Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Print publication year: 2000
  • Online publication date: June 2014

Chapter 7 - Pulmonary mycotic infections

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
De Pauw, B, Walsh, TJ, Donnelly, JP, et al. Revised definitions of invasive fungal disease from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) Consensus Group. Clin Infect Dis 2008;46(12):1813–21.
Richardson, MD, Warnock, DW.Fungal Infection – Diagnosis and Management, 4th ed. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.
Kauffman, CA, Pappas, PG, Sobel, JD, Dismukes, WE.Essentials of Clinical Mycology, 2nd ed. New York: Springer, 2011.
Guarner, J, Brandt, ME.Histopathologic diagnosis of fungal infections in the 21st century. Clin Microbiol Rev 2011;24(2):247–80.
Chandler, FW, Watts, JC.Pathologic Diagnosis of Fungal Infections. Chicago: American Society of Clinical Pathology, 1987.
Heitman, JKK, Kwon-Chung, KJ, Perfect, JR, Casadevall, A, editor. Cryptococcus: From Human Pathogen to Model Yeast. Washington DC: American Society for Microbiology, 2011.
Kriengkauykiat, J, Ito, JI, Dadwal, SS.Epidemiology and treatment approaches in management of invasive fungal infections. Clin Epidemiol 2011;3:175–91.
Randhawa, HS.Respiratory and systemic mycoses: an overview. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 2000;42(4):207–19.
Baddley, JW, Andes, DR, Marr, KA, et al. Factors associated with mortality in transplant patients with invasive aspergillosis. Clin Infect Dis 2010;50(12):1559–67.
Li, SS, Mody, CH.Cryptococcus. Proc Am Thorac Soc 2010;7(3):186–96.
Kontoyiannis, DP, Marr, KA, Park, BJ, et al. Prospective surveillance for invasive fungal infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, 2001–2006: overview of the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET) Database. Clin Infect Dis 2010;50(8):1091–100.
Pappas, PG, Alexander, BD, Andes, DR, et al. Invasive fungal infections among organ transplant recipients: results of the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET). Clin Infect Dis 2010;50(8):1101–11.
Vincent, JL, Rello, J, Marshall, J, et al. International study of the prevalence and outcomes of infection in intensive care units. JAMA 2009;302(21):2323–9.
Lehrnbecher, T, Frank, C, Engels, K, et al. Trends in the postmortem epidemiology of invasive fungal infections at a university hospital. J Infect 2010;61(3):259–65.
Kume, H, Yamazaki, T, Togano, T, et al. Epidemiology of visceral mycoses in autopsy cases in Japan: comparison of the data from 1989, 1993, 1997, 2001, 2005 and 2007 in annual of pathological autopsy cases in Japan. Med Mycol J 2011;52(2):117–27.
Murray, JF.Pulmonary complications of HIV-1 infection among adults living in Sub-Saharan Africa. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2005;9(8):826–35.
Wu, SX, Guo, NR, Li, XF, et al. Human pathogenic fungi in China – emerging trends from ongoing national survey for 1986, 1996, and 2006. Mycopathologia 2011;171(6):387–93.
Binder, U, Lass-Florl, C.Epidemiology of invasive fungal infections in the mediterranean area. Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis 2011;3(1):e20110016.
Hope, WW, Walsh, TJ, Denning, DW.Laboratory diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. Lancet Infect Dis 2005;5(10):609–22.
Morgan, J, Wannemuehler, KA, Marr, KA, et al. Incidence of invasive aspergillosis following hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplantation: interim results of a prospective multicenter surveillance program. Med Mycol 2005;43 Suppl 1:S49–58.
Latge, JP, Steinbach, WJ, eds. Aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillosis. Washington DC: American Society for Microbiology, 2009.
Pasqualotto, AC.Aspergillosis: From Diagnosis to Prevention. New York: Springer, 2009.
Denning, DW.Invasive aspergillosis. Clin Infect Dis 1998;26(4):781–803; quiz 4–5.
Steinbach, WJ, Benjamin, DK, Kontoyiannis, DP, et al. Infections due to Aspergillus terreus: a multicenter retrospective analysis of 83 cases. Clin Infect Dis 2004;39(2):192–8.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for environmental infection control in health-care facilities. Morbitiy and Mortality Weekly Report 2003. pp. 1–42.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for preventing opportunistic infections among hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2000. pp. 1–125.
Warnock, DW, Hajjeh, RA, Lasker, BA.Epidemiology and prevention of invasive aspergillosis. Curr Infect Dis Rep 2001;3(6):507–16.
Barnes, RA, White, PL, Bygrave, C, et al. Clinical impact of enhanced diagnosis of invasive fungal disease in high-risk haematology and stem cell transplant patients. J Clin Pathol 2009;62(1):64–9.
Husain, S, Munoz, P, Forrest, G, et al. Infections due to Scedosporium apiospermum and Scedosporium prolificans in transplant recipients: clinical characteristics and impact of antifungal agent therapy on outcome. Clin Infect Dis 2005;40(1):89–99.
Pagano, L, Caira, M, Picardi, M, et al. Invasive Aspergillosis in patients with acute leukemia: update on morbidity and mortality – SEIFEM-C Report. Clin Infect Dis 2007;44(11):1524–5.
Nivoix, Y, Velten, M, Letscher-Bru, V, et al. Factors associated with overall and attributable mortality in invasive aspergillosis. Clin Infect Dis 2008;47(9):1176–84.
Anaissie, EJ, Stratton, SL, Dignani, MC, et al. Pathogenic Aspergillus species recovered from a hospital water system: a 3-year prospective study. Clin Infect Dis 2002;34(6):780–9.
Warris, A, Voss, A, Abrahamsen, TG, Verweij, PE.Contamination of hospital water with Aspergillus fumigatus and other molds. Clin Infect Dis 2002;34(8):1159–60.
Gangneux, JP, Camus, C, Philippe, B.Epidemiology of invasive aspergillosis and risk factors in non neutropaenic patients. Rev Mal Respir 2010;27(8):e34–46.
Latge, JP.Aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 1999 Apr;12(2):310–50.
Thompson, GR, Patterson, TF.Pulmonary aspergillosis. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2008;29(2):103–10.
Paterson, DL, Singh, N.Invasive aspergillosis in transplant recipients. Medicine (Baltimore) 1999;78(2):123–38.
Patterson, TF, Kirkpatrick, WR, White, M, et al. Invasive aspergillosis. Disease spectrum, treatment practices, and outcomes. I3 Aspergillus Study Group. Medicine (Baltimore) 2000;79(4):250–60.
Warris, A, Bjorneklett, A, Gaustad, P.Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis associated with infliximab therapy. N Engl J Med 2001;344(14):1099–100.
Cohen, MS, Isturiz, RE, Malech, HL, et al. Fungal infection in chronic granulomatous disease. The importance of the phagocyte in defense against fungi. Am J Med 1981;71(1):59–66.
Chai, LY, Hsu, LY.Recent advances in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2011;17(3):160–6.
Schaffner, A, Douglas, H, Braude, AI, Davis, CE.Killing of Aspergillus spores depends on the anatomical source of the macrophage. Infect Immun 1983;42(3):1109–15.
