To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The present study aimed to explore the association between dietary patterns in abdominal obesity obtained by reduced-rank regression (RRR) with visceral fat index (VFI) as a dependent variable and dyslipidemia in rural adults in Henan, China. A total of 29538 people aged 18-79 were selected from the Henan Rural Cohort Study. RRR analysis was used to identify dietary patterns; logistic regression analysis and restricted cubic spline regression models were applied to analyze the association between dietary patterns in abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. VFI was used as a mediator to estimate the mediation effect. The crude prevalence of dyslipidemia in rural Henan was 34.2%. The dietary pattern in abdominal obesity was characterized by high carbohydrate and red meat intake and low consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables, milk, and dairy products. After full adjustment, the highest quartile of dietary pattern scores was significantly associated with an increased risk of dyslipidemia (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.23-1.44, P-trend<0.001), there was a non-linear dose-response relationship between them (Poverall-association<0.001, Pnon-lin-association=0.022). The result was similar in dose-response between the dietary pattern scores and VFI. The indirect effect partially mediated by VFI was significant (OR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.06-1.08). VIF explained approximately 53.3% of the odds of dyslipidemia related to the dietary pattern. Abdominal obesity dietary pattern scores positively affected VFI and dyslipidemia; there was a dose-response in both relationships. Dyslipidemia progression increased with higher abdominal obesity dietary pattern scores. In addition, VFI played a partial mediating role in relationship between abdominal obesity dietary pattern and dyslipidemia.
Maternal folic acid (FA) plays an important role in the fetus development, but it is unknown the response of hepatic metabolism in the offspring from different litter sizes to maternal FA supplementation. In the present study, this was done by feeding the ewes with 0, 16 and 32 mg/(kg·DM) FA supplemented diet during pregnancy and analysing the hepatic one-carbon metabolism-related indices and gene expression in the neonatal lambs of different litter sizes (twins, TW; triplets, TR). Regardless of litter sizes, the concentrations of folate, methionine, S-adenosylmethionine and DNA methyltransferase increased significantly, but homocysteine and S-adenosylhomocysteine decreased in the liver of newborn lambs from ewes whose diet was supplemented with FA. In TW, maternal FA status has little effect on hepatic genes expression profile of newborn lambs, and no significant enriched pathway was found. However, DEG involved in cell proliferation such as CCNA2, CCNB2, CCNE2, CDK1 and BUB1 were significantly enriched when the ewes were supplemented with FA in TR groups. In addition, nucleotide synthesis-related genes such as POLD1, POLD2, MCM4 and MCM5 were enriched markedly in DNA replication and pyrimidine metabolism pathways in triplets when a higher FA ingestion [32 mg/(kg·DM)] was implemented in ewes. This finding demonstrated that the hepatic methyl metabolism in TW and TR newborn lambs was regulated by maternal FA status. The hepatic cell proliferation and nucleotide metabolism related genes in TR were more susceptible to maternal dietary FA supplementation during pregnancy.
Microtubule-severing protein (MTSP) is critical for the survival of both mitotic and postmitotic cells. However, the study of MTSP during meiosis of mammalian oocytes has not been reported. We found that spastin, a member of the MTSP family, was highly expressed in oocytes and aggregated in spindle microtubules. After knocking down spastin by specific siRNA, the spindle microtubule density of meiotic oocytes decreased significantly. When the oocytes were cultured in vitro, the oocytes lacking spastin showed an obvious maturation disorder. Considering the microtubule-severing activity of spastin, we speculate that spastin on spindles may increase the number of microtubule broken ends by severing the microtubules, therefore playing a nucleating role, promoting spindle assembly and ensuring normal meiosis. In addition, we found the colocalization and interaction of collapsin response mediator protein 5 (CRMP5) and spastin in oocytes. CRMP5 can provide structural support and promote microtubule aggregation, creating transportation routes, and can interact with spastin in the microtubule activity of nerve cells (30). Knocking down CRMP5 may lead to spindle abnormalities and developmental disorders in oocytes. Overexpression of spastin may reverse the abnormal phenotype caused by the deletion of CRMP5. In summary, our data support a model in which the interaction between spastin and CRMP5 promotes the assembly of spindle microtubules in oocytes by controlling microtubule dynamics, therefore ensuring normal meiosis.
This study aimed to explore the impacts of COVID-19 outbreak on mental health status in general population in different affected areas in China.
This was a comparative study including two groups of participants: (1) general population in an online survey in Ya'an and Jingzhou cities during the COVID-19 outbreak from 10–20 February 2020; and (2) matching general population selected from the mental health survey in Ya'an in 2019 (from January to May 2019). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) were used.
