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A dynamic multi-stakeholder climate change social movement for climate action has formed that includes progressive institutional investors, business, civil society as well as with educators, students, youth and existing movements, such as the women’s, trade union, social justice, Indigenous and consumer protection movements. This bottom-up climate change social movement has played a critical role in building new partnerships and coalitions to create the political will for the Paris Climate Change Agreement and UN Sustainable Development Goals Agreement. This movement is now playing a critical role to provide bottom-up pressure on investors, businesses and governments to ensure the Paris Agreement and UN Sustainable Development Goals are prioritised and implemented. The chapter overviews the latest developments of this movement, and thereby provides an inspiring overview of how you and your business, organisation, government, or community group can partner and join existing cross-sectoral networks to share knowledge, and collectively take action to achieve the scale and speed of greenhouse gas emission reductions required.
Conspiracy beliefs are associated with detrimental health attitudes during the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic. Most prior research on these issues was cross-sectional, however, and restricted to attitudes or behavioral intentions. The current research was designed to examine to what extent conspiracy beliefs predict health behavior and well-being over a longer period of time.
In this preregistered multi-wave study on a large Dutch research panel (weighted to provide nationally representative population estimates), we examined if conspiracy beliefs early in the pandemic (April 2020) would predict a range of concrete health and well-being outcomes eight months later (December 2020; N = 5745).
The results revealed that Covid-19 conspiracy beliefs prospectively predicted a decreased likelihood of getting tested for corona; if tested, an increased likelihood of the test coming out positive; and, an increased likelihood of having violated corona regulations, deteriorated economic outcomes (job loss; reduced income), experiences of social rejection, and decreased overall well-being. Most of these effects generalized to a broader susceptibility to conspiracy theories (i.e. conspiracy mentality).
These findings suggest that conspiracy beliefs are associated with a myriad of negative life outcomes in the long run. Conspiracy beliefs predict how well people have coped with the pandemic over a period of eight months, as reflected in their health behavior, and their economic and social well-being.
Diets high in red and processed meat (RPM) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, greenhouse gas emissions and the global burden of chronic disease. High-profile reports have called for significant global RPM reduction, especially in high-income settings. Despite this, policy attention and political priority for the issue are low.
The study used a theoretically guided framing analysis to identify frames used by various interest groups in relation to reducing RPM in online news media articles published in the months around the release of four high-profile reports by authoritative organisations that included a focus on the impacts of high RPM production and/or consumption.
Four major RPM producing and consuming countries – USA, United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand.
Hundred and fifty news media articles were included. Articles reported the views of academics, policymakers, industry representatives and the article authors themselves. RPM reduction was remarkably polarising. Industry frequently framed RPM reduction as part of a ‘Vegan Agenda’ or as advocated by an elite minority. Reducing RPM was also depicted as an infringement on personal choice and traditional values. Many interest groups attempted to discredit the reports by citing a lack of consensus on the evidence, or that only certain forms of farming and processing were harmful. Academics and nutrition experts were more likely to be cited in articles that were aligned with the findings of the reports.
The polarisation of RPM reduction has led to a binary conflict between pro- and anti-meat reduction actors. This division may diminish the extent to which political leaders will prioritise this in policy agendas. Using nuanced and context-dependent messaging could ensure the narratives around meat are less conflicting and more effective in addressing health and environmental harms associated with RPM.
How individuals try to solve problems, from simple to life-threatening ones, has been a central question across the scientific landscape. Not surprisingly, disciplines have offered theories representing their unique perspectives from cost, psychological predispositions, social status, culture, power, and even genetic inheritance. What was common across these explanations, even as larger structures or context were considered to limit or enhance action, was the focus on individuals, the primary assumption of action as decision-making or help-seeking, and an internal cost-benefit mechanism. While providing many insights, this understanding of the basis of human action falls short. The social network perspective suggests a shift to the influence of others on social action and a reconsideration of underlying assumptions. This reflection considers how applying an approach where social networks are the engine of action produced the Social Organization Strategy framework, the Network Episode Model, subsequent revisions, and the multi-level, multi-disciplinary Network Embedded Symbiome. This chapter describes how this social network perspective guides a new research effort on human well-being — the Person-to-Person Health Interview Study — and includes specific measurement batteries for ego-centric data collection.
