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  • Print publication year: 2016
  • Online publication date: June 2017

Chapter 14 - Malignant Neoplasms of the Nasal Cavity, Paranasal Sinuses and Nasopharynx

1.Benoit, M, Bhattacharya, N, Faquin, W, Cunningham, W. Cancer of the nasal cavity in the pediatric population. Pediatr 2008; 121:e141e145.
2.Yi, JS, Cho, GS, Shim, MJ. Malignant tumors of the sinonasal tract in the pediatric population. Acta Otolaryngol 2012; 132 Suppl (1):S21S26.
3.Benoit, M, Bhattacharya, N, Faquin, W, Cunningham, W. Cancer of the nasal cavity in the pediatric population. Pediatr 2008; 121:e141e145.
4.Fyrmpas, G, Wurm, J, Athanassiadou, F, et al. Management of pediatric sinonasal rhabdomyosarcoma. J Laryngol Otol 2009; 123:990996.
5.Wurm, J, Constantinidis, J, Grabenbauer, G, Iro, H. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the nose and paranasal sinus: treatment results in 15 cases. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2005; 133:4250.
6.Parham, DM, Barr, FG. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. In: Fletcher, C, Unni, K, Mertens, F, editors, WHO Classification of Tumors. Pathology and Genetics of Tumors of Soft Tissue and Bone. Lyon, France: IARC Press. 2002; 146154.
7.Lawrence, W, Anderson, JR, Gehan, EA, Maurer, H. Pretreatment TNM staging of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma study group. Cancer 1997; 80:11651170.
8.Newton, WA, Gehan, EA, Webber, BL, et al. Classification of rhabdomyosarcoma and related sarcomas: pathologic aspects and proposal for a new classification – an intergroup rhabdomyosarcoma study. Cancer 1995; 76:10731085.
9.Parham, DM, Webber, B, Holt, H, et al. Immunohistochemical study of childhood rhabdomyosarcomas and related neoplasms. Results of an intergroup rhabdomyosarcoma study project. Cancer 1991; 67:30723080.
10.Koufos, A, Hansen, MF, Copleland, NG, et al. Loss of heterozygosity in three embryonal tumors suggest a common pathogenetic mechanism. Nature 1985; 316:330334.
11.Koi, M, Johnson, LA, Kalikein, LM, et al. Tumor cell growth arrest caused by subchromosomal transferable DNA fragments from chromosome 11. Science 1993; 260:361364.
12.Wang Wuu, S, Soukup, S, Ballard, E, et al. Chromosomal analysis of sixteen human rhabdomyosarcomas. Cancer 1988; 48:983987.
13.Barr, FG. Molecular genetics and pathogenesis of rhabdomyosarcoma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1997; 19:483491.
14.Barr, FG, Galili, N, Holick, J, et al. Rearrangement of PAX3 paired box gene in the pediatric solid tumor alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Nat Genet 1993; 3:113117.
15.Davis, RJ, Barr, FG. Fusion genes resulting from alternative chromosomal translocations are overexpressed by gene specific mechanisms in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997; 94:80478051.
16.Weiner, ES. Head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma. Semin Pediatr Surg 1994; 3:203206.
17.Rodeberg, DA, Anderson, JR, Arndt, CA, Comparison of outcomes based on treatment algorithms for rhabdomyosarcoma of the bladder/prostate: combined results from the Children’s Oncology Group, German Cooperative Soft Tissue Sarcoma Study, Italian Cooperative Group, and International Society of Pediatric Oncology Malignant Mesenchymal Tumors Committee. Int J Cancer 2011; 128:12321239.
18.Ozzello, L, Stout, AP, Murray, MR. Cultural characteristics of malignant histiocytomas and fibrous xanthomas. Cancer 1963; 16:331344.
19.De Rosa, J, Smith, J. Myxoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma presenting as a midline nasal mass. ENT J 2012; 91:e3e5.
20.Wang, CP, Chang, YL, Yang, TL, et al. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the sinonasal tract. Head & Neck 2009; 31:8593.
