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Safety voice helps organizations to identify safety issues timely and is critical to the long-term growth of the organization. Safety voice has become a hot research topic in organizational safety, and different scales have been developed. However, the unique cultural context in China has led to the need to redevelop safety voice measurement tools. In this paper, we developed an initial scale of safety voice for employees in Chinese organizational contexts fusing in-depth interviews and mature scales. The initial scale based on two samples (n1 = 205, n2 = 420) was revised and validated using item analysis, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and reliability analysis to finalize the final scale. We finally found that the safety voice scale in Chinese organizational contexts contains two dimensions: promotive safety voice and prohibitive safety voice. The scale developed in this paper is a reliable tool to measure safety voice behavior of Chinese employees.
In this paper, the microstructure and the shear property of Cu/In–45Cu/Ni solder joints by transient liquid phase were studied, and the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) growth mechanism was investigated. The results showed that the IMCs volume ratio of solder joints was increased firstly and then decreased with increasing bonding time, and the IMCs volume ratio reached its maximum value of 95.8% at 60 min. The Cu interfacial IMC of the solder joint with dense microstructure was Cu2In phase at 60 min, and the Ni interfacial IMC was Ni3In7. The maximum shear strength of solder joints was obtained at 60 min, which is 15.21 MPa. The shear fracture appeared honeycomb structure, and the fracture occurred at the phase interface of Ni3In7/Cu11In9. The thickness of the interfacial IMCs and the white IMCs around the Cu particles (Cu@IMC) was increased continuously with increasing bonding time, and thus, the interconnection of Cu–Ni substrates was realized ultimately.
The link between schizophrenia and cigarette smoking has been well established through observational studies. However, the cause–effect relationship remains unclear.
We conducted Mendelian randomisation analyses to assess any causal relationship between genetic variants related to four smoking-related traits and the risk of schizophrenia.
We performed a two-sample Mendelian randomisation using summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of smoking-related traits and schizophrenia (7711 cases, 18 327 controls) in East Asian populations. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) correlated with smoking behaviours (smoking initiation, smoking cessation, age at smoking initiation and quantity of smoking) were investigated in relation to schizophrenia using the inverse-variance weighted (IVW) method. Further sensitivity analyses, including Mendelian randomisation-Egger (MR-Egger), weighted median estimates and leave-one-out analysis, were used to test the consistency of the results.
The associated SNPs for the four smoking behaviours were not significantly associated with schizophrenia status. Pleiotropy did not inappropriately affect the results.
Cigarette smoking is a complex behaviour in people with schizophrenia. Understanding factors underlying the observed association remains important; however, our findings do not support a causal role of smoking in influencing risk of schizophrenia.
Reduced graphene oxide supported titanium dioxide (GO/TiO2) heterojunction composites as highly active photocatalysts were synthesized via simple ultrasonic mixing and hydrothermal reaction using TiCl3 and GO as precursors. Their structure and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectra, UV-vis spectroscopy, and thermogravimetic analysis. The GO/TiO2 heterojunction composites were used to degrade methyl orange (MO). The adsorption and photocatalytic degradation rate of the prepared GO/TiO2 composites increased by nearly three times compared with that of pristine TiO2 or GO, which reached up 90%, to degrade MO after 4 h, which provides a simple method to obtain photocatalytic materials.
Losing one's only child is a major traumatic life event that may lead to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, the underlying mechanisms of its psychological consequences remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated subregional hippocampal functional connectivity (FC) networks based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and the deoxyribonucleic acid methylation of the human glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) in adults who had lost their only child.
A total of 144 Han Chinese adults who had lost their only child (51 adults with PTSD and 93 non-PTSD adults [trauma-exposed controls]) and 50 controls without trauma exposure were included in this fMRI study (age: 40–67 years). FCs between hippocampal subdivisions (four regions in each hemisphere: cornu ammonis1 [CA1], CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus [DG]) and methylation levels of the NR3C1 gene were compared among the three groups.
Trauma-exposed adults, regardless of PTSD diagnosis, had weaker positive FC between the left hippocampal CA1, left DG, and the posterior cingulate cortex, and weaker negative FC between the right CA1, right DG, and several frontal gyri, relative to healthy controls. Compared to non-PTSD adults, PTSD adults showed decreased negative FC between the right CA1 region and the right middle/inferior frontal gyri (MFG/IFG), and decreased negative FC between the right DG and the right superior frontal gyrus and left MFG. Both trauma-exposed groups showed lower methylation levels of the NR3C1 gene.
Adults who had lost their only child may experience disrupted hippocampal network connectivity and NR3C1 methylation status, regardless of whether they have developed PTSD.
