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This article critically examines some of the main arguments of Stephen Palmquist’s Kant and Mysticism. While I agree with Palmquist that Kant admits the possibility of certain indirect forms of mystical experience, I argue that Palmquist makes Kant out to be more of a mystic than he actually was. In particular, I contend that Palmquist fails to provide convincing justification of two of his main claims: (1) that Kant was a mystic or at least had strong mystical tendencies and (2) that some of the experiences that are central to Kant’s philosophy are best understood as mystical experiences.
Cato Manor was once a melting pot of Indian and African cultures, a vibrant makeshift community of 100,000 people who wrote their own rules and survived and thrived for half a century in the shadow of the city that excluded them … in the darkest days of apartheid it was tom down, to enforce racial segregation and open up a prime piece of real estate for white occupation. This never happened. Fragments of the former communities remained, a new wave of settlers moved in and Cato Manor remained largely undeveloped and under-utilised for 25 years. (Cato Manor Development Association 1994: 1)
In South Africa politics played a key role in settlement evolution and community displacement at the macro-(bantustans) and micro-(group areas) levels. A dominant theme in the history of black communities in South African cities was their struggle to construct and ‘defend illegal space’. A central focus of apartheid state policy was to annihilate such communities and to ‘quarantine them in localities selected by the state where they could be more effectively regimented and controlled’ (Bonner and Lodge 1989: 1).
This chapter examines the changing fortunes of one such urban settlement from the pre-apartheid, apartheid and post-apartheid phases. The focus is on the Cato Manor settlement in Durban. Cato Manor is an evocative name in the province of Natal and has powerful connotations with the history of the dispossessed in South Africa. The process of urban dispossession and contestation in Cato Manor has often been compared with the destruction of Sophiatown in Johannesburg (Lodge 1983) and the razing of District Six in Cape Town (Hart 1988).
Cato Manor has been referred to as a ‘complexity in place’ - ‘one of those places about which, and around which, controversy has always appeared to rage’ (Butler-Adam and Venter 1984: 1). Furthermore, the ‘complexity of Cato Manor is not static. It reflects the interwoven processes of society as it has operated in the past, and is a complexity sustained and created afresh out of present processes’ (67).
This chapter is divided into five sections. The first section traces the historical evolution of settlement in Cato Manor.
To determine the impact of a passive, prescriber-directed, electronic best-practice advisory coupled with prescriber education on the rate of antibiotic prescribing for acute, uncomplicated bronchitis in ambulatory adults across a large health system.
This study was a quasi-experiment examining antibiotic prescribing for ambulatory adults with acute bronchitis from January 1, 2016 through December 31, 2018. The intervention was implemented in December 2016 for emergency departments and urgent care clinics followed by ambulatory clinics in September 2017.
Outpatient settings across a health system, including 15 emergency departments, >30 urgent care clinics, and >150 ambulatory clinics.
All adults with a primary diagnosis of acute bronchitis who were seen and discharged from a study site were included.
A passive, prescriber-directed, best-practice advisory for treatment of acute bronchitis in the electronic health record and an optional, online education module regarding acute bronchitis.
The study included 81,975 ambulatory adults with a primary diagnosis of acute bronchitis during the preintervention period (19.8% >65 years of age; 61.9% female) and 89,571 ambulatory adults during the postintervention period (16.5% >65 years of age; 61.1% female). Antibiotic prescribing rates decreased from 60.8% (49,877 of 81,975 patients) preintervention to 51.4% (46,018 of 89,571 patients) postintervention (absolute difference, 9.4%; P < .001). The largest reduction occurred in the emergency departments.
An electronic best practice advisory combined with prescriber education was associated with a statistically significant reduction in antibiotic prescribing for adults with acute bronchitis. Future studies should incorporate patient education and address prescriber-reported barriers to appropriate antibiotic prescribing.
Introduction: Children diagnosed with medulloblastoma (MB) who are refractory to upfront therapy or experience recurrence have very poor prognoses. Although phase I and phase II trials exist, these treatments bear significant treatment-related morbidity and mortality. Methods: A retrospective review of children diagnosed with a recurrence of MB from 2002 to 2015 at McMaster University was undertaken. Results: Recurrent disease in 10 patients involved leptomeningeal dissemination, with 3 experiencing local recurrence. In three recurrent patients the disease significantly progressed, and the children were palliated. The remaining 10 children underwent some form of salvage therapy, including surgical re-resection, radiation, and chemotherapy, either in isolation or in varying combinations. Of the 13 children experiencing treatment-refractory or recurrent disease, 4 are currently alive with a median follow-up of 38.5 months (75.5 months). Of the eight patients with molecular subgrouping data, none of the Wnt MB experienced recurrence. Conclusion: Recurrent MB carried a poor prognosis with a 5-year overall survival (OS) of 18.2% despite the administration of salvage therapy. The upfront therapy received, available treatment, and tolerability of the proposed salvage therapy resulted in significant heterogeneity in the treatment of our recurrent cohort.