Changes in climatic patterns are expected to have significant effects on health and wellbeing. However, the literature on the effect of climate on subjective wellbeing remains scant and existing studies focus mostly on developed countries or cross-country analyses. This paper aims to identify the relationship between climate conditions on happiness after controlling for individual and social characteristics. Ecuador, a geographically fragmented country with varying climate conditions across municipalities, constitutes an ideal case study to assess the effect of climate variables on happiness. We employ a cross-section analysis to identify the effect of temperature, precipitation and humidity on happiness. The paper shows that climate conditions constitute an important determinant of people's subjective wellbeing. The results also suggest that income and education attenuate the effect of temperature on happiness and that substantial differences are observed depending on whether places are hot/humid or cold/dry.
Mucosal immunity of Indian Antarctic personnel was analysed during the 34th Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (ISEA) by ship voyage. Serum and salivary IgA, IgA1 and IgA2 levels along with salivary cortisol and TGF-β were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Samples were collected at three different time points (T1, T2 and T3) during the expedition. Serum and salivary IgA, IgA1 and IgA2 concentrations incrementally increased towards the end of the expedition as compared to the beginning of the expedition. Salivary IgA and TGF-β levels were significantly altered during the expedition. Levels of IgA1 (P = 0.0007) and IgA2 (P = 0.0135) increased significantly at T3 as compared to T1. Additionally, significant changes in serum IgA were observed, with peak levels at T3 (P = 0.0015) and T2 (P < 0.001). However, the level of serum IgA2 was also significantly altered at T3 (P < 0.05) and T2 (P = 0.0006) in comparison with T1. The exact cause of the changes in serum and salivary IgA, IgA1, IgA2 and TGF-β levels during the summer expedition are unknown; however, the changes are evident in mucosal immunity.
This paper assesses inequality in longevity across education and gender groups in 23 OECD countries around 2011. Data on mortality rates by age, gender, educational attainment, and, for 17 countries, cause of death were collected from national sources, with similar treatment applied to all countries in order to derive comparable measures of longevity at age 25 and 65 by gender and education. These estimates show that, on average, the gap in life expectancy between high and low-educated people is 7.6 years for men and 4.8 years for women at age 25 years, and 3.6 years for men and 2.6 years for women at age 65. At the age of 25, the gap in life expectancy between high and low-educated people varies between 4.1 years (in Canada) and 13.9 years (in Hungary) for men, and between 2.5 years (in Italy) and 8.3 years (in Latvia) for women; in the United States, the gap is 10.0 years for men and 7.0 years for women. Cardiovascular diseases are the first cause of death for all gender and education groups after age 65 years, and the first cause of mortality inequality between the high and low-education elderly.
This chapter accepts that biomedicine is the dominant influence on our ideas about health and disease but considers what qualifications need to be introduced to do justice first to the more complicated issues to do with mental health and then to the very diverse conceptions that have been entertained in this area in non-Western societies, ancient and modern. Drawing on Hacking’s work on natural kinds and Luhrmann’s analysis of the uncertainties of modern psychiatry, it suggests further respects in which we need to exercise caution in assessing competing claims for expertise in this area.
This chapter provides a contextual overview of Torres Strait Islander’s health and wellbeing. It begins by discussing the location and pre-colonisation history of the Torres Strait Islands and their peoples and notes that there is a shift back towards calling the region by its local name, Zenadth Kes. It considers Torres Strait Islanders connections to Country, including the sea, and Kin, and their belonging within tribes and clans. It then discusses Torres Strait Islanders’ perspectives of health and wellbeing both before and after invasion and colonisation and makes suggestions for culturally safe practice that incorporates Torres Strait Islanders’ history. It outlines the current provision of primary health care in the Torres Strait and looks at how this can holistically incorporate traditional medicine practices. The final section of the chapter considers the threat of climate change and its impact on Torres Strait Islanders’ physical and spiritual connection to their Country and consequently their health and wellbeing.
Nutrition plays a key role in training for, and competing in, competitive sport, and is essential for reducing risk of injury and illness, recovering and adapting between bouts of activity, and enhancing performance. Consumption of a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has been demonstrated to reduce risk of various non-communicable diseases and increase longevity. Following the key principles of a MedDiet could also represent a useful framework for good nutrition in competitive athletes under most circumstances, with potential benefits for health and performance parameters. In this review, we discuss the potential effects of a MedDiet, or individual foods and compounds readily available in this dietary pattern, on oxidative stress and inflammation, injury and illness risk, vascular and cognitive function, and exercise performance in competitive athletes. We also highlight potential modifications which could be made to the MedDiet (whilst otherwise adhering to the key principles of this dietary pattern) in accordance with contemporary sports nutrition practices, to maximise health and performance effects. In addition, we discuss potential directions for future research.
