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Drawing on the perspectives of cognitive linguistics and evolutionary biology, this contribution revisits the meaning of the Homeric formula ὑπόδρα ἰδών, literally ‘looking from below’, which is generally acknowledged as an indication of anger in epic poetry. A detailed examination of the phrase suggests that the facial expression it refers to was originally an inclination of the head while maintaining a fixed gaze ahead, resulting in a view from beneath lowered brows. It is argued that this position of the head serves as a functional preparation for a physical conflict, and consequently that the epic phrase ὑπόδρα ἰδών is not merely a metonym for anger but also a signal of the willingness to resort to violence if the conflict is not resolved by other means. This is also borne out by the contexts in which the formula occurs, since in most cases the speeches introduced with a ‘look from below’ are either followed by violent actions or cause their addressee to retract the offence.
A rare case of unique and previously unreported variant of transposition of great arteries with bilateral coni, ventricular septal defect, and triple-chambered left ventricle which led to an unexpected and accelerated post-natal cardiac anatomical and physiologic deviation from prenatal and immediate postnatal diagnosis altering the surgical management and patient outcome.
In the Bronze Age, warriors are probably the best-known social class. Evidence for warfare and other violent encounters links them to aggression and bloodshed that could be translated into social status. This made warriors a potential two-fold threat to the social cohesion of their communities: not only did they risk threatening the integrity of communities as agents of death but also they could challenge local authority and cause internal conflict. Here, the author presents evidence that suggests that internal conflict was a major concern for Nordic Bronze Age societies, in that warriors constituted an internal social challenge, and proposes that local communities may have mitigated this threat in rituals such as the sacrifice of weapons and the construction of social narratives through rock art.
This chapter addresses the role of verbal working memory (WM) in language production and comprehension, focusing on data from brain-damaged individuals, while also drawing on related findings from healthy adults. The perspective on WM is the domain-specific model which includes WM buffers that are specific to phonological and semantic information and separate from long-term knowledge in these domains (Marti et al., 2020). Thus, the focus is on the separable contributions of these two buffers to language processes
A terrestrial (lacustrine and fluvial) palaeoclimate record from Hoxne (Suffolk, UK) shows two temperate phases separated by a cold episode, correlated with MIS 11 subdivisions corresponding to isotopic events 11.3 (Hoxnian interglacial period), 11.24 (Stratum C cold interval), and 11.23 (warm interval with evidence of human presence). A robust, reproducible multiproxy consensus approach validates and combines quantitative palaeotemperature reconstructions from three invertebrate groups (beetles, chironomids, and ostracods) and plant indicator taxa with qualitative implications of molluscs and small vertebrates. Compared with the present, interglacial mean monthly air temperatures were similar or up to 4.0°C higher in summer, but similar or as much as 3.0°C lower in winter; the Stratum C cold interval, following prolonged nondeposition or erosion of the lake bed, experienced summers 2.5°C cooler and winters between 5°C and 10°C cooler than at present. Possible reworking of fossils into Stratum C from underlying interglacial assemblages is taken into account. Oxygen and carbon isotopes from ostracod shells indicate evaporatively enriched lake water during Stratum C deposition. Comparative evaluation shows that proxy-based palaeoclimate reconstruction methods are best tested against each other and, if validated, can be used to generate more refined and robust results through multiproxy consensus.
Concern over partisan resentment and hostility has increased across Western democracies. Despite growing attention to affective polarization, existing research fails to ask whether who serves in office affects mass-level interparty hostility. Drawing on scholarship on women’s behavior as elected representatives and citizens’ beliefs about women politicians, we posit the women MPs affective bonus hypothesis: all else being equal, partisans display warmer affect toward out-parties with higher proportions of women MPs. We evaluate this claim with an original dataset on women’s presence in 125 political parties in 20 Western democracies from 1996 to 2017 combined with survey data on partisans’ affective ratings of political opponents. We show that women’s representation is associated with lower levels of partisan hostility and that both men and women partisans react positively to out-party women MPs. Increasing women’s parliamentary presence could thus mitigate cross-party hostility.
The U.S. has the tools to end the HIV epidemic, but progress has stagnated. A major gap in U.S. efforts to address HIV is the under-utilization of medications that can virtually eliminate acquisition of the virus, known as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). This document proposes a financing and delivery system to unlock broad access to PrEP for those most vulnerable to HIV acquisition and bring an end to the HIV epidemic.
The interplay between convective, rotational and magnetic forces defines the dynamics within the electrically conducting regions of planets and stars. Yet their triadic effects are separated from one another in most studies, arguably due to the richness of each subset. In a single laboratory experiment, we apply a fixed heat flux, two different magnetic field strengths and one rotation rate, allowing us to chart a continuous path through Rayleigh–Bénard convection (RBC), two regimes of magnetoconvection, rotating convection and two regimes of rotating magnetoconvection, before finishing back at RBC. Dynamically rapid transitions are determined to exist between jump rope vortex states, thermoelectrically driven magnetoprecessional modes, mixed wall- and oscillatory-mode rotating convection and a novel magnetostrophic wall mode. Thus, our laboratory ‘pub crawl’ provides a coherent intercomparison of the broadly varying responses arising as a function of the magnetorotational forces imposed on a liquid-metal convection system.