Zenker's diverticulum is a pharyngoesophageal outpouching of mucosa and submucosa through Killian's dehiscence.
To investigate the propensity for Zenker's diverticulum to occur on the left side by examining muscle thickness in Killian's dehiscence, and to explore correlations between muscle thickness, sex, height and age.
The study included 109 Caucasian cadavers, 52 male and 57 female. The mean thickest and thinnest measurements of left medial, left lateral, right medial and right lateral aspects of Killian's dehiscence were calculated. The paired student's t-test was used to determine significance.
The average left muscle layer was significantly thinner than the right muscle layer, in both medial and lateral aspects. Furthermore, medial muscle thickness was significantly thinner than its respective lateral aspect for both the left and right sides. No correlations were found between muscle thickness and cadavers’ sex, length or stature, or age.
There was a significant difference in muscle thickness between the left and right sides of Killian's dehiscence. The findings suggest there is a reason why Zenker's diverticulum occurs predominantly on the left side. The study also showed a significant difference in muscle thickness between the medial and lateral aspects of Killian's triangle.
Grewia tenax locally known as ‘Gangerun’, is an important multipurpose underutilized shrub and potentially threaten species of the Thar Desert of India. Owing to its importance, naturally available germplasm was collected and evaluated for its sustainable utilization in future. Data on individual mother plant, seed characters and soil profile were investigated. Habitat occurrence of G. tenax was found in patches with dominant association of Euphorbia caducifolia across the four districts of western Rajasthan. Individual plant on unprotected area portrayed far lower average height (0.95 m) and canopy area (1.75 m2) than protected area (2.63 m and 13.89 m2) signifying level of browsing pressure on this species in Jaisalmer. Soil samples belonging to Pali region have high organic carbon and low electrical conductivity content than Jaisalmer and Jodhpur. The statistical analysis of seed characters revealed the presence of high coefficient of variation (%) in 100-seed weight (HSW; 27.36) followed by seed length (SL; 8.06) and least in seed breadth (SB; 5.85). The range and mean values of HSW, SL, SB and length:breadth ratio (LBR) were (2.02–7.00 and 3.34 g), (4.36–6.15 and 5.36 mm), (3.73–4.68 and 4.25 mm) and (1.11–1.44 and 1.27), respectively. Significantly positive correlation was observed between SL and LBR (0.73) followed by HSW and SL (0.66). Along with these findings, its economic importance, utilization and conservation are detailed in this paper as to hasten further research on its various aspects for its successful conservation and utilization.
To compare combined conventional Freer medialisation and controlled synechiae, performed for middle meatal access (during the initial steps of functional endoscopic sinus surgery) and post-operative middle turbinate medialisation, with basal lamella relaxing incision, the latter of which is a single step for achieving both middle meatal access and post-operative medialisation. The study also compared the effects of controlled synechiae and basal lamella relaxing incision on post-operative olfaction.
A randomised prospective study was performed on 52 nasal cavity sides (32 patients). Only basal lamella relaxing incision was performed in one group, and both conventional medialisation and controlled synechiae were performed in the other. Intra-operative and post-operative photography was used to measure the middle meatal area. A pocket smell test was used to assess olfaction.
There were no significant differences in operative middle meatal access and post-operative medialisation of the middle turbinate. Post-operative olfaction was affected more in the combined conventional medialisation and controlled synechiae group, compared to the basal lamella relaxing incision group, but this finding was not statistically significant.
Basal lamella relaxing incision is an effective single-step technique for achieving adequate middle meatal access and post-operative medialisation, with no significant effect on olfaction.
Background: Children diagnosed with medulloblastoma (MB) that are refractory to upfront therapy or experience recurrence have very poor prognoses. Reports of phase I and II studies for these children exist, but bear significant treatment related morbidity and mortality. Methods: A retrospective review of children diagnosed with a pediatric MB from 2002-2015 from the McMaster Pediatric Brain Tumour Study Group (PBTSG) captured a number of pediatric recurrent MB. Results: Over the 13-year period, 31 children with a histological diagnosis of MB were treated. At two years, 21 (67.7%) of 31 patients were free of recurrence and 25 (80.6%) survived. Thirteen children had recurrent or treatment refractory MB. mean time to recurrence was 14.6 months. The mean follow-up for survivors of recurrent MB was 4.0 years. In 3 recurrent MB, the disease had significantly progressed and the patients palliated. For the remaining children, therapy offered included surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy agents either in isolation or in varying combinations. Conclusions: Recurrent MB in our cohort carried a poor prognosis despite administration of salvage therapy. Though there is standardization of the upfront treatment exists, we observed great heterogeneity in the treatment of our 13 patients experiencing recurrence. A greater understanding of the biology of recurrent MB has the potential to guide salvage therapy.