Lionakis, MS, Kontoyiannis, DP.Glucocorticoids and invasive fungal infections. Lancet 2003;362(9398):1828–38.
Kamberi, M, Brummer, E, Stevens, DA.Regulation of bronchoalveolar macrophage proinflammatory cytokine production by dexamethasone and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor after stimulation by Aspergillus conidia or lipopolysaccharide. Cytokine 2002;19(1):14–20.
Dagenais, TR, Keller, NP.Pathogenesis of Aspergillus fumigatus in invasive Aspergillosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 2009;22(3):447–65.
Jacobson, ES.Pathogenic roles for fungal melanins. Clin Microbiol Rev 2000;13(4):708–17.
Langfelder, K, Streibel, M, Jahn, B, Haase, G, Brakhage, AA.Biosynthesis of fungal melanins and their importance for human pathogenic fungi. Fungal Genet Biol 2003;38(2):143–58.
Kousha, M, Tadi, R, Soubani, AO.Pulmonary aspergillosis: a clinical review. Eur Respir Rev 2011;20(121):156–74.
McAdams, HP, Rosado-de-Christenson, ML, Templeton, PA, Lesar, M, Moran, CA.Thoracic mycoses from opportunistic fungi: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics 1995;15(2):271–86.
Franquet, T, Muller, NL, Gimenez, A, et al. Spectrum of pulmonary aspergillosis: histologic, clinical, and radiologic findings. Radiographics 2001;21(4):825–37.
Franquet, T, Gimenez, A, Cremades, R, Domingo, P, Plaza, V.Spontaneous reversibility of “pleural thickening” in a patient with semi-invasive pulmonary aspergillosis: radiographic and CT findings. Eur Radiol 2000;10(5):722–4.
Denning, DW, Kibbler, CC, Barnes, RA.British Society for Medical Mycology proposed standards of care for patients with invasive fungal infections. Lancet Infect Dis 2003;3(4):230–40.
Upton, A, Kirby, KA, Carpenter, P, Boeckh, M, Marr, KA.Invasive aspergillosis following hematopoietic cell transplantation: outcomes and prognostic factors associated with mortality. Clin Infect Dis 2007;44(4):531–40.
Gerson, SL, Talbot, GH, Hurwitz, S, et al. Prolonged granulocytopenia: the major risk factor for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with acute leukemia. Ann Intern Med 1984;100(3):345–51.
Wald, A, Leisenring, W, van Burik, JA, Bowden, RA.Epidemiology of Aspergillus infections in a large cohort of patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation. J Infect Dis 1997;175(6):1459–66.
Greene, RE, Schlamm, HT, Oestmann, JW, et al. Imaging findings in acute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis: clinical significance of the halo sign. Clin Infect Dis 2007;44(3):373–9.
Greene, R.The radiological spectrum of pulmonary aspergillosis. Med Mycol 2005;43 Suppl 1:S147–54.
Pfeiffer, CD, Fine, JP, Safdar, N.Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis using a galactomannan assay: a meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 2006;42(10):1417–27.
Guo, YL, Chen, YQ, Wang, K, et al. Accuracy of BAL galactomannan in diagnosing invasive aspergillosis: a bivariate metaanalysis and systematic review. Chest 2010;138(4):817–24.
Meersseman, W, Lagrou, K, Maertens, J, et al. Galactomannan in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid: a tool for diagnosing aspergillosis in intensive care unit patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2008;177(1):27–34.
Mengoli, C, Cruciani, M, Barnes, RA, Loeffler, J, Donnelly, JP.Use of PCR for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis: systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 2009;9(2):89–96.
White, PL, Bretagne, S, Klingspor, L, et al. Aspergillus PCR: one step closer to standardization. J Clin Microbiol 2010;48(4):1231–40.
White, PL, Perry, MD, Barnes, RA.Candida. In Dongyou, L, ed. Molecular Detection of Human Fungal Pathogens, 1st ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2011. pp. 551–68.
De Beule, K, Van Gestel, J.Pharmacology of itraconazole. Drugs 2001;61 Suppl 1:27–37.
Lin, SJ, Schranz, J, Teutsch, SM.Aspergillosis case-fatality rate: systematic review of the literature. Clin Infect Dis 2001;32(3):358–66.
Ribes, JA, Vanover-Sams, CL, Baker, DJ.Zygomycetes in human disease. Clin Microbiol Rev 2000;13(2):236–301.
Roden, MM, Zaoutis, TE, Buchanan, WL, et al. Epidemiology and outcome of mucormycosis: a review of 929 reported cases. Clin Infect Dis 2005;41(5):634–53.
Chayakulkeeree, M, Ghannoum, MA, Perfect, JR.Mucormycosis: the re-emerging fungal infection. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2006;25(4):215–29.
Singh, N, Aguado, JM, Bonatti, H, et al. Mucormycosis in solid organ transplant recipients: a prospective, matched case-control study to assess risks for disease and outcome. J Infect Dis 2009;200(6):1002–11.
Gomes, MZ, Lewis, RE, Kontoyiannis, DP.Mucormycosis caused by unusual mucormycetes, non-Rhizopus, -Mucor, and -Lichtheimia species. Clin Microbiol Rev 2011;24(2):411–45.
Zaoutis, TE, Roilides, E, Chiou, CC, et al. Mucormycosis in children: a systematic review and analysis of reported cases. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2007;26(8):723–7.
Spellberg, B, Edwards, J, Ibrahim, A.Novel perspectives on mucormycosis: pathophysiology, presentation, and management. Clin Microbiol Rev 2005;18(3):556–69.
Antoniadou, A.Outbreaks of mucormycosis in hospitals. Clin Microbiol Infect 2009;15 Suppl 5:55–9.
Sun, HY, Singh, N.Mucormycosis: its contemporary face and management strategies. Lancet Infect Dis 2011;11(4):301–11.
Bitar, D, Van Cauteren, D, Lanternier, F, et al. Increasing incidence of mucormycosis (mucormycosis), France, 1997–2006. Emerg Infect Dis 2009;15(9):1395–401.
Rees, JR, Pinner, RW, Hajjeh, RA, Brandt, ME, Reingold, AL.The epidemiological features of invasive mycotic infections in the San Francisco Bay area, 1992–1993: results of population-based laboratory active surveillance. Clin Infect Dis 1998;27(5):1138–47.
Torres-Narbona, M, Guinea, J, Martinez-Alarcon, J, et al. Impact of mucormycosis on microbiology workload: a survey study in Spain. J Clin Microbiol 2007;45(6):2051–3.
deShazo, RD, Chapin, K, Swain, RE.Fungal sinusitis. N Engl J Med 1997;337(4):254–9.
Fatterpekar, G, Mukherji, S, Arbealez, A, Maheshwari, S, Castillo, M.Fungal diseases of the paranasal sinuses. Semin Ultrasound CT MR 1999;20(6):391–401.
Symeonidis, AS.The role of iron and iron chelators in mucormycosis. Clin Microbiol Infect 2009;15 Suppl 5:26–32.
Tedder, M, Spratt, JA, Anstadt, MP, et al. Pulmonary mucormycosis: results of medical and surgical therapy. Ann Thorac Surg 1994;57(4):1044–50.
