In both Boussinesq and non-Boussinesq cases the Green's function of internal gravity waves is calculated, exactly for monochromatic waves and asymptotically for impulsive waves. From its differentiation the pressure and velocity fields generated by a point source are deduced. by the same method the Boussinesq monochromatic and impulsive waves radiated by a pulsating sphere are investigated.
Boussinesq monochromatic waves of frequency ω < N are confined between characteristic cones θ = arccos(ω/N) tangent to the source region (N being the buoyancy frequency and θ the observation angle from the vertical). In that zone the point source model is inadequate. For the sphere an explicit form is given for the waves, which describes their conical 1/r½ radial decay and their transverse phase variations.
Impulsive waves comprise gravity and buoyancy waves, whose separation process is non-Boussinesq and follows the arrival of an Airy wave. As time t elapses, inside the torus of vertical axis and horizontal radius 2Nt/β for gravity waves and inside the circumscribing cylinder for buoyancy waves, both components become Boussinesq and have wavelengths negligible compared with the scale height 2/β of the stratification. Then, gravity waves are plane propagating waves of frequency N cos θ, and buoyancy waves are radial oscillations of the fluid at frequency N; for the latter, initially propagating waves comparable with gravity waves, the horizontal phase variations have vanished and the amplitude has become insignificant as the Boussinesq zone has been entered. In this zone, outside the torus of vertical axis and horizontal radius Nta, a sphere of radius a [Lt ] 2/β is compact compared with the wavelength of the dominant gravity waves. Inside the torus gravity waves vanish by destructive interference. For the remaining buoyancy oscillations the sphere is compact outside the vertical cylinder circumscribing it, whereas the fluid is quiescent inside this cylinder.