21.Weiss, SW, Enzinger, FM. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma: an analysis of 200 cases. Cancer 1978; 41:22502266.
22.Barnes, L, Kanbour, A. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the head and neck. A report of 12 cases. Arch Otolaryngolo Head Neck Surg 1988; 114:11491156.
23.Gadwaal, SR, Gannon, FH, Fanburg-Smith, JC, et al. Primary osteosarcoma of the head and neck in pediatric patients. Cancer 2001; 91:598605.
24.Singh, J, Gluckman, J, Kaufman, R, et al. Osteosarcoma of the nasal bone in a child. Head Neck; 4:246–250.
25.Gadwal, SR, Famburg-Smith, JC, Gannon, FH, Thompson, L. Primary chondrosarcoma of the head and neck in pediatric patients. Cancer 2000; 88:21802188.
26.Krishnamurthy, A, Shanmugasundaram, G, Majhi, U. Pediatric chondrosarcoma of the sinonasal region. J Can Res Ther 2013; 9:163164.
27.Lacovara, J, Patterson, K, Reaman, GH. Primary nasal chondrosarcoma. The pediatric experience. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1992; 14:158162.
28.Shukla, GK, Gupta, KR, Dayal, D. Angiosarcoma of the palate and nose. Ind J Otol 1973; 25:120124
29.Kimura, Y, Tanaka, S, Mitsuru, F. Angiosarcoma of the nasal cavity. J Laryngol Otol 1992; 106:368369.
30.Sharma, B, Nawalkha, P. Angiosarcoma of the maxillary antrum: report of a case with brief review of the literature. J Laryngol Otol 1979; 79:181186.
31.Palacios, E, Lam, E. Infantile fibrosarcoma of the maxillary sinus: significant response. ENT J 2012; 3: 9899.
32.Kim, KI, Yoo, SL. Infantile fibrosarcoma in the nasal cavity. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1996; 114: 98102.
33.Swain, RE, Sessions, DG, Ogura, JH. Fibrosarcoma of the head and neck in children. Laryngoscope 1976; 86:113116.
34.Steelman, C, Katzenstein, H, Parham, D. et al. Unusual presentation of congenital infantile fibrosarcoma in seven infants with molecular genetic analysis. Fetal Pediatr Pathol 2011; 30:329337.
35.Chung, EB, Enzinger, FM. Infantile fibrosarcoma. Cancer 1976; 38:729739.
36.Goswami, S, Kundu, I, Majumdar, P, et al. Neurofibrosaroma of the nasal cavity. Ind J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2001; 53:129132.
37.Broich, G, Pagliari, A, Ottaviani, F. Esthesioneuroblastoma: a general review of the cases published since the discovery of the tumor in 1924. Anticancer Res 1997; 17:26832706.
38.Benoit, M, Bhattacharya, N, Faquin, W, Cunningham, W. Cancer of the nasal cavity in the pediatric population. Pediatr 2008; 121:e141e145.
39.Bisogno, G, Soloni, P, Conte, M, et al. Esthesioneuroblastoma in pediatric and adolescent age. A report from TREP project in cooperation with Italian neuroblastoma and soft tissue sarcoma committees. Cancer 2012; 12:117121.
40.Eich, HT, Hero, B, Staar, S, et al. Multimodality therapy including radiotherapy and chemotherapy improves event free survival in stage C esthesioneuroblastoma. Strahlentheronkol 2003; 179:233240.
41.Kumar, M, Fallon, RJ, Hill, JS, Davis, MM. Esthesioneuroblastoma in children. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2002; 24:482487.
42.Kupeli, S, Yalcin, B, Buyukpamukcu, M. Olfactory neuroblastoma in children: results of multimodality treatment in 2 patients. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2011; 28:5659.
43.Kadish, S, Goodman, M, Wang, CC. Olfactory neuroblastoma. A clinical analysis of 17 cases. Cancer 1976 Mar; 37(3):15711576.
44.Morita, A, Ebersold, MJ, Olsen, KD, et al Esthesioneuroblastoma: prognosis and management. Neurosurgery 1993; 32:706714.