There were 1775 participants (Ya'an in 2019 and 2020: 537 respectively; Jingzhou in 2020: 701). Participants in Ya'an had a significantly higher rate of general health problems (GHQ scores ⩾3) in 2020 (14.7%) than in 2019 (5.2%) (p < 0.001). Compared with Ya'an (8.0%), participants in Jingzhou in 2020 had a significantly higher rate of anxiety (SAS scores ⩾50, 24.1%) (p < 0.001). Participants in Ya'an in 2020 had a significantly higher rate of depression (SDS scores ⩾53, 55.3%) than in Jingzhou (16.3%) (p < 0.001). The risk factors of anxiety symptoms included female, number of family members (⩾6 persons), and frequent outdoor activities. The risk factors of depression symptoms included participants in Ya'an and uptake self-protective measures.
The prevalence of psychological symptoms has increased sharply in general population during the COVID-19 outbreak. People in COVID-19 severely affected areas may have higher scores of GHQ and anxiety symptoms. Culture-specific and individual-based psychosocial interventions should be developed for those in need during the COVID-19 outbreak.
Since the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection in Wuhan City, China, pediatric cases have gradually increased. It is very important to prevent cross-infection in pediatric fever clinics, to identify children with fever in pediatric fever clinics, and to strengthen the management of pediatric fever clinics. According to prevention and control programs, we propose the guidance on the management of pediatric fever clinics during the nCoV pneumonia epidemic period, which outlines in detail how to optimize processes, prevent cross-infection, provide health protection, and prevent disinfection of medical staff. The present consideration statement summarizes current strategies on the pre-diagnosis, triage, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019-nCoV infection, which provides practical suggestions on strengthening the management of pediatric fever clinics during the nCoV pneumonia epidemic period.
A solution to the problem of Gaussian beam scattering by a circular perfect electric conductor coated with eccentrically anisotropic media is presented. The incident Gaussian beam source is expanded as an approximate expression in the simple form with Taylor's series. The transmitted field in the anisotropically coated region is expressed as an infinite summation of Eigen plane waves with different polar angles. The unknown coefficients of the scattered fields are obtained with the aid of the boundary conditions. The addition theorem for cylindrical functions is applied to transfer from the local coordinates to the global ones. The infinite series can be truncated under the prerequisite of achieving the solution convergence. Only the case of transverse-electric polarization is discussed. The similar formulation of transverse-magnetic polarization can be obtained by adopting a similar method. Some numerical results are presented and discussed. The result is in agreement with that available as expected when the eccentric geometry comes to the concentric one.
Novel NiMoO4-integrated electrode materials were successfully prepared by solvothermal method using Na2MoO4·2H2O and NiSO4·6H2O as main raw materials, water, and ethanol as solvents. The morphology, phase, and structure of the as-prepared materials were characterized by SEM, XRD, Raman, and FT-IR. The electrochemical properties of the materials in supercapacitors were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, constant current charge–discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The effects of volume ratio of water to ethanol (W/E) in solvent on the properties of the product were studied. The results show that the pure phase monoclinic crystal NiMoO4 product can be obtained when the W/E is 2:1. The diameter and length are 0.1–0.3 µm and approximately 3 µm, respectively. As an active material for supercapacitor, the NiMoO4 nanorods material delivered a discharge specific capacitance of 672, 498, and 396 F/g at a current density of 4, 7, and 10 A/g, respectively. The discharge specific capacitance slightly decreased from 815 to 588 F/g with a retention of 72% after 1000 cycles at a current density of 1 A/g. With these superior capacitance properties, the novel NiMoO4 integrated electrode materials could be considered as promising material for supercapacitors.
The Luziyuan Pb–Zn skarn deposit, located in the Baoshan–Narong–Dongzhi block metallogenic belt in SW China, is hosted by marble and slate in the upper Cambrian Shahechang Formation. Three skarn zones have been identified from the surface (1495 m above sea level (asl)) to a depth of 1220 m asl: zone 1 consists of chlorite–actinolite–calcite–quartz, zone 2 of rhodonite–actinolite–fluorite–quartz–calcite, and zone 3 contains garnet–rhodonite–actinolite–fluorite–quartz–calcite. The deposit formed in four distinct mineralization stages: an early anhydrous skarn (garnet, rhodonite and bustamite) stage (Stage 1), a hydrous skarn (actinolite and chlorite) stage (Stage 2), an early quartz (coarse barren quartz veins) stage (Stage 3) and a late sulphide-forming (fine sulphide-bearing quartz veins) stage (Stage 4). The Stage 1 skarn-forming fluid temperature was at least 500 °C according to the geothermometer with rhodonite/bustamite trace elements measured by laser ablation – inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). A decrease in ore fluid temperatures with time is consistent with the decreases in the δ18Ofluid and δDfluid values from Stage 3 to 4. This trend suggests that the ore fluid was mainly derived from magmatic water and mixed with large amounts of meteoric water during mineralization. The δ34S values of Stage 4 chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena are similar to those of an Ordovician gypsum layer, and together with the high-salinity fluids in Stage 4 indicate the dissolution of evaporites in the Luziyuan region. Overall, the results of this study suggest that the Luziyuan deposit is a distal Pb–Zn skarn deposit that formed in response to multi-stage alteration associated with a combination of magmatic water and meteoric water.