Fermanis, GG, Matar, KS, Steele, R.Endobronchial mucormycosis. Aust N Z J Surg 1991;61(5):391–3.
Marvisi, M, Marani, G, Brianti, M, Della Porta, , R.[Pulmonary complications in diabetes mellitus]. Recenti Prog Med 1996;87(12):623–7.
Bigby, TD, Serota, ML, Tierney, LM, Matthay, MA.Clinical spectrum of pulmonary mucormycosis. Chest 1986;89(3):435–9.
Rickerts, V, Bohme, A, Just-Nubling, G.[Risk factor for invasive mucormycosis in patients with hematologic malignancies]. Mycoses 2002;45 Suppl 1:27–30.
Marty, FM, Cosimi, LA, Baden, LR.Breakthrough mucormycosis after voriconazole treatment in recipients of hematopoietic stem-cell transplants. N Engl J Med 2004;350(9):950–2.
Kauffman, CA.Mucormycosis: reemergence of an old pathogen. Clin Infect Dis 2004;39(4):588–90.
Wahba, H, Truong, MT, Lei, X, Kontoyiannis, DP, Marom, EM.Reversed halo sign in invasive pulmonary fungal infections. Clin Infect Dis 2008;46(11):1733–7.
Quan, C, Spellberg, B.Mucormycosis, pseudallescheriasis, and other uncommon mold infections. Proc Am Thorac Soc 2010;7(3):210–5.
Spellberg, B, Walsh, TJ, Kontoyiannis, DP, Edwards, J, Ibrahim, AS.Recent advances in the management of mucormycosis: from bench to bedside. Clin Infect Dis 2009;48(12):1743–51.
Chamilos, G, Lewis, RE, Kontoyiannis, DP.Delaying amphotericin B-based frontline therapy significantly increases mortality among patients with hematologic malignancy who have mucormycosis. Clin Infect Dis 2008;47(4):503–9.
Cimon, B, Carrere, J, Vinatier, JF, et al. Clinical significance of Scedosporium apiospermum in patients with cystic fibrosis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2000;19(1):53–6.
Cortez, KJ, Roilides, E, Quiroz-Telles, F, et al. Infections caused by Scedosporium spp. Clin Microbiol Rev 2008;21(1):157–97.
Lamaris, GA, Chamilos, G, Lewis, RE, et al. Scedosporium infection in a tertiary care cancer center: a review of 25 cases from 1989–2006. Clin Infect Dis 2006;43(12):1580–4.
Morio, F, Horeau-Langlard, D, Gay-Andrieu, F, et al. Disseminated Scedosporium/Pseudallescheria infection after double-lung transplantation in patients with cystic fibrosis. J Clin Microbiol 2010;48(5):1978–82.
Gilgado, F, Cano, J, Gene, J, Sutton, DA, Guarro, J.Molecular and phenotypic data supporting distinct species statuses for Scedosporium apiospermum and Pseudallescheria boydii and the proposed new species Scedosporium dehoogii. J Clin Microbiol 2008;46(2):766–71.
Lu, Q, van den Ende, AH, Bakkers, JM, et al. Identification of Pseudallescheria and Scedosporium species by three molecular methods. J Clin Microbiol 2011;49(3):960–7.
Tintelnot, K, Just-Nubling, G, Horre, R, et al. A review of German Scedosporium prolificans cases from 1993 to 2007. Med Mycol 2009;47(4):351–8.
Khurshid, A, Barnett, VT, Sekosan, M, Ginzburg, AS, Onal, E.Disseminated Pseudallescheria boydii infection in a nonimmunocompromised host. Chest 1999;116(2):572–4.
Hung, CC, Chang, SC, Yang, PC, Hsieh, WC.Invasive pulmonary pseudallescheriasis with direct invasion of the thoracic spine in an immunocompetent patient. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1994;13(9):749–51.
Patterson, TF, Andriole, VT, Zervos, MJ, Therasse, D, Kauffman, CA.The epidemiology of pseudallescheriasis complicating transplantation: nosocomial and community-acquired infection. Mycoses 1990;33(6):297–302.
Rodriguez-Tudela, JL, Berenguer, J, Guarro, J, et al. Epidemiology and outcome of Scedosporium prolificans infection, a review of 162 cases. Med Mycol 2009;47(4):359–70.
Jayamohan, Y, Ribes, JA.Pseudallescheriasis: a summary of patients from 1980–2003 in a tertiary care center. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2006;130(12):1843–6.
Carrillo, AJ, Guarro, J.In vitro activities of four novel triazoles against Scedosporium spp. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2001;45(7):2151–3.
Wiederhold, NP, Lewis, RE.Antifungal activity against Scedosporium species and novel assays to assess antifungal pharmacodynamics against filamentous fungi. Med Mycol 2009;47(4):422–32.
Campo, M, Lewis, RE, Kontoyiannis, DP.Invasive fusariosis in patients with hematologic malignancies at a cancer center: 1998–2009. J Infect 2010;60(5):331–7.
Carneiro, HA, Coleman, JJ, Restrepo, A, Mylonakis, E.Fusarium infection in lung transplant patients: report of 6 cases and review of the literature. Medicine 2011;90(1):69–80.
Lortholary, O, Obenga, G, Biswas, P, et al. International retrospective analysis of 73 cases of invasive fusariosis treated with voriconazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2010;54(10):4446–50.
Hayden, RT, Isotalo, PA, Parrett, T, et al. In situ hybridization for the differentiation of Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Pseudallescheria species in tissue section. Diagn Mol Pathol 2003;12(1):21–6.
Anaissie, EJ, Kuchar, RT, Rex, JH, et al. Fusariosis associated with pathogenic fusarium species colonization of a hospital water system: a new paradigm for the epidemiology of opportunistic mold infections. Clin Infect Dis 2001;33(11):1871–8.
Nucci, M, Anaissie, E.Cutaneous infection by Fusarium species in healthy and immunocompromised hosts: implications for diagnosis and management. Clin Infect Dis 2002;35(8):909–20.
Marom, EM, Holmes, AM, Bruzzi, JF, et al. Imaging of pulmonary fusariosis in patients with hematologic malignancies. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2008;190(6):1605–9.
Nucci, M, Anaissie, EJ, Queiroz-Telles, F, et al. Outcome predictors of 84 patients with hematologic malignancies and Fusarium infection. Cancer 2003;98(2):315–9.
Nucci, M, Marr, KA, Queiroz-Telles, F, et al. Fusarium infection in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis 2004;38(9):1237–42.
O'Donnell, K, Sutton, DA, Rinaldi, MG, et al. Internet-accessible DNA sequence database for identifying fusaria from human and animal infections. J Clin Microbiol 2010;48(10):3708–18.
Nucci, M, Anaissie, E.Fusarium infections in immunocompromised patients. Clin Microbiol Rev 2007;20(4):695–704.
Raad, II, Hachem, RY, Herbrecht, R, et al. Posaconazole as salvage treatment for invasive fusariosis in patients with underlying hematologic malignancy and other conditions. Clin Infect Dis 2006;42(10):1398–403.
Cuellar-Rodriguez, J, Avery, RK, Lard, M, et al. Histoplasmosis in solid organ transplant recipients: 10 years of experience at a large transplant center in an endemic area. Clin Infect Dis 2009;49(5):710–6.
