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Crystal Parikh’s chapter on dissolution takes up narrative fragmentation to thematize outward-moving fictions of “interruption, isolation, suspense, and precarity.” Starting with Valeria Luiselli’s interviews with migrant asylum-seekers, Parikh argues that a defining feature of contemporary literature is its formal techniques of “dissolution and the fragment as vital aesthetic and stylistic forms to convey the splintering effect that global modernity in the twenty-first century induces.” From Luiselli to George Saunders’s short stories and novels by Celeste Ng and Jesmyn Ward, among others, Parikh argues that nineteenth- and twentieth-century narrative techniques have been remixed by contemporary authors who draw on realism and experimentalism to tell stories of ongoing and unresolved dislocation and vulnerability.
The COVID-19 pandemic made neccessary the declaration of emergency state in Hungary from 11 March 2020 to 18 June 2020. During this period hospitals were reserved for emergency use, ambulatory care was limited and replaced by telemedicine.
We assessed the opinions of patients of two ambulatory psychiatric care units in Budapest regarding the emergency state.
We enrolled 438 outpatients in the survey (305 women and 133 men, mean age:51.9±16.2 years).Our questionnaire comprised 10 items on emotions and mental state and a 12 item „Problem evaluation scale”(included ’Fear’, ’Isolation’ and ’Health status’ subscales).General linear model (GLM), pairwise comparison and Tukey’s post hoc test were performed.
Up to 34% of patients considered that their condition worsened during this period, but 12% of them thought that this was not related to emergency state. Twice as many participants (12.8%) were concerned about their financial situation than about their health status (6.1%). Worsening health status, higher fear and more common adaptation difficulties were reported by patients < 50 years, than by subjects> 50 years (p=0.001; p=0.045; p=0.003). Isolation caused higher distress among women than in men (p=0.003). The abundance of information caused higher distress in patients with anxiety disorder than with psychotic disorders (p=0.024).Patients with affective disorders perceived higher vulnerability compared to subjects with psychotic disorders (p=0.004).
Adaptation difficulties were reported by the half of the sample.Depletion of psychological resources can be expected during the next stage of the pandemic.
In a continuing pattern, wherein Roth’s fiction often reflects (but exaggerates and alters) elements of the author’s own life, his characters also move with him – literally. As Roth has aged, he has retreated more to his home in the Berkshires, so too have Roth’s protagonists become more situated in this area. Nathan Zuckerman, in particular, is attached to this area: as a young man, he visits E.I. Lonoff here in The Ghost Writer, and takes up residence here in Roth’s later work. This chapter will address the importance of this location in Roth’s own life, helping readers interpret its symbolic role in his fiction.
Seafaring, as a traditionally male-dominated industry, continues to have very few female seafarers, with approximately 2% globally being women. This paper draws on the findings of a study that considered both the experiences of women seafarers working in the UK shipping industry and the views of key industry stakeholder representatives, and asks what must be done to improve those experiences? Responses across the industry suggest that all women seafarers will experience some form of harassment during their careers, which has significant implications for their occupational health, safety and wellbeing. These experiences reflect failures of leadership in developing and promoting a safe and inclusive onboard culture. This paper calls for fundamental change within the industry, including improvements in training and leadership to reflect modern seafaring and diversity on board. It also calls for relevant policy and strategic changes to be based on the views of seafarers and their representatives. It concludes that improving the experiences of women on board will improve the occupational health, safety and wellbeing of all seafarers, regardless of gender or any other characteristic or classification.
This study presents a novel configuration of a cuboidal quad-port ultra-wideband multiple-input and multiple-output antenna with WLAN rejection characteristics. The designed antenna consists of four F-shaped elements backed by a partial ground plane. A 50 Ω microstrip line is used to feed the proposed structure. The geometry of the suggested antenna exhibits an overall size of 23 × 23 × 19 mm3, and the antenna produces an operational bandwidth of 7.6 GHz (3.1–10.7 GHz). The notched band characteristic at 5.4 GHz is accomplished by loading a pair of spiral electromagnetic bandgap structures over the ground plane. Besides this, other diversity features such as envelope correlation coefficient, and diversity gain are also evaluated. Furthermore, the proposed antenna system provides an isolation of −15 dB without using any decoupling structure. Therefore, to validate the reported design, a prototype is fabricated and characterized. The overall simulated performance is observed in very close agreement with it's measured counterpart.