45.Dias, FL, Sa, GM, Lima, RA, et al. Patterns of failure and outcome in esthesioneuroblastoma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2003; 129:11881192.
46.Hyams, VJ. Olfactory neuroblastoma (case6). In: Batsakis, JG, Hyams, VJ, Morales, AR, editors. Special Tumors of the Head and Neck. Chicago: ASCP Press. 1982; 2429.
47.Wenig, BM, Duluguerove, P, Kapadia, S, et al. Tumor of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: neuroectodermal tumors. In: Barnes, EL, Eveson, JW, Reichart, P, Sidrenasky, D, editors. World Health Organization Classification of Tumors. Pathology and Genetics of Head and Neck Tumors. Kleihues, P, Sobin, LH, series editors. Lyon, France: IARC Press. 2005; 6575.
48.Riiazmiand, SH, Brieger, J, Jacob, R, et al. Analysis of cytogenetic aberrations of esthesioneuroblastomas by comparative genomic hybridization. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2002; 136:5357.
49.Azymos, J, Wolf, G, Kowalczyk, D, et al. Olfactory neuroblastoma: detection of genomic imbalances by comparative genomic hybridization. Acta Neurochir 1997; 39:839844.
50.Mun, SJ, Jung, HY, Frolova, A, et al. Malignant mucosal melanoma in the olfactory cleft of a 10 year old child. Auris Nasus Larynx 2013; 40:235238.
51.Cunningham, S, Briggs, R, Ryan, M. A case of sinonasal malignant mucosal melanoma in a six year old boy. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2003; 129:259.
52.Klimstra, D, Modlin, I, Coppola, D, et al. The pathologic classification of neuroendocrine tumors. Pancrease 2010; 39:707712.
53.Wenig, B. Undifferentiated malignant neoplasms of the sinonasal tract. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2009; 133:699712.
54.Bridge, J, Bowen, J, Smith, R. The small round blue cell tumors of the sinonasal area. Head Neck Pathol 2010; 4:8493.
55.Krishnamurthy, A, Ravi, P, Vijayalakshmi, R, et al. Small cell carcinoma of the paranasal sinus. NJ Maxillofac Surg 2013; 4:111113.
56.Hafezi, S, Seethala, R, Stelow, E, et al. Ewing’s family of tumors of the sinonasal tract and maxillary bone. Head Neck Pathol 2011; 5:816.
57.Vaccani, JP, Forte, V, de Jong, AL, Taylor, G. Ewing’s sarcoma of the head and neck in children. Int J Pediatr Otolaryngol 1999; 48:209216.
58.Raney, RB, Asmar, L, Newton, WA, et al. Ewing sarcoma of soft tissue in childhood: a report from the intergroup rhabdomyosarcoma study, 1972 to 1991. J Clin Oncol 1997; 15:574582.
59.Wenig, BM, Dulguerov, P, Kapadia, S, et al. Neuroectodermal tumors. In: Barnes, EL, Eveson, JW, Reichart, P, Sidransky, D, editors. World Health Organization Classifications of Tumors. Lyon, France: IARC Press. 2005; 6570.
60.Frierson, HF, Mills, SE, Fechner, RE, et al. Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma: An aggressive neoplasm derived from schneiderian epithelium and distinct from olfactory neuroblastoma. Am J Surg Pathol 1986; 10:771779.
61.Greger, V, Schrimacher, P, Bohl, J, et al.Possible involvement of the retinoblastoma gene in undifferentiated sinonasal carcinoma. Cancer 1990; 66:19541959.
62.Lopategui, JR, Gaffey, MJ, Frierson, HF, et al. Detection of Epstein Barr viral RNA in sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma from Western and Asian patients. Am J Surg Pathol 1994; 18:391398.
63.Kumar, R, Chandra, A, Rastogi, A. Intracranial sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC) in a child. Childs Nerv Syst 2006; 22:12081211.
64.Sobota, A, Pena, M, Santi, M, Ahmed, A. Undifferentiated sinonasal carcinoma in a patient with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Int J Surg Pathol 2007; 15:303306.
65.Wenic, B. Undifferentiated malignant neoplasms of the sinonasal tract. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2009; 133:699712.