In this paper, we consider the asymptotic behaviour of solitons and double layers. By using the Sagdeev pseudopotential formalism, a Taylor series expansion is used to derive the asymptotic behaviour. For solitons and supersolitons that propagate faster than the acoustic speed, an exponential decay rate is derived. In contrast, for acoustic speed solitons and supersolitons, we show that the decay rate is algebraic, resulting in much fatter tails. These results can be extended to double layers. However, the double layer velocity affects only one side of the tail. The other side of the tail is affected by the multiplicity of the double layer root. All the results are illustrated by means of a case study.
Supercritical plasma compositions in parameter space are considered for a general fluid model consisting of an arbitrary number of species. This is done by applying a Taylor series expansion of the Sagdeev potential about the acoustic speed and the equilibrium electrostatic potential. A novel finding in this study is the description of small-amplitude supersolitons. Our analysis allows us to determine the plasma compositional criteria for such structures, as well as lower and upper bounds of their velocities and amplitudes. We therefore establish an interesting link between supercritical plasma compositions and the existence of supersolitons. The results are illustrated via a case study where plasmas consisting of cold ions and two Boltzmann electron species are considered.
The properties of small-amplitude solitons are established near critical plasma compositions in a generalized fluid plasma with an arbitrary number of species. The study is conducted via a Taylor series expansion of the Sagdeev potential. It is shown that there are two types of critical compositions, namely rich critical and poor critical compositions. The coexistence of positive and negative polarity solitons is shown to arise at rich critical compositions and near rich critical compositions. At poor critical compositions, no small-amplitude solitons exist, while weak double layers arise near poor critical compositions. A novel analytical expression is obtained for a small-amplitude acoustic speed soliton solution near rich critical compositions. These solitons have a Lorentzian shape with much fatter tails than regular solitons. A case study is also performed for a simple fluid model consisting of cold ions and two Boltzmann electron species. Exact agreement is obtained between the Sagdeev analysis and reductive perturbation theory. For the first time, we derive the same Lorentzian acoustic speed soliton from reductive perturbation theory.
Using a fluid theory approach, this article provides a comparative study on the evolution of nonlinear waves in dusty plasmas, as well as other plasma environments, viz electron-ion, and electron-positron plasmas. Where applicable, relevance to satellite measurements is pointed out. A range of nonlinear waves from low frequency (ion acoustic and ion cyclotron waves), high frequency (electron acoustic and electron cyclotron waves) in electron-ion plasmas, ultra-low frequency (dust acoustic and dust cyclotron waves) in dusty plasmas and in electron-positron plasmas are discussed. Depending upon the plasma parameters, saw-tooth and bipolar structures are shown to evolve.
In recent years South African cities have become home to a large number of undocumented migrant workers. If trade unions do not organise undocumented migrant workers, it opens up such workers to exploitation and maltreatment by employers, thereby creating a split labour market that undermines the entire labour movement. This article focuses on the responses of the national trade union movement in the private security sector to the presence of undocumented workers at the grassroots level. Using a case study approach, we find that the pressures of labour market informalisation in the industry prompt unions to seek to maintain and advance their position from their traditional support base of citizen workers rather than attempt to include new groups. The failure to engage is reinforced by anti-immigrant attitudes which link foreigners with problems in the industry such as low wages and portrays such workers as co-conspirators rather than comrades. While justice and solidarity have always been the foundation of trade unionism in South Africa, the movement is in danger of failing this test if the current situation in terms of the exclusion of undocumented foreign workers persists.
The objective of the present study was to determine the knowledge and practices among Trinidad and Tobago school-attending adolescents towards energy drinks (ED), alcohol combined with energy drinks (AwED), weight-altering supplements (WAS) and vitamin/mineral supplements (VMS) and their experience of adverse effects associated with such use.
A cross-sectional, proportionate, stratified sampling strategy was adopted using a self-administered, de novo questionnaire.
Secondary schools throughout Trinidad and Tobago.
Students aged 15–19 years.