This article introduces a cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna (CDRA) fed with a rhombic ring-shaped tapered feed for Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) applications. The proposed hybrid MIMO CDRA resonates at four frequency bands 2.5, 5.09, 6.8, and 9.0 GHz with isolation levels of 22, 34.22, 30.55, and 18.55 dB. Isolation enhancements are achieved by introducing “L” shaped slots on the partial ground plane. Parametric analysis is performed to validate the optimized dimensions of the tapered feed without and with DRA and defected ground structure. Diversity performance is examined by using envelope correlation coefficient and diversity gain. The proposed antenna operates in the S, C, and X-bands and is suitable for RF communication mobile broadband services, Wi-Fi, radar, and satellite applications. Good agreement is observed between simulated and measured results.
We build on the results of a recent paper that introduced a ‘global model of ISARs’; a structural equation model that provides a solid foundation for understanding ISAR variation across archipelagos. While revealing, the global ISAR model is incomplete, and here we pick on two issues for further scrutiny: (i) improved quantification of island isolation and configuration and (ii) addition of habitat islands. Including archipelago isolation metrics in our models, and adding in 65 habitat island datasets, we find our best models are similar to those presented in the previous study: a result that points to the robustness of the global model of ISARs. Overall, we find a negative relationship between ISAR intercept and slope as a function of archipelago species richness. Within our best models, archipelago isolation did not have an effect on ISAR model parameters. However, mean inter-island distance was found to be important in certain models. This finding suggests that intra-archipelago processes might be more important drivers of ISAR form than archipelago isolation. Unfortunately, the explanatory power of the best model based only on habitat island datasets was low, suggesting that we are some way from developing a predictive model for use in conservation applications.
What were the preventive tactics implemented across the globe? Nations varied in their approach. In Asia, the authorities took aim at the infected and their contacts. They tested widely, quarantined the sick, and isolated those who had been near them. That required enormous administrative efforts, massive amounts of information about citizens and their habits, and their subjects’ willingness to tolerate fierce interruptions of their lives. In the West, however, governments were unable or unwilling to impose the same degree of prevention on their citizens. Instead, they took an approach that was arguably even more interventionist, in that it affected almost all citizens, not just the ill and their contacts. They shut down society across the board for several months in the spring of 2020, requiring those who could to work from home, and closing schools, retail, restaurants, theaters, and anywhere else people might come in contact. The result was far greater economic devastation than in the more targeted Asian approach. But applying across-the-board measures did not involve the same degree of personal surveillance. Finally, some nations, above all Sweden, relied on citizens taking precautions under their own steam, without the law having to require them to.
In this research article, a compact wideband stack patch antenna array integrated with compact stack electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structure for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) application is proposed. The wide resonance bandwidth is achieved at 2.45 GHz band by stack arrangement of compact meander line slot driven and parasitic patch elements. The isolation bandwidth is matched with resonance bandwidth with the design of a compact stack L slot EBG structure. The polarization diversity and three-layer EBG structure ensure an enhancement in isolation level. To validate the performance of the proposed stack antenna array, a prototype was fabricated and tested for different MIMO parameters. The measured result confirms the effectiveness of the proposed antenna array in a diverse MIMO environment.
A major twenty-first-century fiction, Haruki Murakami’s novel 1Q84 confirms the continuing force of global magical realism. Our analysis centers on a crucial question for magical realist texts: What does their magic achieve? This epic love story chronicles the separation and ultimate reunion of Tengo and Aomame in twentieth-century Tokyo. In its course, the novel’s 'proximate magic' uses magical events and phenomena to draw isolated people together within the city: Tengo writes a story containing two moons and then he and Aomame see two moons in the sky; Tengo sleeps with Fuka Eri and Aomame becomes pregnant, disturbing habitual ideas of space and identity as many magical realist fictions do. This interpersonal magic, together with magical intersections of separate worlds (including – on a metafictional level – the conflation of separate texts) addresses the problem of the separation between inhabitants of a megalopolis, remedying the alienation they experience. Such cultural work needs magic to overcome these strongly divisive social forces.
