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Sensory differences and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in autistic individuals with and without ADHD. Studies have shown that sensory differences and anxiety are associated and that intolerance of uncertainty (IU) plays an important role in this relationship. However, it is unclear as to how different levels of the sensory processing pathway (i.e., perceptual, affective, or behavioral) contribute. Here, we used psychophysics to assess how alterations in tactile perception contribute to questionnaire measures of sensory reactivity, IU, and anxiety. Thirty-eight autistic children (aged 8-12 years; 27 with co-occurring ADHD) were included. Consistent with previous findings, mediation analyses showed that child-reported IU fully mediated an association between parent-reported sensory reactivity and parent-reported anxiety and that anxiety partially mediated an association between sensory reactivity and IU. Of the vibrotactile thresholds, only simultaneous frequency discrimination (SFD) thresholds correlated with sensory reactivity. Interestingly, we found that sensory reactivity fully mediated an association between SFD threshold and anxiety, and between SFD threshold and IU. Taken together, those findings suggest a mechanistic pathway whereby tactile perceptual alterations contribute to sensory reactivity at the affective level, leading in turn to increased IU and anxiety. This stepwise association can inform potential interventions for IU and anxiety in autism.
Energy drinks gained popularity after the launch of Red Bull in 1997. Different brands are now available and young adults mainly consume these drinks. This study assesses the knowledge, attitude, and perception of energy drink consumption among university students in Jordan. A validated online survey was used to collect the required data, extracted from Google Forms into an Excel spreadsheet and statistically analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 24.0. A nationally representative sample of university students with a mean age of 22⋅2 ± 3⋅9 years (n 749) was obtained. The participating students demonstrated a neutral level of knowledge about energy drinks, as the mean score of knowledge = 7⋅1 ± 2⋅2 (out of 12), with 66 % (n 498) of them having consumed energy drinks and experienced their effects. Generally, the study's participants demonstrated a neutral attitude towards energy drinks and 70⋅5 % (n 528) acknowledged that energy drinks increase activity, but more than 70 % of them believed that energy drinks have harmful side effects. It was found that there is a significant (P-value <0⋅5) positive correlation between knowledge score and female gender, studying a medical major, and monthly income. The main reasons for consuming energy drinks were reported to be: to stay awake for longer, help study, and become more energetic. There is a need for more structured awareness campaigns to warn students about the possible side effects of these products in order to reduce the consumption and popularity of these drinks among students.
Sound empirical analysis draws upon (and refines) theories about a particular set of concepts, and understanding the social meaning of grammatical variation requires that we study language as it relates to social practice and forms of social engagement. Chapter 3 interrogates how sociolinguists study social meaning and the processes involved in meaning making. It explains the concepts that we need to know to understand how social meaning develops (the sign, style, persona, social type, indexicality, character type, stance, index, icon, sound symbolism, qualia, rhematisation, indexical field, stance accretion, erasure, axis of differentiation, and enregisterment), providing detailed exemplification from the Midlan High dataset. The chapter also considers the techniques required to understand how these concepts operate (experimental perception studies, ethnography, pragmatic analysis). Given that social meaning may interact with pragmatics, this chapter also highlights the need to combine research on the pragmatics of spoken language with variationist work on the social embedding and social distribution of linguistic variables.
We use an online experiment to study the relative effect on voter behavior of a candidate’s voice pitch and policy stance. We demonstrate a strong voice-pitch bias: between candidates who are identical in every other aspect, voters are more likely to choose the one with the lower voice-pitch, and more so in elections between men than women candidates. We then introduce a novel phenomenon: persistence of voice-pitch bias is the amount of policy difference needed to compensate for voice-pitch bias. While persistence is also gender-dependent, the effect is now reversed: voice-pitch bias is more persistent in elections between women than men candidates. As a possible mechanism, we show that voters perceive candidates with lower voice-pitch as more competent and trustworthy.
The study aimed to determine the level of knowledge and perceptions of preparedness for disasters among nurses working in a tertiary university hospital.
The population of this cross-sectional study consisted of nurses working in a university hospital in the Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey (n = 340). The sample included 183 nurses who were determined using the OpenEpi program and the universal sampling method. The data were collected using the Sociodemographic Information Form and the Disaster Preparedness Perception Scale in Nurses (DPPSN) and analyzed using SPSS 22 software.
The mean age of the participants was 34.31 + 8.52 years; 83.1% were female, 66.1% had at least a bachelor’s degree and worked in a surgical ward, 49.7% had been working for at least 11 years, and 58.5% had received training on disasters. Those who received disaster-related training received it mostly face to face (70.1%) from their institutions (91.6%) and in the form of 2–4 hours of training (75.7%); 52.5% had previously participated in a disaster-related drill, and 83.1% took on the role of caregiver during a disaster. The DPPSN mean score of the nurses involved in the study was found to be 3.53 ± 0.58 out of 5 points for the total scale.