Hage, CA, Wheat, LJ, Loyd, J, et al. Pulmonary histoplasmosis. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2008;29(2):151–65.
Cano, MV, Hajjeh, RA.The epidemiology of histoplasmosis: a review. Semin Respir Infect 2001;16(2):109–18.
Gutierrez, ME, Canton, A, Sosa, N, Puga, E, Talavera, L.Disseminated histoplasmosis in patients with AIDS in Panama: a review of 104 cases. Clin Infect Dis 2005;40(8):1199–202.
Wheat, J.Histoplasmosis. Experience during outbreaks in Indianapolis and review of the literature. Medicine 1997;76(5):339–54.
Grim, SA, Proia, L, Miller, R, et al. A multicenter study of histoplasmosis and blastomycosis after solid organ transplantation. Transpl Infect Dis 2012;14(1):17–23.
Batista, MV, Pierrotti, LC, Abdala, E, et al. Endemic and opportunistic infections in Brazilian solid organ transplant recipients. Trop Med Int Health 2011;16(9):1134–42.
Newman, SL.Cell-mediated immunity to Histoplasma capsulatum. Semin Respir Infect 2001;16(2):102–8.
Gildea, LA, Ciraolo, GM, Morris, RE, Newman, SL.Human dendritic cell activity against Histoplasma capsulatum is mediated via phagolysosomal fusion. Infect Immun 2005;73(10):6803–11.
Gomez, FJ, Pilcher-Roberts, R, Alborzi, A, Newman, SL.Histoplasma capsulatum cyclophilin A mediates attachment to dendritic cell VLA-5. J Immunol 2008;181(10):7106–14.
Deepe, GS, Gibbons, RS, Smulian, AG.Histoplasma capsulatum manifests preferential invasion of phagocytic subpopulations in murine lungs. J Leukoc Biol 2008;84(3):669–78.
Allendoerfer, R, Deepe, GS. Regulation of infection with Histoplasma capsulatum by TNFR1 and -2. J Immunol 2000;165(5):2657–64.
Deepe, GSModulation of infection with Histoplasma capsulatum by inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha activity. Clin Infect Dis 2005;41 Suppl 3:S204–7.
Scheckelhoff, M, Deepe, GS. A deficiency in gamma interferon or interleukin-10 modulates T-Cell-dependent responses to heat shock protein 60 from Histoplasma capsulatum. Infect Immun 2005;73(4):2129–34.
Cain, JA, Deepe, GSInterleukin-12 neutralization alters lung inflammation and leukocyte expression of CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex class II in mice infected with Histoplasma capsulatum. Infect Immun 2000;68(4):2069–76.
Deepe, GS, Gibbons, RS.Interleukins 17 and 23 influence the host response to Histoplasma capsulatum. J Infect Dis 2009;200(1):142–51.
Knox, KS, Hage, CA.Histoplasmosis. Proc Am Thorac Soc 2010;7(3):169–72.
Kauffman, CA.Histoplasmosis: a clinical and laboratory update. Clin Microbiol Rev 2007;20(1):115–32.
Wheat, LJ, Musial, CE, Jenny-Avital, E.Diagnosis and management of central nervous system histoplasmosis. Clin Infect Dis 2005;40(6):844–52.
Wood, KL, Hage, CA, Knox, KS, et al. Histoplasmosis after treatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;167(9):1279–82.
Arnold, TM, Sears, CR, Hage, CA.Invasive fungal infections in the era of biologics. Clin Chest Med 2009;30(2):279–86, vi.
Wheat, LJ, Freifeld, AG, Kleiman, MB, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of patients with histoplasmosis: 2007 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2007;45(7):807–25.
Kennedy, CC, Limper, AH.Redefining the clinical spectrum of chronic pulmonary histoplasmosis: a retrospective case series of 46 patients. Medicine 2007;86(4):252–8.
Wheat, LJ, Wass, J, Norton, J, Kohler, RB, French, ML.Cavitary histoplasmosis occurring during two large urban outbreaks. Analysis of clinical, epidemiologic, roentgenographic, and laboratory features. Medicine (Baltimore) 1984;63(4):201–9.
Wheat, JL.Current diagnosis of histoplasmosis. Trends Microbiol 2003;11(10):488–94.
Connolly, PA, Durkin, MM, Lemonte, AM, Hackett, EJ, Wheat, LJ.Detection of histoplasma antigen by a quantitative enzyme immunoassay. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2007;14(12):1587–91.
Safelice, F.Contributo alla morfologia e biologia dei blastomiceti che si sviluppano nei succhi di alcuni frutti. Ann Ig 1894;4:463–95.
French, N, Gray, K, Watera, C, et al. Cryptococcal infection in a cohort of HIV-1-infected Ugandan adults. AIDS 2002;16(7):1031–8.
Lara-Peredo, O, Cuevas, LE, French, N, Bailey, JW, Smith, DH.Cryptococcal infection in an HIV-positive Ugandan population. J Infect 2000;41(2):195.
Wickes, BL, Mayorga, ME, Edman, U, Edman, JC.Dimorphism and haploid fruiting in Cryptococcus neoformans: association with the alpha-mating type. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996;93(14):7327–31.
Huston, SM, Mody, CH.Cryptococcosis: an emerging respiratory mycosis. Clin Chest Med 2009;30(2):253–64, vi.
Sorrell, TC, Chen, SC, Ruma, P, et al. Concordance of clinical and environmental isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii by random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis and PCR fingerprinting. J Clin Microbiol 1996;34(5):1253–60.
Yamamoto, Y, Kohno, S, Koga, H, et al. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of clinically and environmentally isolated Cryptococcus neoformans in Nagasaki. J Clin Microbiol 1995;33(12):3328–32.
Pappas, PG, Perfect, JR, Cloud, GA, et al. Cryptococcosis in human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients in the era of effective azole therapy. Clin Infect Dis 2001;33(5):690–9.
Casadevall, A, Perfect, JR.Cryptococcus neoformans. Washington DC: ASM Press, 1998.
Mirza, SA, Phelan, M, Rimland, D, et al. The changing epidemiology of cryptococcosis: an update from population-based active surveillance in 2 large metropolitan areas, 1992–2000. Clin Infect Dis 2003;36(6):789–94.
Lin, X, Heitman, J.The biology of the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex. Annu Rev Microbiol 2006;60:69–105.
Qazzafi, Z, Thiruchunapalli, D, Birkenhead, D, Bell, D, Sandoe, JA.Invasive Cryptococcus neoformans infection in an asplenic patient. J Infect 2007;55(6):566–8.
Suarez-Rivera, M, Abadeer, RA, Kott, MM, Braun, MC.Cryptococcosis associated with crescentic glomerulonephritis. Pediatr Nephrol 2008;23(5):827–30.
Singh, N, Husain, S, De Vera, M, Gayowski, T, Cacciarelli, TV.Cryptococcus neoformans infection in patients with cirrhosis, including liver transplant candidates. Medicine (Baltimore) 2004;83(3):188–92.
Capoor, MR, Khanna, G, Malhotra, R, et al. Disseminated cryptococcosis with necrotizing fasciitis in an apparently immunocompetent host: a case report. Med Mycol 2008;46(3):269–73.