In this study, we propose a high order well-balanced weighted compact nonlinear (WCN) scheme for the gas dynamic equations under gravitational fields. The proposed scheme is an extension of the high order WCN schemes developed in (S. Zhang, S. Jiang, C.-W Shu, J. Comput. Phys. 227 (2008) 7294-7321). For the purpose of maintaining the exact steady state solution, the well-balanced technique in (Y. Xing, C.-W Shu, J. Sci. Comput. 54 (2013) 645-662) is employed to split the source term into two terms. The proposed scheme can maintain the isothermal equilibrium solution exactly, genuine high order accuracy and resolve small perturbations of the hydrostatic balance state on the coarse meshes. Furthermore, in order to capture the strong discontinuities and large gradients, the fifth-order upwind weighted nonlinear interpolations together with the fourth/sixth order cell-centered compact schemes with local characteristic projections are used to construct different WCN schemes. Several representative one- and two-dimensional examples are simulated to demonstrate the good performance of the proposed schemes.
Two-dimensional scattering of a Gaussian beam by a homogeneous gyrotropic circular cylinder is presented. The incident Gaussian beam source is expanded as an approximate expression with Taylor's series. The transmitted field in the homogeneous gyrotropic cylinder is expressed in terms of the series of wave functions based on the integral equation. The unknown coefficients of the scattered fields are obtained with the aid of the boundary conditions of continuous tangential electric and magnetic fields. Some numerical results are presented and discussed. The result is in agreement with that available as expected when the Gaussian beam degenerates to a plane wave incidence case.
In this study, a numerical framework of the high order well-balanced weighted compact nonlinear (WCN) schemes is proposed for the shallow water equations based on the work in [S. Zhang, S. Jiang, C.-W Shu, J. Comput. Phys. 227 (2008) 7294-7321]. We employ a special splitting technique for the source term proposed in [Y. Xing, C.-W Shu, J. Comput. Phys. 208 (2005) 206-227] to maintain the exact C-property, which can be proved theoretically. In the meantime, the genuine high order accuracy of the numerical scheme can be observed successfully, and small perturbation of the stationary state can be resolved and evolved well. In order to capture the strong discontinuities and large gradients, the fifth-order upwind weighted nonlinear interpolations together with the fourth/sixth order cell-centered compact scheme are used to construct different WCN schemes. In addition, the local characteristic projections are considered to further restrain the potential numerical oscillations. A variety of representative one- and two-dimensional examples are tested to demonstrate the good performance of the proposed schemes.
With increasing output of petroleum coke, the value-added exploitation of petroleum coke has become a tough problem. Preparing porous carbons is a traditional way to the value-added exploitation of petroleum coke. Here, we used a facile and efficient hard-templating strategy to synthesize mesoporous carbon with high surface area from petroleum coke. N2 adsorption analyses show that the BET specific area and pore volume of the carbons can reach up to 864 m2/g and 1.37 cm3/g, respectively. To utilize the abundant mesopores of the carbons, anthraquinone-modified mesoporous carbon was tested as an electrode material for supercapacitor applications. Electrochemical measurements demonstrated that the specific capacitance reached up to 366 F/g at the current density of 1 A/g, indicating a promising prospect of using this carbon in electrochemical energy-storage field. More importantly, the strategy used in this work can be easily modified to prepare other nano-carbon materials from petroleum coke.
Controlling the spatial arrangement of biomaterials and living cells provides the foundation for fabricating complex biological systems. Such level of spatial resolution (less than 10 µm) is difficult to be obtained through conventional cell processing techniques, which lack the precision, reproducibility, automation, and speed required for the rapid fabrication of engineered tissue constructs. Recently, laser-assisted biofabrication techniques are being intensively developed with the use of computer-aided processes for patterning and assembling both living and nonliving materials with prescribed 2D or 3D organization. In this review, we discuss laser-assisted fabrication methods, including laser tweezers, multi-photon polymerization, laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT), matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), and laser ablation as well as their applications in biological science and biomedical engineering. These advanced technologies enable the precise manipulation of in vitro cellular microenvironments and the ability to engineer functional tissue constructs with high complexity and heterogeneity, which serve in regenerative medicine, pharmacology, and basic cell biology studies.