The results of the study showed that nurses considered themselves partially adequate for disaster preparedness, in general.
“This chapter focuses on the two main philosophical questions raised by Swift in Gulliver’s Travels. First is the problem of perspectivism, the idea that objectivity is impossible because knowledge is circumscribed by human subject positions. Differences between the four parts of Gulliver’s Travels suggest that Swift recognized no stable relationship between truth ‘in itself’ and what individuals believe about the world, but only comparisons in quality or scope between different perspectives. Second is a question about the relative validity of two different positions in Christian ethics: the optimistic neo-Stoicism espoused by Swift’s friend Alexander Pope, and the pessimistic Augustinianism preferred by Swift himself. In Gulliver’s Travels, Swift gave eloquent expression both to his scepticism about the beneficence of God and nature and to his narrow estimation of the limits of human reason.”
Official protection of an exploited species sometimes precedes any quantitative understanding of its use, including any dependence of local residents on it for food and livelihood. Conservation initiatives could suffer without this information. The Goliath frog Conraua goliath is iconic globally because of its large size, and is categorized as Endangered on the IUCN Red List. The main threat to this species in Cameroon is overexploitation, but any associated socio-economic aspects of this have not been quantified. We provide insights into local perceptions of the Goliath frog and its consumption through structured interviews with 223 people living alongside this species. The Goliath frog is well known and hunted both for home consumption and the wild meat trade. We trailed seven collaborative Cameroonian Goliath frog hunters over two seasons to determine offtake. A total of 192 Goliath frogs were collected by these hunters, peaking in March. The hunters used nets, shotguns and spears. Their catch was eaten at home or sold fresh within the community or to travellers for XAF 1,500–5,000 (USD 3–10) each. We also studied the Goliath frog trade by examining the databases of the Cameroonian Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife, and CITES. CITES and hunters reported large exports of Goliath frogs but no trade was documented by the Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife. To support conservation planning, this study provides preliminary quantitative information on the extent of the threat of hunting to this Endangered frog.
Chapter 5 investigates mental modularity, which is a central concept in the study of minds, i.e., the notion of mental module which, in this context, refers to a specific, specialized domain-specific mental capacity (such as for language, for vision, for music, etc.). A given module may contain several submodules. We will look at the history of this concept and how it has been understood in different approaches, such as the outdated pseudoscience phrenology, the philosopher Jerry Fodor’s nine criteria for proper modules, massive modularity in evolutionary psychology, and other views. Once modules are postulated, we can ask, separately for each module, about the interplay between nature and nurture: Different outcomes are possible for different modules. Finally, we discuss the notion of ontogenetic, developmental modules.
This chapter considers how Fantasy is rooted in language’s ability to describe things that do not exist, arguing that this same ability is crucial for constructing the value systems that allow human cultures to operate. In intervening in conversations about meaningfulness and identity, Fantasy plays with heady stuff, but by explicitly parading its impossibility, it creates productive and revealing abstractions that can both playfully and critically interrogate received norms and languages of power. Fantasies ask whether the world we have made through language is the one we want, holding open imaginative spaces for alternatives that are by turns utopian, dystopian, revealingly similar and radically different. Key works discussed in this chapter include Terry Pratchett’s Hogfather, Plato’s Republic, Ursula K. Le Guin’s Earthsea Books, Ted Chiang’s ‘Story of Your Life’, Hayao Miyazaki’s Spirited Away, Steven Erikson’s Malazan Book of the Fallen, Jorge Luis Borges’s ‘Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius’, Hope Mirrlees’s Lud-in-the-Mist and Mikhail Bulgakov’s The Master and Margarita.
This chapter details the practical, theoretical, and philosophical aspects of experimental science. It discusses how one chooses a project, performs experiments, interprets the resulting data, makes inferences, and develops and tests theories. It then asks the question, "are our theories accurate representations of the natural world, that is, do they reflect reality?" Surprisingly, this is not an easy question to answer. Scientists assume so, but are they warranted in this assumption? Realists say "yes," but anti-realists argue that realism is simply a mental representation of the world as we perceive it, that is, metaphysical in nature. Regardless of one's sense of reality, the fact remains that science has been and continues to be of tremendous practical value. It would have to be a miracle if our knowledge and manipulation of the nature were not real. Even if they were, how do we know they are true in an absolute sense, not just relative to our own experience? This is a thorny philosophical question, the answer to which depends on the context in which it is asked. The take-home message for the practicing scientist is "never assume your results are true."