Yatdjuligin: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nursing and Midwifery Care introduces students to the fundamentals of health care of Indigenous Australians, encompassing the perspectives of both the client and the health practitioner. Written for all nurses and midwives, this book addresses the relationship between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures and mainstream health services and introduces readers to practice and research in a variety of healthcare contexts. This new edition has been fully updated to reflect current research and documentation, with an emphasis on cultural safety. Three new chapters cover Torres Strait Islander health and wellbeing, social and emotional wellbeing in mainstream mental health services and quantitative research. Chapter content is complemented by case study scenarios, author reflections and reflection questions. These features illustrate historical and contemporary challenges, encourage students to reflect on their own attitudes and values, and provide strategies to deliver quality, person-centred health care.
The confinement associated with COVID-19 pandemic was an experience with significant physical and mental health implications, including higher stress levels, decreased sleep quality, pain symptoms and changes in lifestyle behaviours.
The main goal of this study was to analyze the relationship between stress and health variables (sleep, health symptoms, health perception, and lifestyle behaviours) in a Portuguese university during COVID-19 home confinement.
A cross-sectional online survey design was conducted. A sample of 263 Portuguese workers (64.3% females), with mean age of 48.3 years (sd=8.9), filled in the PSS10, answering questions concerning health symptoms (perceived health, pain symptoms and fatigue), lifestyle behaviours (sleep and eating habits, use of alcohol and tobacco) during COVID-19 home confinement. A descriptive statistical analysis, a Pearson correlation analyses and the t Student test, for independent samples, were performed.
The results showed significant correlations between stress and perceived health (r=-.404; p<.0001), arms pain (r=.212; p=.002), legs pain (r=.201; p=.003), back pain (r=.219; p=.001), headache (r=.289; p<.0001) and fatigue (r=.295; p<.0001). Concerning lifestyle behaviours, the results showed significant correlations between stress and sleep (r=-.552; p<.0001) and stress is significantly higher (p<.0001) in individuals who have changed their eating habits.
During the COVID-19 home confinement, higher stress levels are associated with a worse perception of health, more pain symptoms (legs, arms, back, headache), worse sleep quality and more fatigue. Moreover, the individuals with higher levels of stress have changed their eating habits. Lastly, health promotion interventions are needed in order to minimize the impact of home confinement in health.
The devastating effects of the current pandemic are profoundly affecting peoples’s physical and psychological health. Numerous studies on the effects of previous infectious outbreaks have been published. Similarly, an increasingly growing body of research on COVID-19 has been developed and released, reporting a substancial psychological impact of both the outbreak and the response, suggesting that the population may express high levels of psychological symptoms.
This presentation aims to synthesize existent literature that reports on the effects of COVID-19 on psychological outcomes of the general population, groups with higher vulnerability and its associated risk factors.
Bibliographic research was made through scientific databases such as PubMed and EMBASE. No time limit was used. Pertinent articles were carefully reviewed for additional relevant citations.
Generally, there is a higher prevalence of symptoms of adverse psychiatric outcomes among the public when compared to the prevalence before the pandemic. Psychological reactions to pandemics include maladaptive behaviours, emotional distress and symptoms of stress, anxiety, depression, and avoidance behaviors. The groups known to be at higher risk for mental health problems during the pandemic are: women, healthcare workers, people under 40 years old and with chronic diseases. Other risk factors are: frequent exposure to social media/news relating to COVID-19, poor economic status, lower education level, and unemployment.
The COVID-19 pandemic represents an unprecedented threat to mental health. In addition to flattening the curve of viral transmission, special attention needs to be paid to the challenges it poses to the mental health of the population at a global scale.
This study is a part of the bigger research project on the burnout syndrome risk and prevention factors [1,2,4].
At the current phase we aimed to discover: 1- trends observed in sociodemographic profiles of Ukrainian social workers(SW) who respond to the online survey; 2- if there is any correlation between the SW work engagement(WE) and general health(H).