Five hundred and sixty-one students participated, an 84 % response rate; 43·0 % were male, 40·5 % East Indian and 34·1 % mixed race. VMS, ED, WAS and anabolic steroids were used by 52·4 %, 44·0 %, 8·9 % and 1·4 % of students, respectively, with 51·6 % of ED users using AwED. Predictors of use of AwED were males and students who played sport for their school (OR = 1·9; 95 % CI 1·2, 3·2 and OR = 2·6; 95 % CI 1·4, 4·7, respectively). Predictors of ED use were males and attendees of government secondary schools (OR = 1·7; 95 % CI 1·1, 2·4 and OR = 1·7; 95 % CI 1·2, 2·4, respectively). Side-effects, mainly palpitations, headaches and sleep disturbances, were reported in 20·7 % of dietary supplement users.
Many adolescent students in Trinidad and Tobago use dietary supplements, including ED and AwED, and about one-fifth of users experience side-effects. Identification of students at risk for ED, AwED and WAS use and education of students about the dangers of using dietary supplements need to be instituted to prevent potential adverse events.
Young people, especially university students, are at high risk of HIV infections because of little or no parental or administrative prohibitions in campus environments. The aim of this study was to ascertain the level of condom use among university students in Zimbabwe; that is, condom use at last sex and consistent condom use among both regular and casual partners. The study draws on self-completed questionnaires administered to university students. The results reveal that, while 78.3% of sexually active respondents had used condoms in penetrative sexual encounters before, only 56.2% had used condoms at their last sexual encounter. As expected, consistent condom use was lower in regular sexual partnerships than it was in casual partnerships (30.6% versus 54.6%). Condom use at first sex and high personal HIV risk perception were found to be the most important factors in explaining condom use at last sex and consistent condom use with casual partners. Condom use intentions were high, as 75% of respondents indicated that they would use condoms at their next sexual encounters. Whilst this is commendable, use rates should ideally be higher still. Campus HIV/AIDS programmers should endeavour to ensure that condoms are available at all times in order to help translate these intentions into actual condom use. In addition, promotional programmes should encourage those who have not yet initiated sexual intercourse to use condoms at their first sex and also to improve personal HIV risk perceptions in order to trigger initiation of protective sexual behaviours.
Recent Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified four low-penetrance ovarian cancer susceptibility loci. We hypothesized that further moderate- or low-penetrance variants exist among the subset of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) not well tagged by the genotyping arrays used in the previous studies, which would account for some of the remaining risk. We therefore conducted a time- and cost-effective stage 1 GWAS on 342 invasive serous cases and 643 controls genotyped on pooled DNA using the high-density Illumina 1M-Duo array. We followed up 20 of the most significantly associated SNPs, which are not well tagged by the lower density arrays used by the published GWAS, and genotyping them on individual DNA. Most of the top 20 SNPs were clearly validated by individually genotyping the samples used in the pools. However, none of the 20 SNPs replicated when tested for association in a much larger stage 2 set of 4,651 cases and 6,966 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Given that most of the top 20 SNPs from pooling were validated in the same samples by individual genotyping, the lack of replication is likely to be due to the relatively small sample size in our stage 1 GWAS rather than due to problems with the pooling approach. We conclude that there are unlikely to be any moderate or large effects on ovarian cancer risk untagged by less dense arrays. However, our study lacked power to make clear statements on the existence of hitherto untagged small-effect variants.
Metal oxide nanostructures have shown significant promise for biosensors, gas sensors, photocatalyst and other biomedical applications. Among these, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures, exhibiting interesting properties such as high catalytic activity, biocompatibility, high isoelectric point, large surface to volume ratio, make them a good candidate for biosensing applications. Here we report the synthesis of ZnO nanorods (ZnONR) on ITO films in aqueous phase and its application in Urea biosensor fabrication. ZnONR have been synthesized by a two-step method, first seed growth of ZnO by sputtering on ITO films followed by decomposition of zinc nitrate hexahydrate / hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) in aqueous phase. Exploiting the high isoelectric point of ZnO, a Urease/ZnONR/ITO bioelectrode has been fabricated by physical binding of Urease (Urs) onto ZnONRs. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) have been used to characterize ZnONR and the Urs/ZnONR/ITO bioelectrode. The FE-SEM and XRD measurements confirm the formation of ZnONR. The electrochemical data from the Urs/ZnONR/ITO biolectrode reveal linearity between 1-11 mM with sensitivity of 0.9 μA/mM and a relatively low Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of 5.01 mM for urea sensing. The results indicate the potential of ZnONR films for fabrication of commercial biosensors.