Political parties commonly experience internal disagreements. Recently, evidence is accumulating that outright internal discord makes a party much less attractive to voters. However, we do not understand well when citizens perceive a party to be internally conflicted in the first place. We here explain citizens’ perceptions from a democratic life cycle perspective: Factors related to the periodic conduct of elections induce higher levels of intra-party conflict and make it more visible to citizens. To test this argument, we combine survey data on citizens’ perceptions of political parties in Germany spanning 16 years with indicators moderating (the visibility of) intra-party conflict. The analysis shows that citizens perceive more internal conflict when parties are heterogenous, when they are governing, when election day is distant, and when electoral losses accumulate. This demonstrates the recurring patterns in citizens’ perceptions of political parties and suggests self-reinforcing dynamics between citizen assessments and election outcomes.
When looking at others, primates primarily focus on the face – detecting the face first and looking at it longer than other parts of the body. This is because primate faces, even without expression, convey trait information crucial for navigating social relationships. Recent studies on primates, including humans, have linked facial features, specifically facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR), to rank and Dominance-related personality traits, suggesting these links’ potential role in social decisions. However, studies on the association between dominance and fWHR report contradictory results in humans and variable patterns in nonhuman primates. It is also not clear whether and how nonhuman primates perceive different facial cues to personality traits and whether these may have evolved as social signals. This review summarises the variable facial-personality links, their underlying proximate and evolutionary mechanisms and their perception across primates. We emphasise the importance of employing comparative research, including various primate species and human populations, to disentangle phylogeny from socio-ecological drivers and to understand the selection pressures driving the facial-personality links in humans. Finally, we encourage researchers to move away from single facial measures and towards holistic measures and to complement perception studies using neuroscientific methods.
Product prototypes and particularly those that are 3D printed will have mass properties that are significantly different from the product they represent. This affects both functional performance and stakeholder perception of the prototype. Within this work, computational emulation of mass properties for a primitive object (a cube) is considered, developing a baseline numerical method and parameter set with the aim of demonstrating the means of improving feel in 3D printed prototypes. The method is then applied and tuned for three case study products – a games controller, a hand drill and a laser pointer – demonstrating that product mass properties could be numerically emulated to within ~1% of the target values. This was achieved using typical material extrusion technology with no physical or process modification. It was observed that emulation accuracy is dependent on the relative offset of the centre of mass from the geometric centre. A sensitivity analysis is further undertaken to demonstrate that product-specific parameters can be beneficial. With tuning of these values, and with some neglect of practical limitations, emulation accuracy as high as ~99.8% can be achieved. This was shown to be a reduction in error of up to 99.6% relative to a conventional fabrication.
Public concern regarding the use of herbicides in urban areas (e.g., golf courses, parks, lawns) is increasing. Thus, there is a need for alternative methods for weed control that are safe for the public, effective against weeds, and yet selective to turfgrass and other desirable species. New molecular tools such as ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) have the potential to meet all those requirements, but before these technologies can be implemented, it is critical to understand the perceptions of key stakeholders to facilitate adoption as well as regulatory processes. With this in mind, turfgrass system managers, such as golf course superintendents and lawn care providers, were surveyed to gain insight into the perception and potential adoption of RNAi technology for weed management. Based on survey results, turfgrass managers believe that cost of weed management and time spent managing weeds are the main challenges faced in their fields. When considering new weed management tools, survey respondents were most concerned about cost, efficacy, and efficiency of a new product. Survey respondents were also optimistic toward RNAi for weed management and would either use this technology in their own fields or be willing to conduct research to develop RNAi herbicides. Although respondents believed that the general public would have some concerns about this technology, they did not believe this to be the most important factor for them when choosing new weed management tools. The need for new herbicides to balance weed control challenges and public demands is a central factor for turfgrass managers’ willingness to use RNAi-based weed control in turfgrass systems. They believe their clientele will be accepting of RNAi tools, although further research is needed to investigate how a wider range of stakeholders perceive RNAi tools for turfgrass management more broadly.
Perception can provide us with a privileged source of evidence about the external world – evidence that makes it rational to believe things about the world. In Reasons First, Mark Schroeder offers a new view on how perception does so. The central motivation behind Schroeder's account is to offer an answer to what evidence perception equips us with according to which it is what he calls world-implicating but non-factive, and thereby to glean some of the key advantages of both externalism and internalism, respectively. He answers this motivation by developing a more specific view that he calls the Apparent Factive Attitude view, which pairs an answer to what evidence is provided by a perceptual experience with an answer to why having that perceptual experience provides you with that evidence. In this paper, we advance two interconnected problems for Schroeder's Apparent Factive Attitude view. A traditional intuitive judgment that often motivates internalists is the idea that internal duplicates must necessarily be equally rational in whatever beliefs they have. Schroeder's arguments rely on a weaker claim – that people who are both internal and historical external duplicates but differ only in the veridicality of a single perceptual experience must be equally rational in whatever beliefs they have. In this way he preserves what he argues to be a more compelling internalist intuition. But our arguments will show that Schroeder's view is committed to denying an even more compelling internalist intuition yet – that internal duplicates must have the same phenomenology.