The conclusion brings together the arguments and themes explored in the book, suggesting that appreciating capitalism’s triumph in World War II and its subsequent postwar progress, owes much to overcoming the challenges of the 1930s, a decade in which J.P. Morgan & Co. was at the heart of how American financial capitalism changed. The Morgan bank survived by discarding its partnership model and incorporating – a step that was emblematic of the choices forced on banks and businesses in the crisis decade of the 1930s.
The Introduction lays out the principal arguments of the book, namely that the history of J.P. Morgan & Co. in the 1930s informs the reader about how the leading American financial institution coped with and participated in, the challenges of a crisis decade, while simultaneously making a case for a broader understanding of capitalism’s survival.
War is simultaneously a destructive force and a powerful engine of political and social reform. In the early modern era, when colonization of the Americas stimulated the development of European overseas empires and the parallel process of state formation, warfare and imperial reform came to be tightly linked and closely related processes. From 1689 until 1815, warfare among the principal European colonizing powers became an endemic condition, and wars increasingly spilled over into American theaters. Warfare prompted imperial reforms; those reforms, in turn, prompted further conflicts. Between 1689 and 1815, imperial competition, overseas warfare, and reform unfolded in three long eras. In the first, which extended through the first half of the eighteenth century, European powers developed a sharpened sense of commercial and territorial rivalry in the Americas. Commercial rivalries heightened Spain’s efforts to defend its maritime interests, while territorial competition energized activities in borderlands regions and led to new patterns of alliance with Native American groups. In the second half of the eighteenth century, the second era of imperial conflict and reform unfolded.
This chapter introduces J.P. Morgan & Co. and its partners, surveying the history of the bank from its founding. Having done so, the chapter analyzes the businesses J.P. Morgan & Co. conducted under the leadership of Jack Morgan between 1913 and 1929. It argues that the firm was a conservative banking house, selective in its lending, catering to wealthy investors, a roster of major corporations, and foreign governments. Unlike many competitors, the bank issued only bonds before 1929, never floating a stock issue. On the eve of 1929 the bank was flourishing, conservative in its outlook, profitable in its business. The internal organization of the bank is discussed as a bridge to the partners, who ran the bank. Particular attention is paid to the experience, outlook, and views of the senior partners – Jack Morgan, Thomas W. Lamont, Russell C. Leffingwell, and George Whitney. Brief biographies of each illuminate their role in the bank, their world view – politically, economically, diplomatically – arguing that the partnership functioned as a collective helmed by Jack Morgan.
At the turn of the twentieth century, William Edward Burghardt Du Bois prophesied in “The Present Outlook for the Dark Races of Mankind” (1897), as well as in “Address to the Nations of the World” (1900), and, most notably, in The Souls of Black Folk (1903) that the color line – the relation of the “darker to the lighter races of men” – was the defining problem of the era. The onset of World War I gave these insights credence: the imperialist rivalry for the booty on offer from Africa not least drove the conflict, he argued in “The African Roots of War,” as Berlin sought its place in the sun and aimed to displace London in particular.
This chapter examines J.P. Morgan & Co., the Hoover administration, and the progress of the Depression in the United States between 1930 and 1933. It challenges the idea that banks were bystanders as the trauma of the Great Depression unfolded. Morgan activity took several forms. The first was acting selectively to aid private institutions in trouble in 1930–31. This policy ended with the last quarter of 1931 when heavy losses weakened the Morgan bank. While 1930–33 was devastating for the bank’s operations, two periods stand out as especially harmful: the last quarter of 1931 and the first quarter of 1933. The Morgan partners pushed the Hoover administration to adopt forceful measures to respond to deflation. Leffingwell and Parker Gilbert believed that deflation was imperilling capitalism’s existence. Attempts to shift Hoover were unsuccessful, in part because of the latter’s suspicion of the Morgan bank, in part because of the incoherence of the Morgan policy prescription. By the opening months of 1933 the Morgan partners had come to accept that suspension of the gold standard was necessary to save capitalism. Yet, the chapter suggests, by Roosevelt’s inauguration neither Hoover nor Roosevelt were listening to the partners.
The year 1931 is the focus of this chapter. One scholarly interpretation argues that the crises of 1931 spurred a deep recession into something more profound – the Great Depression. Examination of J.P. Morgan & Co. furnishes strength to this view. The Morgan bank, with a new partner, S. Parker Gilbert, the former Agent-General for Reparations, was an important actor as sequential crises manifested in the spring and summer of 1931. The chapter argues that the Morgan partners made a determined effort to keep the wartime victors together to meet these challenges. France was critical in the Morgan assessment. The partners strove to ensure that the Hoover administration enlisted French help to resolve international economic problems. At the same time, the ruction associated with Britain leaving gold (September 1931) generated tension among the Morgan partners. Contrary to what has been argued, these frictions did not change the internal dynamic of the partnership – Jack Morgan remained in control. Nevertheless, the chapter argues that the 1931 crises weakened the international order massively, in the process inflicting severe damage on J.P. Morgan & Co.