This communication reports significant isolation improvement utilizing planar suspended line (PSL) technique in ultra wideband (UWB) antenna for Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) application. The antenna exhibits dual-band notched characteristic in Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) band covering 5.45–5.85 GHz range; and in 7.15–7.95 GHz range for X-band downlink operations in satellite communication. Band-notching characteristics have been obtained by employing a single Elliptical Split Ring Resonator (ESSR) placed adjacent to each microstrip feed line of the radiating element and duo of “Y”-shaped strips employed within the circular ring of individual radiating elements. Two elements antenna occupy a compact space of 20 × 36 × 1.6 mm3 exhibiting huge measured impedance bandwidth (S11/S22 < −10 dB) covering 3.1–11.5 GHz and significant isolation of >21 dB in the almost entire band of operation. The electrical performance of antennas has been analyzed in terms of various MIMO parameters. Measured results demonstrate good accord with simulated results proving the competency of proposed antenna in high-density package systems and massive MIMO applications.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is likely to exacerbate the symptoms of poor mental health in family caregivers.
To investigate whether rates of depressive symptomatology increased in caregivers during COVID-19 and whether the unintended consequences of health protective measures, i.e., social isolation, exacerbated this risk. Another aim was to see if caregivers accessed any online/phone psychological support during COVID.
Data (1349 caregivers; 6178 non-caregivers) was extracted from Understanding Society, a UK population-level data-set. The General Health Questionnaire cut-off scores identified those who are likely to have depression.
After adjustment for confounding caregivers had a higher risk of having depressive symptoms compared with non-caregivers, odds ratio (OR) = 1.22 (95% CI 1.05–1.40, P = 0.008) evidenced by higher levels of depression pre-COVID-19 (16.7% caregivers v. 12.1% non-caregivers) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (21.6% caregivers v. 17.9% non-caregivers), respectively. Further, higher levels of loneliness increased the risk of depression symptoms almost four-fold in caregivers, OR = 3.85 (95% 95% CI 3.08–4.85, P < 0.001), whereas accessing therapy attenuated the risk of depression (43%). A total of 60% of caregivers with depression symptoms reported not accessing any therapeutic support (for example online or face to face) during the COVID-19 pandemic.
COVID-19 has had a negative impact on family caregivers’ mental health with loneliness a significant contributor to depressive symptomatology. However, despite these detriments in mental health, the majority of caregivers do not access any online or phone psychiatric support. Finally, psychiatric services and healthcare professionals should aim to focus on reducing feelings of loneliness to support at-risk caregivers.
In times of crisis, people have historically had to band together to overcome. What happens when they cannot? This article examines the reality of people forced to isolate from one another during one of the most turbulent events of their lives: the COVID-19 pandemic. Connecting the dots of topics including fear, social stigmas, global public response and previous disease outbreaks, this article discusses the negative mental health effects that individuals and communities will likely suffer as the result of social distancing, isolation and physical infection.
Supported playgroups are a common form of intervention offered in Australian early childhood education. This study used interviews and quantitative measures to examine whether attending supported playgroups benefits culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) parents’ or carers’ social support, connectedness, and parental self-efficacy (PSE). Thirty-five playgroup attendees completed three validated measures assessing social support, isolation, and PSE. Seven mothers, two carers, and two playgroup staff participated in semistructured interviews. The quantitative and qualitative data indicated that CALD parents and carers show high levels of isolation and low social support. The qualitative data indicated that most parents or carers felt more supported and connected as a result of attending the playgroup, and just over half stated that the playgroup had improved their confidence. This study highlights the need to consider the social resources of CALD families when planning and delivering services, and calls for future longitudinal studies of the benefits of playgroups.
This paper presents a novel dual-band (DB) dual-polarized (DP) shared aperture antenna with high isolation by using a combination of microstrip dipoles and dielectric resonator antennas (DRAs) for S and C bands, respectively. In the S band, two sets of proximity coupled stacked microstrip dipoles which crossed at the center are employed to achieve dual-linear polarization (DLP) and obtain desired bandwidth (BW), isolation, and pure polarization. The rectangle DRA with hybrid feed is selected as the C band element for its advantages of small base area and high isolation, and a 2 × 2 array is presented with the “pair-wise” anti-phase feed technique to achieve a low cross-polarized level. Moreover, benefited from the back feed scheme, the proposed antenna has a symmetrical structure and has the potential of expanding into a larger aperture. The proposed antenna has been manufactured and measured, and the results agree well with simulations, which prove the validity of the proposed design.