Manfredi, R, Calza, L.Severe brain co-infection with Cryptococcus neoformans and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a young, otherwise healthy student recently immigrated from China. Int J Infect Dis 2008;12(4):438–41.
Nakamura, S, Izumikawa, K, Seki, M, et al. Pulmonary cryptococcosis in late pregnancy and review of published literature. Mycopathologia 2009;167(3):125–31.
Gugnani, HC, Mitchell, TG, Litvintseva, AP, et al. Isolation of Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii from the flowers and bark of Eucalyptus trees in India. Med Mycol 2005;43(6):565–9.
Pfeiffer, T, Ellis, D.Environmental isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans gattii from California. J Infect Dis 1991;163(4):929–30.
Morgan, J, McCarthy, KM, Gould, S, et al. Cryptococcus gattii infection: characteristics and epidemiology of cases identified in a South African province with high HIV seroprevalence, 2002–2004. Clin Infect Dis 2006;43(8):1077–80.
Mirza, SA, Phelan, M, Rimland, D, et al. The changing epidemiology of cryptococcosis: an update from population-based active surveillance in 2 large metropolitan areas, 1992–2000. Clin Infect Dis 2003;36(6):789–94.
Kidd, SE, Bach, PJ, Hingston, AO, et al. Cryptococcus gattii dispersal mechanisms, British Columbia, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis 2007;13(1):51–7.
MacDougall, L, Kidd, SE, Galanis, E, et al. Spread of Cryptococcus gattii in British Columbia, Canada, and detection in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Emerg Infect Dis 2007;13(1):42–50.
Thakur, R, Sarma, S, Kushwaha, S.Prevalence of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis and utility of microbiological determinants for its diagnosis in a tertiary care center. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2008;51(2):212–4.
Kitkungvan, D, Apisarnthanarak, A, Plengpart, P, Mundy, LM.Fever of unknown origin in patients with HIV infection in Thailand: an observational study and review of the literature. Int J STD AIDS 2008;19(4):232–5.
Jongwutiwes, U, Sungkanuparph, S, Kiertiburanakul, S.Comparison of clinical features and survival between cryptococcosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative patients. Jpn J Infect Dis 2008;61(2):111–5.
Kwon-Chung, KJ, Rhodes, JC.Encapsulation and melanin formation as indicators of virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun 1986;51(1):218–23.
Jacobson, ES, Jenkins, ND, Todd, JM.Relationship between superoxide dismutase and melanin in a pathogenic fungus. Infect Immun 1994;62(9):4085–6.
Wong, B, Perfect, JR, Beggs, S, Wright, KA.Production of the hexitol D-mannitol by Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro and in rabbits with experimental meningitis. Infect Immun 1990;58(6):1664–70.
Missall, TA, Lodge, JK.Thioredoxin reductase is essential for viability in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Eukaryot Cell 2005;4(2):487–9.
Merkel, GJ, Scofield, BA.The in vitro interaction of Cryptococcus neoformans with human lung epithelial cells. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 1997;19(3):203–13.
Mansour, MK, Levitz, SM.Interactions of fungi with phagocytes. Curr Opin Microbiol 2002;5(4):359–65.
Voelz, K, May, RC.Cryptococcal interactions with the host immune system. Eukaryot Cell 2010;9(6):835–46.
Chandler, FW, Watts, JC.Cryptoccocosis. In Chandler, FW, Watts, JC, ed. Pathologic Diagnosis of Fungal Infections. Chicago: ASCP Press, 1987. pp. 161–75.
Park, BJ, Wannemuehler, KA, Marston, BJ, et al. Estimation of the current global burden of cryptococcal meningitis among persons living with HIV/AIDS. AIDS 2009;23(4):525–30.
Sun, HY, Wagener, MM, Singh, N.Cryptococcosis in solid-organ, hematopoietic stem cell, and tissue transplant recipients: evidence-based evolving trends. Clin Infect Dis 2009;48(11):1566–76.
Visnegarwala, F, Graviss, EA, Lacke, CE, et al. Acute respiratory failure associated with cryptococcosis in patients with AIDS: analysis of predictive factors. Clin Infect Dis 1998;27(5):1231–7.
Jarvis, JN, Harrison, TS.Pulmonary cryptococcosis. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2008;29(2):141–50.
Jarvis, JN, Lawn, SD, Wood, R, Harrison, TS.Cryptococcal antigen screening for patients initiating antiretroviral therapy: time for action. Clin Infect Dis 2010;51(12):1463–5.
Bartlett, KH, Kidd, SE, Kronstad, JW.The emergence of Cryptococcus gattii in British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest. Curr Infect Dis Rep 2008;10(1):58–65.
Patel, AJ, Gattuso, P, Reddy, VB.Diagnosis of blatomycosis in surgical pathology and cytopathology: correlation with microbiologic culture. Am J Surg Pathol 2010; 34(2):256–61.
Bradsher, RW. Pulmonary blastomycosis. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2008;29(2):174–81.
Cano, MV, Ponce-de-Leon, GF, Tippen, S, et al. Blastomycosis in Missouri: epidemiology and risk factors for endemic disease. Epidemiol Infect 2003;131(2):907–14.
Morris, SK, Brophy, J, Richardson, SE, et al. Blastomycosis in Ontario, 1994–2003. Emerg Infect Dis 2006;12(2):274–9.
Bariola, JR, Perry, P, Pappas, PG, et al. Blastomycosis of the central nervous system: a multicenter review of diagnosis and treatment in the modern era. Clin Infect Dis 2010;50(6):797–804.
McKinnell, JA, Pappas, PG.Blastomycosis: new insights into diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. Clin Chest Med 2009;30(2):227–39, v.
Pappas, PG, Pottage, JC, Powderly, WG, et al. Blastomycosis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med 1992;116(10):847–53.
Saccente, M, Woods, GL.Clinical and laboratory update on blastomycosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 2010;23(2):367–81.
Lemos, LB, Baliga, M, Guo, M.Acute respiratory distress syndrome and blastomycosis: presentation of nine cases and review of the literature. Ann Diagn Pathol 2001;5(1):1–9.
Fang, W, Washington, L, Kumar, N.Imaging manifestations of blastomycosis: a pulmonary infection with potential dissemination. Radiographics 2007;27(3):641–55.
Lemos, LB, Guo, M, Baliga, M.Blastomycosis: organ involvement and etiologic diagnosis. A review of 123 patients from Mississippi. Ann Diagn Pathol 2000;4(6):391–406.
Durkin, M, Witt, J, Lemonte, A, Wheat, B, Connolly, P.Antigen assay with the potential to aid in diagnosis of blastomycosis. J Clin Microbiol 2004;42(10):4873–5.
Bradsher, RW, Chapman, SW, Pappas, PG.Blastomycosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2003;17(1):21–40, vii.
Posadas, A. Ensayo anatomopatologico sobre una neoplasia considerada como micosis fungoidea. An Circ Med Argent 1892;(15–18).
Rixford, E, Gilchrist, TC. Two cases of protozoan (coccidioidal) infection of the skin and other organs. Johns Hopkins Hosp Rep 1896:209–68.