66.Gelbard, A, Hale, K, Takahashi, Y, et al. Molecular profiling of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma. Head & Neck 2014; 36:1521.
67.Benoit, M, Bhattacharyya, N, Faquin, W, and Cunningham, M. Cancer of the nasal cavity in the pediatric population. Pediatrics 2008; 121:e141e145.
68.Garcia-Inclan, C, Lopez, F, Perez-Escuredo, J, et al. EGFR status and KRAS/BRAF mutations in intestinal type sinonasal adenocarcinomas. Cell Oncol (Dordr) 2012; 35:443450.
69.Fritsch, VA, Lentsch, DJ. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: location means everything. J Surg Oncol 2014; 109:616622.
70.Thariat, J, Badoual, C, Faure, C, et al. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Bull Cancer 2009; 96:9891004.
71.Kusumakumari, P, Geetha, N, Chelham, VG et al. Endodermal sinus tumors in the head and neck region. Med Pediatr Oncology 1997; 29:303307.
72.Filho, B, Mchugh, J, Carru, R, Kassam, A. Yolk sac tumor in the nasal cavity. Am J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2008; 29:250254.
73.Dehner, LP, Mills, A, Talerman, A, et al. Germ cell neoplasms of head and neck tissues: A pathologic spectrum of teratomatous and endodermal sinus tumors. Hum Pathol 1990; 21:309318.
74.Mohamed, MH, Balachandran, A, Yunus, M. Extragonadal germ cell tumor: primary yolk sac tumor of the maxillary sinus. Brunei Int Med J 2013; 9:122125.
75.Sungur, A, Ozbay, G, Dogan, A, et al. An endodermal sinus tumor of the head and neck region. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 1993; 26:177180.
76.Chuang, HC, Kang, CJ, Lee, LY. Sinonasal pure yolk sac tumor: a case report and literature review. Fetal Pediatr Pathol 2014, 33:127134.
77.Bresters, D, Zwaan, CHM, Leemans, R. A three-year-old girl with yolk sac tumor on the orbit/maxillary sinus. Med Pediatr Oncol 2003; 40:7071.
78.Zynger, DL, Dimov, ND, Luan, C, Teh, BT, Yang, XJ. Glypican 3: a novel marker in testicular germ cell tumors. Am J Surg Pathol Dec 2006; 30(12):15701575.
79.Sugimura, J, Foster, RS, Cummings, OW, et al. Gene expression profiling of early- and late-relapse nonseminomatous germ cell tumor and primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the testis. Clin Cancer Res Apr 1 2004; 10(7):23682378.
80.Agrawal, N, Chintagumpala, M, Hicks, J, et al. Sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma in an adolescent male. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2012; 34:e304e307.
81.Hefner, DK, Hyams, VJ. Teratocarcinosarcoma (Malignant teratoma?) of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. A clinicopathologic study of 20 cases. Cancer 1984; 53:21402154.
82.Budrukkar, A, Argawal, JP, Kane, S, et al. Management and clinical outcome of sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma: single institution experience. J Laryngol Otol 2010:124:739743.
83.Redondo Martinez, E, Rey Lpoez, A, Reguera Parra, V, et al. Sinusal teratocarcinosarcoma. Acta Otorrinolaryngol Esp 1991; 42:363367
84.Crazzolara, R, Puelacher, W, Ninkovic, M. Teratocarcinosarcoma of the oral cavity. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2004; 43:687691.
85.Rotenberg, B, El-Hakim, H, Lodha, A, et al. Nasopharyngeal teratocarcinosarcoma. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2002; 62:159164.
86.Yang, S, Sun, R, Liang, J, et al. Sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma a clinical and pathological analysis. Int J Surg Pathol 2013, 21:3743.
87.Su, YY, Friedman, M, Huang, CC, et al. Sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma. Am J Otolaryngol 2010; 31:300303.
88.Modal, SK, Mandal, PK, Guha, A, et al. Sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma of the ethmoid and paranasal sinus: a rare neoplasm. J Res Med Sci 2012; 17:575577.