The soya–breast cancer risk relationship remains controversial in Asia due to limited and inconsistent research findings and is exacerbated by difficulties in recruiting and retaining participants in intervention trials. Understanding public perceptions towards soya is important for designing effective intervention trials. Here, we administered a close-ended, quantitative survey to healthy, peri- and post-menopausal Asian women in the Malaysian Soy and Mammographic Density (MiSo) Study to assess perception towards soya and explore motivators and barriers that affect study adherence using the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation and Belief (COM-B) Model and Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Of 118 participants, the majority reported the belief that soya promotes good health (Supplement = 85⋅7 %, Diet = 90⋅0 %, Control = 87⋅9 %). Most participants reported obtaining information about soya from the internet (Supplement = 61⋅0 %, Diet = 55⋅3 %, Control = 35⋅9 %), while health professionals were least reported (Supplement = 9⋅8 %, Diet = 7⋅9 %, Control = 5⋅1 %). Stratified analyses by study completion and adherence status yielded comparable findings. By the end of the study, dietary arm participants reported a strong belief that soya has no impact on their health (Supplement = 7⋅1 % v. Diet = 20⋅0 % v. Control = 0⋅0 %, P = 0⋅012). Motivation and opportunity strongly facilitated soya consumption, while psychological capability was the most common barrier to consumption though less evident among dietary arm participants. While most Asian women have a positive perception towards soya, theory-based intervention trials are warranted to understand the perception–study adherence relationship and to accurately inform the public of the health effects of soya.
Chapter 12 opens by asking readers to identify what they know about a relatively unknown topic, and to formulate some questions about the topic; they then study the topic, identify what’s now known, and finally compare notes from before and after study. It’s surprisingly hard for one person to perceive what is given information for someone else because what we know interferes with figuring out what they know. We are in a sense cursed by our knowledge, seeing more in hindsight than is justified. The chapter describes studies with children and studies with adults showing that our current understanding blinds us to our own prior understanding and to someone else’s current understanding. In part because people have strong funds of knowledge on the topic of language, this curse or bias is especially vital to consider. For example, speakers of English unconsciously know the language’s basic sentence structure even if they don’t describe that structure using grammatical terms. This chapter’s Closing Worksheet asks readers to find out how people typically use the terms for key concepts in their demonstrations. For example, what does "sentence" mean to many people?
Conflicts between people and wildlife have become widespread as people move to areas previously home to wildlife and as wild populations recover. In Patagonia, one of the main threats to guanaco Lama guanicoe conservation is the animosity of sheep ranchers towards the species. As key stakeholders in guanaco conservation we assessed ranchers’ perceptions regarding guanaco abundance in Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. We contrasted these perceptions with estimated guanaco abundance and explored the socio-ecological factors influencing perceptions and how perceptions of overabundance are rooted in contextual factors rather than actual abundance. We performed semi-structured interviews with ranchers from Isla Grande and estimated guanaco abundance independently using density surface modelling. Ranchers were divided into three categories depending on their perception of guanaco abundance: ‘too many’, ‘many’ and ‘normal’. Those in the ‘many’ and ‘normal’ categories perceived guanaco abundance as being similar to actual abundance, whereas those in the category ‘too many' overestimated guanaco abundance. The perceived issues affecting livestock production varied between categories, although feral dogs emerged as the main problem. Negative perceptions of the guanaco stemmed from ranchers' beliefs that the species reduces forage availability for livestock, and from their disappointment about the government's handling of concerns regarding livestock production. Greater understanding and integration of the human dimension in conservation are needed to design more inclusive and resilient management plans.
The chapter ’Cattitude and Purrception’ goes once more into the set-up of the research surveys and sets them in the context of sociolinguistic attitude and perception studies. The two surveys were designed to find out the reasons why people participate in cat-related digital spaces and what they think about the linguistic variations they encounter there. The interest of this chapter lies in how the answers of the respondents are analysed, categorised, and interpreted. Switching from the human identity to the cat identity online brings with it a switch in language variety, with the purrieties working as a recognisable indicator for identity.
Le rapport qu'a entretenu G. W. F. Hegel avec la pensée de F. H. Jacobi a été constant. Il s'attarde avant tout à la question du savoir, de la vérité et de sa saisie, immédiate ou médiatisée. Or, l'un des concepts centraux à la pensée de Jacobi, et sur lequel se fonde en un sens sa conception du savoir immédiat, est celui de perception entendue comme saisie du vrai (Wahr-nehmen). C'est en partant de ce concept, largement discuté au chapitre deux de la Phénoménologie de l'esprit, que nous tenterons d’éclairer sous un angle inédit la critique hégélienne de Jacobi.