The NaLa(MoO4)2:Yb3+/Er3+ phosphor is synthesized through hydrothermal method with the further calcinations. The intense green upconversion (UC) emission is observed when it is excited by 980 nm pump power. Then we investigate the mechanism of UC emission based on the power dependent upconversion luminescence (UCL) spectra. Temperature sensing performance based on the Stark levels (2H11/2/4S3/2) of Er3+ is estimated through investigating temperature-dependent UCL spectra from 298 K to 573 K. And the maximum value of sensor sensitivity based on FIR is approximately 0.00474 K−1. Moreover, the variations of UCL intensities from 2H11/2/4S3/2 → 4I15/2 transitions have been monitored with increasing pump power, which suggests that the pump energy can be absorbed by sample and heat it. In addition, the internal temperature of materials can be estimated by FIR technique. All the experimental results indicate that the phosphor has good potential in optical temperature sensing and optical heating.
To explore the 3-tiered treatment model for medical treatment after an earthquake.
Based on the practices of the national emergency medical rescue services in the Lushan earthquake zone, the 3-tiered treatment classification approach was retrospectively reviewed.
Medical rescue teams assembled and reported quickly to the disaster areas after the earthquake. The number of injured people had reached 25,176 as of April 30; of these, 18,611 people were treated as outpatients, 6565 were hospitalized, and 977 were seriously or severely injured.
The 3-tiered treatment model was the main approach used by rescue services after the Lushan earthquake. Primary and secondary treatments were of the highest importance and formed the basis of the Lushan model of earthquake rescue and treatment. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018; 12: 301–304)
For wheeled mobile robots moving in rough terrains or uncertain environments, driving failure will be encountered when trafficability failure occurs. Continuous mobility of mobile robots with special ability for overcoming driving failure on rough terrain has rarely been considered. This study was conducted using a four-wheel-steering and four-wheel-driving mobile robot equipped with a binocular visual system. First, quasi-static force analysis is carried out to understand the effects of different driving-failure modes on the mobile robot while moving on rough terrain. Secondly, to make the best of the rest of the driving force, robot configuration transformation is employed to select the optimal configuration that can overcome the driving failure. Thirdly, sliding mode control based on back-stepping is adopted to enable the robot achieve continuous trajectory tracking with visual feedback. Finally, the efficacy of the presented approach is verified by simulations and experiments.
In this work, we concern with the numerical comparison between different kinds of design points in least square (LS) approach on polynomial spaces. Such a topic is motivated by uncertainty quantification (UQ). Three kinds of design points are considered, which are the Sparse Grid (SG) points, the Monte Carlo (MC) points and the Quasi Monte Carlo (QMC) points. We focus on three aspects during the comparison: (i) the convergence properties; (ii) the stability, i.e. the properties of the resulting condition number of the design matrix; (iii) the robustness when numerical noises are present in function values. Several classical high dimensional functions together with a random ODE model are tested. It is shown numerically that (i) neither the MC sampling nor the QMC sampling introduce the low convergence rate, namely, the approach achieves high order convergence rate for all cases provided that the underlying functions admit certain regularity and enough design points are used; (ii)The use of SG points admits better convergence properties only for very low dimensional problems (say d ≤ 2); (iii)The QMC points, being deterministic, seem to be a good choice for higher dimensional problems not only for better convergence properties but also in the stability point of view.
Vanadium oxides thin films with variable oxidation states have attracted great attention due to their unique electrical, optical properties and many important applications in microelectronics, infrared optical devices, and energy harvest systems. However, to fabricate vanadium oxide thin films with controllable phases and desired transport properties is still a challenge by using a chemical solution deposition (CSD) technique. In this paper, we report that vanadium oxide thin films with well controlled phases such as rhombohedral V2O3 and monoclinic VO2 could be synthesized on Al2O3 (0001) substrates using a CSD technique ---- polymer assisted deposition (PAD). Both V2O3 and VO2 thin films can be well controlled with good epitaxial quality by optimizing the fabrication parameters. The electrical resistivity changes 3∼4 orders of magnitude at metal insulator transition for both epitaxial V2O3 and VO2 thin films. The correlation between the physical properties and the microstructures of the films will be discussed.
The important task of evaluating the impact of random parameters on the output of stochastic ordinary differential equations (SODE) can be computationally very demanding, in particular for problems with a high-dimensional parameter space. In this work we consider this problem in some detail and demonstrate that by combining several techniques one can dramatically reduce the overall cost without impacting the predictive accuracy of the output of interests. We discuss how the combination of ANOVA expansions, different sparse grid techniques, and the total sensitivity index (TSI) as a pre-selective mechanism enables the modeling of problems with hundred of parameters. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of this approach on a number of challenging test cases drawn from engineering and science.