89.Tao, ZZ, Chen, SM, Liu, JF, et al. Paranasal sinus chordoma in pediatric patients: a case report and literature review. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2005; 69:14151418.
90.Yan, Z, Yang, B, Wang, Z, et al. Primary chondroma in the nasal cavity and nasopharynx: CT and MR imaging findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2010; 31:246501.
91.Omerod, R. A case of chordomas presenting in the nasopharynx. J Laryngol Otol 1960; 74:245254
92.Scartozzi, R, Couch, M, Sciubba, J. Chondroid chordomas of the nasal septum. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2003; 129:244246
93.Eisemann, ML. Sphenooccipital chordomas presenting as a nasopharyngeal mass. A case report. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1980; 89:271275
94.Mirra, JM, Nelson, SD, Della Rocca, C, Mertens, F. Chordoma in WHO classification of tumors. In: Fletcher, C, Krishnan, U, and Mertens, F, editors. Pathology and Genetics of Tumors of Soft Tissue and Bone. Lyon, France: IARC Press. 2002; 316317.
95.Scheil-Bertram, S, Kappler, R, von Baer, A, et al. Molecular profiling of chordoma. Int J Oncol 2014; 44:10411055.
96.Casali, PG, Stacchiotti, S, Sangalli, C, Olmi, P, Gronchi, A. Chordoma. Curr Opin Oncol Jul 2007; 19:367370
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1.Benoit, M, Bhattacharya, N, Faquin, W, Cunningham, W. Cancer of the nasal cavity in the pediatric population. Pediatr 2008; 121:e141e145.
2.Yi, JS, Cho, GS, Shim, MJ. Malignant tumors of the sinonasal tract in the pediatric population. Acta Otolaryngol 2012; 132 Suppl (1):S21S26.
3.Benoit, M, Bhattacharya, N, Faquin, W, Cunningham, W. Cancer of the nasal cavity in the pediatric population. Pediatr 2008; 121:e141e145.
4.Fyrmpas, G, Wurm, J, Athanassiadou, F, et al. Management of pediatric sinonasal rhabdomyosarcoma. J Laryngol Otol 2009; 123:990996.
5.Wurm, J, Constantinidis, J, Grabenbauer, G, Iro, H. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the nose and paranasal sinus: treatment results in 15 cases. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2005; 133:4250.
6.Parham, DM, Barr, FG. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. In: Fletcher, C, Unni, K, Mertens, F, editors, WHO Classification of Tumors. Pathology and Genetics of Tumors of Soft Tissue and Bone. Lyon, France: IARC Press. 2002; 146154.
7.Lawrence, W, Anderson, JR, Gehan, EA, Maurer, H. Pretreatment TNM staging of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma study group. Cancer 1997; 80:11651170.
8.Newton, WA, Gehan, EA, Webber, BL, et al. Classification of rhabdomyosarcoma and related sarcomas: pathologic aspects and proposal for a new classification – an intergroup rhabdomyosarcoma study. Cancer 1995; 76:10731085.
9.Parham, DM, Webber, B, Holt, H, et al. Immunohistochemical study of childhood rhabdomyosarcomas and related neoplasms. Results of an intergroup rhabdomyosarcoma study project. Cancer 1991; 67:30723080.
10.Koufos, A, Hansen, MF, Copleland, NG, et al. Loss of heterozygosity in three embryonal tumors suggest a common pathogenetic mechanism. Nature 1985; 316:330334.
11.Koi, M, Johnson, LA, Kalikein, LM, et al. Tumor cell growth arrest caused by subchromosomal transferable DNA fragments from chromosome 11. Science 1993; 260:361364.
12.Wang Wuu, S, Soukup, S, Ballard, E, et al. Chromosomal analysis of sixteen human rhabdomyosarcomas. Cancer 1988; 48:983987.
13.Barr, FG. Molecular genetics and pathogenesis of rhabdomyosarcoma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1997; 19:483491.
14.Barr, FG, Galili, N, Holick, J, et al. Rearrangement of PAX3 paired box gene in the pediatric solid tumor alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Nat Genet 1993; 3:113117.