Fisher, MC, Koenig, GL, White, TJ, Taylor, JW.Molecular and phenotypic description of Coccidioides posadasii sp. nov., previously recognized as the non-California population of Coccidioides immitis. Mycologia 2002;94(1):73–84.
Galgiani, JN, Ampel, NM, Blair, JE, et al. Coccidioidomycosis. Clin Infect Dis 2005;41(9):1217–23.
Galgiani, JN.Coccidioidomycosis: a regional disease of national importance. Rethinking approaches for control. Ann Intern Med 1999;130(4 Pt 1):293–300.
Rosenstein, NE, Emery, KW, Werner, SB, et al. Risk factors for severe pulmonary and disseminated coccidioidomycosis: Kern County, California, 1995–1996. Clin Infect Dis 2001;32(5):708–15.
Tsang, CA, Anderson, SM, Imholte, SB, et al. Enhanced surveillance of coccidioidomycosis, Arizona, USA, 2007–2008. Emerg Infect Dis 2010;16(11):1738–44.
Valley Fever annual report 2007. Arizona Department of Health Services, 2008.
CDC. Increase in Coccidioidomycosis – California, 2000–2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2009;58:105–9.
Crum, NF, Lederman, ER, Stafford, CM, Parrish, JS, Wallace, MR.Coccidioidomycosis: a descriptive survey of a reemerging disease. Clinical characteristics and current controversies. Medicine 2004;83(3):149–75.
Bayer, AS.Fungal pneumonias: pulmonary coccidioidal syndromes (Part 2). Miliary, nodular, and cavitary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis; chemotherapeutic and surgical considerations. Chest 1981;79(6):686–91.
Anstead, GM, Graybill, JR.Coccidioidomycosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2006;20(3):621–43.
Blair, JE.Approach to the solid organ transplant patient with latent infection and disease caused by Coccidioides species. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2008;21(4):415–20.
Stevens, DA, Clemons, KV, Levine, HB, et al. Expert opinion: what to do when there is Coccidioides exposure in a laboratory. Clin Infect Dis 2009;49(6):919–23.
Rempe, S, Sachdev, MS, Bhakta, R, et al. Coccidioides immitis fungemia: clinical features and survival in 33 adult patients. Heart Lung 2007;36(1):64–71.
Restrepo, A, Benard, G, de Castro, CC, Agudelo, CA, Tobon, AM.Pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2008;29(2):182–97.
Ameen, M, Talhari, C, Talhari, S.Advances in paracoccidioidomycosis. Clin Exp Dermatol 2010;35(6):576–80.
Ajello, L, Polonelli, L.Imported paracoccidioidomycosis: a public health problem in non-endemic areas. Eur J Epidemiol 1985;1(3):160–5.
Ferreira, MS.Paracoccidioidomycosis. Paediatr Respir Rev 2009;10(4):161–5.
Morejon, KM, Machado, AA, Martinez, R.Paracoccidioidomycosis in patients infected with and not infected with human immunodeficiency virus: a case-control study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2009;80(3):359–66.
Funari, M, Kavakama, J, Shikanai-Yasuda, MA, et al. Chronic pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis (South American blastomycosis): high-resolution CT findings in 41 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1999;173(1):59–64.
de Camargo, ZP.Serology of paracoccidioidomycosis. Mycopathologia 2008;165(4–5):289–302.
Odds, FC.Ecology of Candida and epidemiology of candidosis. In Odds, FC, ed. Candida and Candidosis: A Review and Bibliography. 2nd ed. London: W.B. Saunders, 1988. pp. 68–92.
Pfaller, MA, Diekema, DJ.Epidemiology of invasive candidiasis: a persistent public health problem. Clin Microbiol Rev 2007;20(1):133–63.
Calderone, RA.Taxonomy and biology of Candida. In Calderone, RA, ed. Candida and Candidiasis. Washington DC: ASM Press, 2002. pp. 15–27.
Sullivan, DJ, Westerneng, TJ, Haynes, KA, Bennett, DE, Coleman, DC.Candida dubliniensis sp. nov.: phenotypic and molecular characterization of a novel species associated with oral candidosis in HIV-infected individuals. Microbiology 1995;141(Pt 7):1507–21.
Howell, SA, Hazen, KC.Candida, Cryptococcus, and other yeasts of medical importance. In Versalovic, J, ed. Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th ed. Washington DC: ASM Press, 2011. pp. 1793–821.
Tavanti, A, Davidson, AD, Gow, NA, Maiden, MC, Odds, FC.Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis spp. nov. to replace Candida parapsilosis groups II and III. J Clin Microbiol 2005;43(1):284–92.
Rodloff, C, Koch, D, Schaumann, R.Epidemiology and antifungal resistance in invasive candidiasis. Eur J Med Res 2011;16(4):187–95.
Silva, S, Negri, M, Henriques, M, et al. Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis: biology, epidemiology, pathogenicity and antifungal resistance. FEMS Microbiol Rev 2012;36(2):288–305.
Pfaller, MA, Diekema, DJ.Epidemiology of invasive mycoses in North America. Crit Rev Microbiol 2010;36(1):1–53.
Netea, MG, Marodi, L.Innate immune mechanisms for recognition and uptake of Candida species. Trends Immunol 2010;31(9):346–53.
van de Veerdonk, FL, Netea, MG, Joosten, LA, van der Meer, JW, Kullberg, BJ.Novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of Candida infections: the potential of immunotherapy. FEMS Microbiol Rev 2010;34(6):1063–75.
Richardson, M, Rautemaa, R.How the host fights against Candida infections. Front Biosci 2009;14:4363–75.
Blanco, JL, Garcia, ME.Immune response to fungal infections. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2008;125(1–2):47–70.
Franquet, T, Müller, NL, Lee, KS, Oikonomou, A, Flint, JD.Pulmonary candidiasis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: thin-section CT findings. Radiology 2005;236(1):332–7.
Knox, WF, Hooton, VN, Barson, AJ.Pulmonary vascular candidiasis and use of central venous catheters in neonates. J Clin Pathol 1987;40(5):559–65.
Blaschke, S, Don, M, Schillinger, W, Ruchel, R.[Candida pneumonia in patients without definitive immunodeficiency]. Mycoses 2002;45 Suppl 3:22–6.
Richardson, M, Lass-Florl, C.Changing epidemiology of systemic fungal infections. Clin Microbiol Infect 2008;14 Suppl 4:5–24.
Edwards, JE. Invasive candida infections – evolution of a fungal pathogen. N Engl J Med 1991;324(15):1060–2.
Neofytos, D, Fishman, JA, Horn, D, et al. Epidemiology and outcome of invasive fungal infections in solid organ transplant recipients. Transpl Infect Dis 2010;12(3):220–9.
Lease, ED, Zaas, DW.Update on infectious complications following lung transplantation. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2011;17(3):206–9.
Bertagnolio, S, de Gaetano Donati, K, Tacconelli, E, et al. Hospital-acquired candidemia in HIV-infected patients. Incidence, risk factors and predictors of outcome. J Chemother 2004;16(2):172–8.
Tapia, GG, Razonable, RR, Eckel-Passow, JE, et al. A scoring model of factors associated with Candida glabrata candidemia among critically ill patients. Mycoses 2011 Jul 21..