The survey is designed out of two questionnaires - Gallup Q12 Employee Engagement survey(Q12) and the 15-item Patient Health Questionnaire(PHQ-15). Questions on the socio-demographic status are included according to the study purpose [3,4]. SW ‘from the field’ in Ukraine included in the study group(SG). Other professionals (doctors, lawyers, etc.) formed the comparison group(CG). Descriptive statistics applied for the data analyses.
Our sample has the next socio-demographic characteristics: age 20-57 (average 33.2) years old, male/female ratio is 0.36; single at the moment of the study are 66.7%. The SG: women-87.5%, married-62.5%, social work experience -from 1 to 15years. In 28.6% of the CG respondents the Q12 revealed low(less than 50%) WE while in the SW no one showed low WE. PHQ-15: in the SG -62.5% mild and 12.5% -severe somatic problems; in the CG -57.1% mild and 28.6% -severe somatic symptoms. There were no statistically significant differences between 2 groups with regard to WE and H (p<0.05). Relations between variables are non-linear; therefore,Spearman’s coefficient (ρ) applied.
The weak association between the work engagement and health condition (ρ=0.3;p<0.05) is found. There are several limitations due to the sample specificity (online users in Ukraine).This study is ongoing.
Recommendations for free sugar intake in the UK should be no more than 5 % of total energy due to increased health risks associated with overconsumption. It was therefore of interest to examine free sugar intakes and associations with health parameters in the UK population. The UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme (2008–2017) was used for this study. Dietary intake, anthropometrical measurements and clinical biomarker data collated from 5121 adult respondents aged 19–64 years were statistically analysed. Compared with the average total carbohydrate intake (48 % of energy), free sugars comprised 12·5 %, with sucrose 9 % and fructose 3·5 %. Intakes of these sugars, apart from fructose, were significantly different over collection year (P < 0·001) and significantly higher in males (P < 0·001). Comparing those consuming above or below the UK recommendations for free sugars (5 % energy), significant differences were found for BMI (P < 0·001), TAG (P < 0·001), HDL (P = 0·006) and homocysteine concentrations (P = 0·028), and significant sex differences were observed (e.g. lower blood pressure in females). Regression analysis demonstrated that free sugar intake could predict plasma TAG, HDL and homocysteine concentrations (P < 0·0001), consistent with the link between these parameters and CVD. We also found selected unhealthy food choices (using the UK Eatwell Guide) to be significantly higher in those that consumed above the recommendations (P < 0·0001) and were predictors of free sugar intakes (P < 0·0001). We have shown that adult free sugar intakes in the UK population are associated with certain negative health parameters that support the necessary reduction in free sugar intakes for the UK population.
An often overlooked strategy for fighting the COVID-19 pandemic is group testing. Its main advantage is that it can scale, enabling the regular testing of the whole population. We argue that another advantage is that it can induce social distancing. Using a simple model, we show that if a group tests positive and its members are in close social proximity, then they will rationally choose not to meet. The driving force is the uncertainty about who has the virus and the fact that the group cares about its collective welfare. We therefore propose identifying socially connected groups, such as colleagues, friends and neighbours, and testing them regularly.
The low retirement age has imposed a heavy economic burden on the pension system in China, leading to an ongoing debate about raising the retirement age. To understand the potential costs of raising the retirement age, we need to consider the health effects of retirement policies. Using the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) from 2011 to 2015, this study employs the statutory retirement age as the exogenous variable of retirement and applies a fuzzy regression discontinuity design (RDD) to examine the effect of retirement on the health of Chinese elderly people. We find that retirement has a non-significant effect on health with respect to a series of health indicators, different bandwidths of RDD and sub-sample groups. The finding is also robust across different retirement definitions and retirement ages. This result may be attributed to the minimal changes in income and lifestyles before and after retirement. Moreover, the findings of this study provide important evidence for policy makers to increase retirement ages in China.
This chapter provides an overview of Roth’s life, focusing on the author's upbringing in the Weequahic neighborhood of Newark, his education at Bucknell University and University of Chicago, his first forays into publication, his teaching positions at the Iowa Writers Workshop and University of Pennsylvania, his marriages, health struggles, and the significant peaks and valleys of his career, from critical setbacks to major awards and recognitions, including The Pulitzer Prize, National Book Awards, and PEN/Faulkner awards.