15.Davis, RJ, Barr, FG. Fusion genes resulting from alternative chromosomal translocations are overexpressed by gene specific mechanisms in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997; 94:80478051.
16.Weiner, ES. Head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma. Semin Pediatr Surg 1994; 3:203206.
17.Rodeberg, DA, Anderson, JR, Arndt, CA, Comparison of outcomes based on treatment algorithms for rhabdomyosarcoma of the bladder/prostate: combined results from the Children’s Oncology Group, German Cooperative Soft Tissue Sarcoma Study, Italian Cooperative Group, and International Society of Pediatric Oncology Malignant Mesenchymal Tumors Committee. Int J Cancer 2011; 128:12321239.
18.Ozzello, L, Stout, AP, Murray, MR. Cultural characteristics of malignant histiocytomas and fibrous xanthomas. Cancer 1963; 16:331344.
19.De Rosa, J, Smith, J. Myxoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma presenting as a midline nasal mass. ENT J 2012; 91:e3e5.
20.Wang, CP, Chang, YL, Yang, TL, et al. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the sinonasal tract. Head & Neck 2009; 31:8593.
21.Weiss, SW, Enzinger, FM. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma: an analysis of 200 cases. Cancer 1978; 41:22502266.
22.Barnes, L, Kanbour, A. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the head and neck. A report of 12 cases. Arch Otolaryngolo Head Neck Surg 1988; 114:11491156.
23.Gadwaal, SR, Gannon, FH, Fanburg-Smith, JC, et al. Primary osteosarcoma of the head and neck in pediatric patients. Cancer 2001; 91:598605.
24.Singh, J, Gluckman, J, Kaufman, R, et al. Osteosarcoma of the nasal bone in a child. Head Neck; 4:246–250.
25.Gadwal, SR, Famburg-Smith, JC, Gannon, FH, Thompson, L. Primary chondrosarcoma of the head and neck in pediatric patients. Cancer 2000; 88:21802188.
26.Krishnamurthy, A, Shanmugasundaram, G, Majhi, U. Pediatric chondrosarcoma of the sinonasal region. J Can Res Ther 2013; 9:163164.
27.Lacovara, J, Patterson, K, Reaman, GH. Primary nasal chondrosarcoma. The pediatric experience. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1992; 14:158162.
28.Shukla, GK, Gupta, KR, Dayal, D. Angiosarcoma of the palate and nose. Ind J Otol 1973; 25:120124
29.Kimura, Y, Tanaka, S, Mitsuru, F. Angiosarcoma of the nasal cavity. J Laryngol Otol 1992; 106:368369.
30.Sharma, B, Nawalkha, P. Angiosarcoma of the maxillary antrum: report of a case with brief review of the literature. J Laryngol Otol 1979; 79:181186.
31.Palacios, E, Lam, E. Infantile fibrosarcoma of the maxillary sinus: significant response. ENT J 2012; 3: 9899.
32.Kim, KI, Yoo, SL. Infantile fibrosarcoma in the nasal cavity. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1996; 114: 98102.
33.Swain, RE, Sessions, DG, Ogura, JH. Fibrosarcoma of the head and neck in children. Laryngoscope 1976; 86:113116.
34.Steelman, C, Katzenstein, H, Parham, D. et al. Unusual presentation of congenital infantile fibrosarcoma in seven infants with molecular genetic analysis. Fetal Pediatr Pathol 2011; 30:329337.
35.Chung, EB, Enzinger, FM. Infantile fibrosarcoma. Cancer 1976; 38:729739.
36.Goswami, S, Kundu, I, Majumdar, P, et al. Neurofibrosaroma of the nasal cavity. Ind J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2001; 53:129132.
37.Broich, G, Pagliari, A, Ottaviani, F. Esthesioneuroblastoma: a general review of the cases published since the discovery of the tumor in 1924. Anticancer Res 1997; 17:26832706.
38.Benoit, M, Bhattacharya, N, Faquin, W, Cunningham, W. Cancer of the nasal cavity in the pediatric population. Pediatr 2008; 121:e141e145.
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