Pasqualotto, AC.Candida and the paediatric lung. Paediatr Respir Rev 2009;10(4):186–91.
Haron, E, Vartivarian, S, Anaissie, E, Dekmezian, R, Bodey, GP.Primary Candida pneumonia. Experience at a large cancer center and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 1993;72(3):137–42.
Meersseman, W, Lagrou, K, Spriet, I, et al. Significance of the isolation of Candida species from airway samples in critically ill patients: a prospective, autopsy study. Intensive Care Med 2009;35(9):1526–31.
Dvorak, AM, Gavaller, B.Congenital systemic candidiasis. Report of a case. N Engl J Med 1966;274(10):540–3.
Chotirmall, SH, Greene, CM, McElvaney, NG.Candida species in cystic fibrosis: a road less travelled. Med Mycol 2010;48 Suppl 1:S114–24.
Xie, LX, Liu, SY, Chen, YS, Liu, K, Xue, F.An animal experiment about early pulmonary candidiasis in immunosuppressive rabbits: thin-section CT images dynamically observed and proved by histopathological results. Acta Radiol 2011;52(7):743–9.
Triger, DR, Goepel, JR, Slater, DN, Underwood, JC.Systemic candidiasis complicating acute hepatic failure in patients treated with cimetidine. Lancet 1981;2(8251):837–8.
Alberti, C, Brun-Buisson, C, Burchardi, H, et al. Epidemiology of sepsis and infection in ICU patients from an international multicentre cohort study. Intensive Care Med 2002;28(2):108–21.
Larone, DH.Medically Important Fungi, 4th ed. New York: ASM Press, 2002.
Shea, YR.General aprroaches for direct detection of fungi. In Versalovic, J, ed. Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th ed. Washington DC: ASM Press, 2011. pp. 1776–92.
Csank, C, Haynes, K.Candida glabrata displays pseudohyphal growth. FEMS Microbiol Lett 2000;189(1):115–20.
Lachke, SA, Joly, S, Daniels, K, Soll, DR.Phenotypic switching and filamentation in Candida glabrata. Microbiology 2002;148(Pt 9):2661–74.
Lamps, LW, Molina, CP, West, AB, Haggitt, RC, Scott, MA.The pathologic spectrum of gastrointestinal and hepatic histoplasmosis. Am J Clin Pathol 2000;113(1):64–72.
Graham, AR.Fungal autofluorescence with ultraviolet illumination. Am J Clin Pathol 1983;79(2):231–4.
Elston, DM.Fluorescence of fungi in superficial and deep fungal infections. BMC Microbiol 2001;1:21.
Marcilla, A, Monteagudo, C, Mormeneo, S, Sentandreu, R.Monoclonal antibody 3H8: a useful tool in the diagnosis of candidiasis. Microbiology 1999;145(Pt 3):695–701.
Kontoyiannis, DP, Reddy, BT, Torres, HA, et al. Pulmonary candidiasis in patients with cancer: an autopsy study. Clin Infect Dis 2002;34(3):400–3.
Richardson, MD, Carlson, P.Culture- and non-culture-based diagnostics for Candida species. In Calderone, RA, ed. Candida and Candidiasis. Washington DC: ASM Press, 2002. pp. 387–94.
Ellepola, AN, Morrison, CJ.Laboratory diagnosis of invasive candidiasis. J Microbiol 2005;43 Spec No:65–84.
Sahand, IH, Moragues, MD, Robert, R, Quindos, G, Ponton, J.Evaluation of Bichro-Dubli Fumouze to distinguish Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2006;55(2):165–7.
Quindos, G, San Millan, R, Robert, R, Bernard, C, Ponton, J.Evaluation of bichro-latex albicans, a new method for rapid identification of Candida albicans. J Clin Microbiol 1997;35(5):1263–5.
Freydiere, AM, Buchaille, L, Guinet, R, Gille, Y.Evaluation of latex reagents for rapid identification of Candida albicans and C. krusei colonies. J Clin Microbiol 1997;35(4):877–80.
Willinger, B, Wein, S, Hirschl, AM, Rotter, ML, Manafi, M.Comparison of a new commercial test, GLABRATA RTT, with a dipstick test for rapid identification of Candida glabrata. J Clin Microbiol 2005;43(1):499–501.
Verduyn Lunel, FM, Peter Donnelly, J, van der Lee, HA, Blijlevens, NM, Verweij, PE.Performance of the new Platelia Candida Plus assays for the diagnosis of invasive Candida infection in patients undergoing myeloablative therapy. Med Mycol 2011;49(8):848–55.
Sendid, B, Caillot, D, Baccouch-Humbert, B, et al. Contribution of the Platelia Candida-specific antibody and antigen tests to early diagnosis of systemic Candida tropicalis infection in neutropenic adults. J Clin Microbiol 2003;41(10):4551–8.
Prella, M, Bille, J, Pugnale, M, et al. Early diagnosis of invasive candidiasis with mannan antigenemia and antimannan antibodies. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2005;51(2):95–101.
Alam, FF, Mustafa, AS, Khan, ZU.Comparative evaluation of (1, 3)-beta-D-glucan, mannan and anti-mannan antibodies, and Candida species-specific snPCR in patients with candidemia. BMC Infect Dis 2007;7:103.
Farina, C, Russello, G, Anderoni, S, et al. The Microarray Technology in Yeast Identification Directly from Positive Blood Cultures. Boston: ICAAC, 2010.
Loeffler, J, Dorn, C, Hebart, H, et al. Development and evaluation of the nuclisens basic kit NASBA for the detection of RNA from Candida species frequently resistant to antifungal drugs. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2003;45(3):217–20.
Peman, J, Zaragoza, R.Current diagnostic approaches to invasive candidiasis in critical care settings. Mycoses 2010;53(5):424–33.
Concia, E, Azzini, AM, Conti, M.Epidemiology, incidence and risk factors for invasive candidiasis in high-risk patients. Drugs 2009;69 Suppl 1:5–14.
Catherinot, E, Lanternier, F, Bougnoux, ME, et al. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2010;24(1):107–38.
Armengol, CE.A historical review of Pneumocystis carinii. JAMA 1995;273(9):747, 50–1.
Stringer, JR, Beard, CB, Miller, RF, Wakefield, AE.A new name (Pneumocystis jiroveci) for Pneumocystis from humans. Emerg Infect Dis 2002;8(9):891–6.
Cushion, MT, Linke, MJ, Ashbaugh, A, et al. Echinocandin treatment of pneumocystis pneumonia in rodent models depletes cysts leaving trophic burdens that cannot transmit the infection. PloS One 2010;5(1):e8524.
Morris, A, Beard, CB, Huang, L.Update on the epidemiology and transmission of Pneumocystis carinii. Microbes Infect 2002;4(1):95–103.
Vargas, SL, Hughes, WT, Santolaya, ME, et al. Search for primary infection by Pneumocystis carinii in a cohort of normal, healthy infants. Clin Infect Dis 2001;32(6):855–61.
Hughes, WT, Feldman, S, Aur, RJ, et al. Intensity of immunosuppressive therapy and the incidence of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis. Cancer 1975;36(6):2004–9.
Walzer, PD.Immunological features of Pneumocystis carinii infection in humans. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 1999;6(2):149–55.
