitative variables by frequency and quantity by the mean, median and standard deviation. We will do a bivariate analysis using chi-square for qualitative variables and t test and ANOVA for qualitative as quantitative. Logistic regression will assess the factors that are associated with depression.
To describe the relation of psychosocial factors of care (phase illness, years of care, free time, extra help and symptoms of depression) influence the care burden of dementia family caregivers. To measure the relation of the level of depressive symptoms on an intense level of burden of the dementia family caregivers
Is selected a sample of 102 primary caregivers by criteria of inclusion to which a surveys do to those that the following information gathered: sociodemographic dates of the caregivers and of the dementia patients, care burden (Zarit Interview) and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory) of the family caregivers.
Most of the sample experiences an intense burden level (74%) opposite to a light level (26%). Psychosocial characteristics are as per statistics significant in increasing the care burden there were free time, extra help and presence of symptoms of depression.
Presence of serious symptoms of depression on the intense burden level are differently front or those who had a minor burden, 22% and 5% respectively.
There are most of the daughter-father/mother and spouse-spouse caregiver couples with a high percentage of caregivers of feminine sex (as in most of the studies realized on caregiver of dependent persons at European and international level). The need for free time and psychic self-care are cost-effective strategies to prevent the depressive disorders, as well as, to improve their caregiver’ws work. The psychoeducation programs that have being realized at European level directed to family caregiver are necessary in our country.
The extended release injectable offers a good alternative for those patients with no or poor adherence to treatment. Numerous studies indicate that decrease the number of relapses in such individuals. Our aim is to check whether a group of our patients diagnosed with dual pathology coincide with these data.
We followed a group of 5 patients diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia or delusional disorder with drug consumption in the last year. We measured the number of relapses, understood as the number of visits to emergency and outpatient devices Mental Health Hospitals and hospitalizations six months before the start of treatment with aripiprazole injectable extended release and six months after.
The preliminary results point to a significant reduction in the number of emergency room visits and hospitalizations after starting sustained release injectable treatment.
Our preliminary results are consistent with the literature, we found also reduced consumption of toxic and better adherence to drug addiction devices. The new antipsychotics extended release is a good alternative for patients with dual diagnosis.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Emerging drugs are a growing problem, of which we have little information and clinical experience and pose a challenge in everyday clinical practice because many are not detectable with the test at our disposal and its effect on cognition and behavior are not well known.
Conduct a thorough literature review of all the material in this regard has been published both in high impact journals and in the last International Congress of Dual Pathology.
There are many and varied new substances used for harmful/abuse consumption mainly for their sedative effects and/or hallucinogens, easily accessible since many are easily purchased online or can even be easily obtained at any pharmacy without a prescription.
There are more and more often consumed new substances with high harmful potential and very easy to obtain. It is therefore essential knowledge to identify, treat and educate not only our patients but to the general population.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Early eating behavioural traits could contribute to development of weight problems later in life. Evidence suggests children living in higher-poverty areas are at higher risk of overweight and obesity. The main objective was to investigate possible associations between weight status, eating and sedentary behaviours in pre-school children living in an area of high-poverty risk.
Materials and Methods
The children (3–4 years) and their parents living in a school district which is classified as being at a high risk of poverty were invited to participate for the study. Following consent, they were interviewed by telephone using The Child Eating Behaviours Questionnaire (CEBQ) in 2018. The CEBQ utilises a five-point Likert scale with scores computed for different eating behaviours. Anthropometric measures on the children were carried out in the schools.
Response rate was 63.3% (n = 71), with 54.8% of parents possessing a secondary school education There was no significant association between parental education level and weight status using World Health Organisation (WHO), International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and Center for Disease Control (CDC) criteria (p = 0.227, 0.373, 0,213 respectively). No significant relationship was found between children's weight status and gender (WHO; p = 0.800 & CDC; p = 0.655; IOTF; p = 0.804). 71.8 % of the children exceeded the 1-hour screen time daily recommended guidelines (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2015) during weekdays while 47.9% exceeded the recommendations during weekends. Main sedentary behaviours were the use of smartphones/tablets (mean 72 min/day; 64 min/day; weekend, weekdays respectively) with a significant association found across this behaviour and all weight standard criteria (p = 0.013, 0.016 and 0.015 for WHO, CDC and IOTF respectively).