The excessive use of plastic, especially polystyrene (PS), has caused serious environmental pollution. The efficient utilization of plastics and the conversion of plastics into value-added carbon materials are the concerns of researchers. Herein, we propose novel “pyrolysis–deposition” method to convert one popular plastic substance, PS, into ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs). During the synthesis process, PS is pyrolyzed into small organic gases under high temperature, which is then adsorbed through capillary adsorption into the mesoporous of SBA-15 in the presence of catalyst. The obtained OMCs have high specific surface area, uniform pore size, and ordered pore structure. The OMCs exhibit specific capacitance of 118 F/g at a current density of 0.2 A/g and electrochemical stability of 87.2% at a current density of 2 A/g after 5000 cycles. The pyrolysis–deposition strategy provides a new idea to convert waste plastics into high-performance carbon materials for electrochemical applications.
The microstructure and oxidation behavior at high temperatures ranging from 900 °C to 1100 °C of equiatomic CrMoNbTaV high-entropy alloy produced by vacuum arc melting were investigated. The phase component, microstructure, and microhardness of the alloy were examined by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope, and Vickers hardness tests, respectively. The as-cast alloy consists of a single body-centered cubic (BCC) refractory metal solid solution due to the high mixing entropy effect and exhibits a dendritic microstructure. The alloy has a very high microhardness value of 923 HV due to the strong solid solution strengthening effect. The average microhardness in interdendrites (950 HV) was higher than that in dendrites (896 HV) because of composition segregation. The oxidation kinetic curves of the alloy after exposure to air at 900 and 1000 °C follow the pseudo-parabolic rate law, while the mass gain increases first and then decreases at 1100 °C. The thickness of the oxide layer increases with the increasing of oxidation time. The long rod-shaped oxidation products are composed of Nb2O5, NbO2, CrTaO4, CrNbO4, Ta9VO25, Nb9VO25, and TaO after oxidation at 900 and 1000 °C for 25 h. The oxides of CrTaO4 and CrNbO4 disappear as the oxidation temperature elevated to 1100 °C.
N-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC) has been one of the most promising choices as the electrode for supercapacitors due to its large surface area and uniform mesoporous structure. However, there is still a big challenge to prepare N-OMC using a relatively simple method. Here, a straightforward preparation of N-OMC was reported in which the precursor zeoliticimidazolate framework was in situ grown in the SBA-15 template by a fast, solvent-free, and atom economic solid–solid grinding strategy. After pyrolysis and removing of the template, the N-OMC was obtained with ordered mesoporous structure, rich oxygen and nitrogen, and a large specific surface area of 1004 m2/g. As the electrode material for supercapacitors, N-OMC displayed an excellent specific capacitance of 228 F/g at 0.2 A/g and superb charge/discharge cycling stability, which is promising for high-performance energy storage. This solid–solid grinding strategy may offer a low-cost and scalable method to produce high-performance N-OMC for the electrode from the zeoliticimidazolate framework.
Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) effect is currently the major limitation for the power scaling of single-frequency/narrow linewidth fiber laser systems. A single-mode linearly polarized all-fiber amplifier system is set up to investigate SBS effect in triple-frequency high-power amplifiers. With this amplifier, up to 302 W output power with 83% slope efficiency is achieved and the SBS threshold is scaled up to 12 dB. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power of multifrequency laser from a single-mode polarization maintaining fiber. Good spectral properties and high brightness make this laser source available for the application of second harmonic generation, coherent beam combining.
To investigate the recrystallization behavior of large sized Nb–V microalloyed steel rods during thermomechanical controlled processing (TMCP), a series of isothermal hot compression tests were conducted on a Gleeble 1500 thermomechanical simulator. The kinetics and microstructure evolution models of dynamic recrystallization, static recrystallization, metadynamic recrystallization and the grain growth model of the tested steel were developed. Based on the developed models, a finite element (FE) model coupled with the recrystallization behavior of large sized Nb–V microalloyed steel rods during TMCP was established. Then, the distributions and evolutions of recrystallization fraction and grain size during the whole deformation process are obtained and analyzed. Finally, the predicted results were compared with experimental ones, and they show good agreement. This illustrates that the recrystallization models of the tested steel are valid and the developed FE model of large sized Nb–V microalloyed steel rods during TMCP is effective.
Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and major depressive disorder
(MDD) are likely to be caused by multiple susceptibility genes, each with
small effects in increasing the risk of illness. Identifying DNA variants
associated with schizophrenia and MDD is a crucial step in understanding
the pathophysiology of these disorders.
To investigate whether the SP4 gene plays a significant
role in schizophrenia or MDD in the Han Chinese population.
We focused on nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) harbouring the
SP4 gene and carried out case–control studies in 1235
patients with schizophrenia, 1045 patients with MDD and 1235 healthy
controls recruited from the Han Chinese population.