Walzer, PD, Djawe, K, Levin, L, et al. Long-term serologic responses to the Pneumocystis jirovecii major surface glycoprotein in HIV-positive individuals with and without P. jirovecii infection. J Infect Dis 2009;199(9):1335–44.
Walzer, PD, Evans, HE, Copas, AJ, et al. Early predictors of mortality from Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in HIV-infected patients: 1985–2006. Clin Infect Dis 2008;46(4):625–33.
Sandhu, JS, Goodman, PC.Pulmonary cysts associated with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with AIDS. Radiology 1989;173(1):33–5.
Thomas, CF, Limper, AH.Pneumocystis pneumonia. N Engl J Med 2004;350(24):2487–98.
Sundar, K, Rosado-Santos, H, Reimer, L, Murray, K, Michael, J.Unusual presentation of thoracic Pneumocystis carinii infection in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Clin Infect Dis 2001;32(3):498–501.
Thomas, CF, Limper, AH.Current insights into the biology and pathogenesis of Pneumocystis pneumonia. Nat Rev Microbiol 2007;5(4):298–308.
Saldana, MJ, Mones, JM, Martinez, GR.The pathology of treated Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Semin Diagn Pathol 1989;6(3):300–12.
Travis, WD, Pittaluga, S, Lipschik, GY, et al. Atypical pathologic manifestations of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Review of 123 lung biopsies from 76 patients with emphasis on cysts, vascular invasion, vasculitis, and granulomas. Am J Surg Pathol 1990;14(7):615–25.
Khot, PD, Fredricks, DN.PCR-based diagnosis of human fungal infections. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2009;7(10):1201–21.
Gal, AA, Koss, MN, Strigle, S, Angritt, P.Pneumocystis carinii infection in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Semin Diagn Pathol 1989;6(3):287–99.
Blumenfeld, W, McCook, O, Holodniy, M, Katzenstein, DA.Correlation of morphologic diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii with the presence of pneumocystis DNA amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. Mod Pathol 1992;5(2):103–6.
Desmet, S, Van Wijngaerden, E, Maertens, J, et al. Serum (1–3)-beta-D-glucan as a tool for diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection or hematological malignancy. J Clin Microbiol 2009;47(12):3871–4.
Rohner, P, Jacomo, V, Studer, R, Schrenzel, J, Graf, JD.Detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii by two staining methods and two quantitative PCR assays. Infection 2009;37(3):261–5.
Hauser, PM, Bille, J, Lass-Florl, C, et al. Multicenter, prospective clinical evaluation of respiratory samples from subjects at risk for Pneumocystis jirovecii infection by use of a commercial real-time PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol 2011;49(5):1872–8.
D'Avignon, LC, Schofield, CM, Hospenthal, DR.Pneumocystis pneumonia. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2008;29(2):132–40.
Davis, BA.Sporotrichosis. Dermatol Clin 1996;14(1):69–76.
Marimon, R, Gene, J, Cano, J, et al. Molecular phylogeny of Sporothrix schenckii. J Clin Microbiol 2006;44(9):3251–6.
Coles, FB, Schuchat, A, Hibbs, JR, et al. A multistate outbreak of sporotrichosis associated with sphagnum moss. Am J Epidemiol 1992;136(4):475–87.
Kauffman, CA, Hajjeh, R, Chapman, SW.Practice guidelines for the management of patients with sporotrichosis. For the Mycoses Study Group. Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2000;30(4):684–7.
de Lima Barros, MB, de Oliveira Schubach, A, Galhardo, MC, et al. Sporotrichosis with widespread cutaneous lesions: report of 24 cases related to transmission by domestic cats in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Int J Dermatol 2003;42(9):677–81.
Ware, AJ, Cockerell, CJ, Skiest, DJ, Kussman, HM.Disseminated sporotrichosis with extensive cutaneous involvement in a patient with AIDS. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999;40(2 Pt 2):350–5.
Hay, RJ, Morris-Jones, R.Outbreaks of sporotrichosis. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2008;21(2):119–21.
Kauffman, CA.Sporotrichosis. Clin Infect Dis 1999;29(2):231–6; quiz 237.
Ramos-e-Silva, M, Vasconcelos, C, Carneiro, S, Cestari, T.Sporotrichosis. Clin Dermatol 2007;25(2):181–7.
Zhou, CH, Asuncion, A, Love, GL.Laryngeal and respiratory tract sporotrichosis and steroid inhaler use. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2003;127(7):893–4.
Donabedian, H, O'Donnell, E, Olszewski, C, MacArthur, RD, Budd, N.Disseminated cutaneous and meningeal sporotrichosis in an AIDS patient. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 1994;18(2):111–5.
Watts, JC, Chandler, FW.Adiaspiromycosis. An uncommon disease caused by an unusual pathogen. Chest 1990;97(5):1030–1.
England, DM, Hochholzer, L.Adiaspiromycosis: an unusual fungal infection of the lung. Report of 11 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 1993;17(9):876–86.
Peres, LC, Figueiredo, F, Peinado, M, Soares, FA.Fulminant disseminated pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in humans. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1992;46(2):146–50.
Denson, JL, Keen, CE, Froeschle, PO, Toy, EW, Borman, AM.Adiaspiromycosis mimicking widespread malignancy in a patient with pulmonary adenocarcinoma. J Clin Pathol 2009;62(9):837–9.
Watts, JC, Callaway, CS, Chandler, FW, Kaplan, W.Human pulmonary adiospiromycosis. Arch Pathol 1975;99(1):11–5.
Moraes, MA, de Almeida, MC, Raick, AN.[A fatal case of human pulmonary adiaspiromycosis]. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 1989;31(3):188–94.
Martins, RL, Santos, CG, Franca, FR, Moraes, MA.[Human adiaspiromycosis. A report of a case treated with ketoconazole]. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 1997;30(6):507–9.
Tragiannidis, A, Bisping, G, Koehler, G, Groll, AH.Minireview: Malassezia infections in immunocompromised patients. Mycoses 2010;53(3):187–95.
Gidding, H, Hawes, L, Dwyer, B.The isolation of Malassezia furfur from an episode of peritonitis. Med J Aust 1989;151(10):603.
Barber, GR, Brown, AE, Kiehn, TE, Edwards, FF, Armstrong, D.Catheter-related Malassezia furfur fungemia in immunocompromised patients. Am J Med 1993;95(4):365–70.
Revankar, SG, Sutton, DA.Melanized fungi in human disease. Clin Microbiol Rev 2010;23(4):884–928.
Revankar, SG, Sutton, DA, Rinaldi, MG.Primary central nervous system phaeohyphomycosis: a review of 101 cases. Clin Infect Dis 2004;38(2):206–16.
Ben-Ami, R, Lewis, RE, Raad, II, Kontoyiannis, DP.Phaeohyphomycosis in a tertiary care cancer center. Clin Infect Dis 2009;48(8):1033–41.
Brandt, ME, Warnock, DW.Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and therapy of infections caused by dematiaceous fungi. J Chemother 2003;15 Suppl 2:36–47.
Barron, MA, Sutton, DA, Veve, R, et al. Invasive mycotic infections caused by Chaetomium perlucidum, a new agent of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis. J Clin Microbiol 2003;41(11):5302–7.