Food enjoyment varied significantly according to weight status (WHO: p = 0.001; CDC; 0.010; IOTF: p = 0.028). Lowest food fussiness scores were observed in normal weight children using WHO and CDC weight standard criteria and in the underweight category when using IOTF criteria and was significant across all weight criteria (p = WHO; 0.013/ CDC; 0.047/ IOTF; 0.024). Children with mean high food avoidance scores scored in a higher weight category (WHO: p = 0.003; IOTF: p = 0.013).
In this small study, some eating behaviours were found to be linked to weight status suggesting further work required. Public health initiatives to reduce sedentary behaviours should also be targeted at younger age children. Larger studies comparing children in different socio economic regions and targeting the family and obesogenic environment are recommended for targeted early intervention.
Audits play a critical role in maintaining the integrity of observational cohort data. While previous work has validated the audit process, sending trained auditors to sites (“travel-audits”) can be costly. We investigate the efficacy of training sites to conduct “self-audits.”
In 2017, eight research groups in the Caribbean, Central, and South America network for HIV Epidemiology each audited a subset of their patient records randomly selected by the data coordinating center at Vanderbilt. Designated investigators at each site compared abstracted research data to the original clinical source documents and captured audit findings electronically. Additionally, two Vanderbilt investigators performed on-site travel-audits at three randomly selected sites (one adult and two pediatric) in late summer 2017.
Self- and travel-auditors, respectively, reported that 93% and 92% of 8919 data entries, captured across 28 unique clinical variables on 65 patients, were entered correctly. Across all entries, 8409 (94%) received the same assessment from self- and travel-auditors (7988 correct and 421 incorrect). Of 421 entries mutually assessed as “incorrect,” 304 (82%) were corrected by both self- and travel-auditors and 250 of these (72%) received the same corrections. Reason for changing antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen, ART end date, viral load value, CD4%, and HIV diagnosis date had the most mismatched corrections.
With similar overall error rates, findings suggest that data audits conducted by trained local investigators could provide an alternative to on-site audits by external auditors to ensure continued data quality. However, discrepancies observed between corrections illustrate challenges in determining correct values even with audits.
This chapter, reviews the basics of chronic pediatric pain. The author provides an overview of the incidence and approach to pediatric pain in the perioperative setting. The risk factors for development of chronic post-surgical pain as well as anesthetic planning for these patients is discussed.
If this epilogue were the denouement of a nineteenth-century realist novel, this would be the moment in the plot in which the protagonist becomes painfully aware of the fatal gap between her hopes, aspirations, and elevated self-image—and the sobering reality of actual life. Similarly, when concluding a volume like this one, it is hard not to notice the gap between the editors’ initial ambitions and what they were ultimately able to achieve. In comparison to its prominent place in the volume's title, for example, Africa is under-represented in this volume. Similarly, scholars working in Spanish outnumber those working in Portuguese to a disproportionate degree. In other words, there is still plenty of work to be done.
Yet if this collection of essays makes one thing clear, it is that as a field, Transatlantic Studies allows for a wealth of fascinating topics and approaches—even as key methodological questions remain unresolved. As we noted in our introduction, what has become known as Transatlantic Studies aims to challenge traditional academic notions of area studies. It does so by proposing interdisciplinary and comparative approaches that reconsider the ways in which cultural production on either side of the Atlantic Ocean has been shaped by colonization, political tensions, national cultures, and postcolonial relations among Spain, Portugal, and their former colonies in the Americas and Africa. The essays in this volume concentrate mainly on Hispanophone culture; to a lesser extent, they engage with Lusophone cultural and literary or comparative studies; and with Catalan, Latin American, African, and Iberian Studies. Their very diversity makes clear that the field has not yet given rise to a uniform or even coherent approach—if such uniformity or coherence, as opposed to methodological eclecticism, is in fact desirable. As the first section of this book indicates, the very existence and legitimacy of Transatlantic Studies as such is still under dispute.
Rather than trying to avoid or resolve these fundamental disagreements, which go to the heart of our academic work, this volume has sought to advance the discussion by putting them front and center. We hope that this collection, which may well provide more questions than answers, serves to foster further debate. The field, in our view, need not reach consensus in order to thrive. Debate and polemic are what keeps us on our toes, in our research as much as in the classroom.