We found that rs40245 was significantly associated with schizophrenia in
both allele and genotype distributions (Pallele = 0.0005, Pallele = 0.004 after Bonferroni correction; Pgenotype = 0.0023, Pgenotype = 0.0184 after Bonferroni correction). The rs6461563
SNP was significantly associated with schizophrenia in the allele
distributions (Pallele = 0.0033, Pallele = 0.0264 after Bonferroni correction).
Our results suggest that common risk factors in the SP4
gene are associated with schizophrenia, although not with MDD, in the Han
The purpose of this article is to summarize our recent progress in high-order and high accurate CFD methods for flow problems with complex grids as well as to discuss the engineering prospects in using these methods. Despite the rapid development of high-order algorithms in CFD, the applications of high-order and high accurate methods on complex configurations are still limited. One of the main reasons which hinder the widely applications of these methods is the complexity of grids. Many aspects which can be neglected for low-order schemes must be treated carefully for high-order ones when the configurations are complex. In order to implement high-order finite difference schemes on complex multi-block grids, the geometric conservation law and block-interface conditions are discussed. A conservative metric method is applied to calculate the grid derivatives, and a characteristic-based interface condition is employed to fulfil high-order multi-block computing. The fifth-order WCNS-E-5 proposed by Deng is applied to simulate flows with complex grids, including a double-delta wing, a transonic airplane configuration, and a hypersonic X-38 configuration. The results in this paper and the references show pleasant prospects in engineering-oriented applications of high-order schemes.
The present study aimed to characterize the dietary patterns of newlyweds married within one year and to examine the factors associated with weight changes.
A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009.
Baoshan District, Shanghai, China.
A total of 342 pairs of newlyweds were recruited at their first visit. Weight and height were measured and food intake was measured based on an FFQ with forty-nine items. Dietary patterns were identified through factor analysis, and the factors associated with weight changes were determined by multiple regression models.
Average weight gain of the participants during marital transition was 1·9 kg (2·2 kg for men and 1·6 kg for women). Four major dietary patterns were identified: vegetable pattern, sweets and fats pattern, legume pattern and poultry, beef and mutton pattern. In multivariate analyses, the highest quintile of factor 2 (sweets and fats pattern) was significantly associated with weight gain after marriage in a comparison with the lowest quintile (β = 2·94; 95 % CI 0·75, 5·15; P = 0·01) in men. The highest quintile of factor 4 (poultry, beef and mutton pattern) was inversely associated with weight gain after marriage in a comparison with the lowest quintile (β = −1·21; 95 % CI −2·32, −0·11; P = 0·03).
Our results suggest that a pattern rich in sugar, oil and condiments may lead to greater marital weight gain in men; another pattern rich in poultry, beef and mutton may lead to less marital weight gain in both men and women.
The retina mainly contains ganglion, bipolar and photoreceptor cells which are distributed in the ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner nuclear layer (INL) and outer nuclear layer (ONL), respectively. Whether there is an age-related loss of these retinal cells remains not well understood. Cell density and the total number of cells were two commonly used measures to evaluate such age-related changes in most previous studies and provided controversial conclusions. The use of density measures as decisive data is problematic because the total area of the retina was expanded in aging, whereas the application of the total number of cells was limited for assessing ganglion cells. In this study, thus, we wanted to test whether there is an age-related cell loss in the GCL, INL and ONL and if so, whether such a loss is correlated to the convergence ratio of these cells. We used stereological procedures to quantify the total number of cells in the three retinal nuclear layers in six young and six aged Long-Evans rats. We found that during aging, the total volume of the retina remained unchanged, but the retina became thinner. There was no cell loss in each individual nuclear layer, and the ratio of the ONL to INL to GCL was preserved.
Uranium and its fission product Tc in aerobic environment will be in the forms of UO22+ and TcO4−. Reduced forms of tetravalent U and Tc are sparingly soluble. As determined by transmission electron microscopy, the reduction of uranyl acetate by immobilized cells of Desulfovibrio desuifuricans results in the production of black uraninite nanocrystals precipitated outside the cell. Some nanocrystals are associated with outer membranes of the cell as revealed from cross sections of these metabolic active sulfate-reducing bacteria. The nanocrystals have an average diameter of 5 nm and have anhedral shape. The reduction of Re7+ by cells of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans is fast in the media containing H2 electron donor, and slow in the media containing lactic acid. It is proposed that cytochrome in these cells has an important role in the reduction of uranyl and Re7+ that is a chemical analogue for one uranium fission product Tc7+ through transferring electron from molecular hydrogen or lactic acid to the oxyions of UO22+ and ReO4-.
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