Varicella is an acute respiratory infectious diseases, with high transmissibility and quick dissemination. In this study, an SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered) dynamic model was established to explore the optimal prevention and control measures according to the epidemiological characteristics about varicella outbreak in a school in a central city of China. Berkeley Madonna 8.3.18 and Microsoft Office Excel 2010 software were employed for the model simulation and data management, respectively. The result showed that the simulated result of SEIR model agreed well with the reported data when β (infected rate) equal to 0.067. Models showed that the cumulative number of cases was only 13 when isolation adopted when the infected individuals were identified (assuming isolation rate was up to 100%); the cumulative number of cases was only two and the TAR (total attack rate) was 0.56% when the vaccination coefficient reached 50%. The cumulative number of cases did not change significantly with the change of efficiency of ventilation and disinfection, but the peak time was delayed; when δ (vaccination coefficient) = 0.1, m (ventilation efficiency) = 0.7 or δ = 0.2, m = 0.5 or δ = 0.3, m = 0.1 or δ = 0.4 and above, the cumulative number of cases would reduce to one case and TAR would reduce to 0.28% with combined interventions. Varicella outbreak in school could be controlled through strict isolation or vaccination singly; combined interventions have been adopted when the vaccination coefficient was low.
To assess the role of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, WTD) in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis, we conducted a national survey of WTD across the USA for Toxoplasma gondii infection. To do this, we combined serology with parasite isolation to evaluate the prevalence and genetic diversity of T. gondii in this game species. From October 2012 to March 2019, serum and tissues were collected from 914 WTD across the USA. Serum samples were screened for antibodies to T. gondii, and then the tissues of seropositive WTD were bioassayed in mice. Antibodies were detected in 329 (36%) of 914 WTD tested by the modified agglutination test (positive reaction at 1:25 or higher). Viable T. gondii was isolated from the heart of 36 WTD from 11 states. Three of the 36 isolates were pathogenic but not highly virulent to outbred Swiss Webster mice and all 36 isolates could be propagated further in cell culture and were genotyped. For genotyping, DNA extracted from cell culture-derived tachyzoites was characterized by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using the genetic markers SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico. Genotyping revealed seven ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotypes, including 24 isolates for genotype #5 (haplogroup 12), four isolates for #2 (type III, haplogroup 3), three isolates for genotypes #1 (type II, haplogroup 2), two isolates for genotypes #3 (type II, haplogroup 2) and one isolate each for #39, #221 and #224. Genotype #5 was the most frequently isolated, accounting for 66.6% (24 of 36) of the isolates. Combining the 36 isolates from this study with previously reported 69 isolates from WTD, 15 genotypes have been identified. Among these, 50.4% (53/105) isolates belong to genotype #5. Our results indicate moderate genetic diversity of T. gondii in WTD. The results also indicate that undercooked venison should not be consumed by humans or fed to cats.
Chapter 5 focuses on the formation of rocky planetary-scale bodies, including terrestrial planets, super-Earths, and giant planet cores. The concepts of gravitational focusing, shear and dispersion dominated encounters, and catastrophic disruption are introduced. A simple "particle in a box" statistical model for planetary growth is described, along with the ideas of orderly, runaway, and oligarchic growth. Factors that determine the planetesimal velocity dispersion, including viscous stirring, dynamical friction, and gas drag, are discussed. The regimes of pebble accretion, the conditions under which it operates, and the pebble accretion rate, are discussed. The standard model for the final assembly of the Solar System's terrestrial planets is outlined.
Social isolation is a state of nearly-absolute lack of interaction between an individual and society. The Friendship Scale (Hawthorne, 2006) is a measure of social isolation that needed to be translated in the Urdu language for its validation for the Pakistani population owing to its brevity and sound psychometric properties. For the Urdu translation, the standard back-translation procedure was adopted, and the cross-language validation of the translated version was undertaken on a purposive sample of (N = 60) older adults with a minimum age of 60 years. The test-retest reliability of one week for the Urdu-English and English-Urdu version was .95 and .97, respectively. In an independent purposive sample of older adults (N = 500; men = 263 and women = 237) from Lahore and Sargodha districts, the CFA of the Friendship Scale revealed a single factor solution with six indicators, which demonstrated configural, metric, and scalar invariance across both genders and comparable latent mean scores of men and women. The Friendship Scale demonstrated a significant positive relationship with depression and non-significant association with the assimilation, which provided evidence for the convergent and discriminant validities, respectively. Furthermore, evidence of the concurrent validity was established as the older adults whose spouses had died scored significantly higher on the Friendship scale as compared to their counterparts who were living with their spouses. These pieces of evidence suggest that the Urdu version of the Friendship scale is a reliable and valid measure of flourishing for both genders.