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Why do humans make music? Theories of the evolution of musicality have focused mainly on the value of music for specific adaptive contexts such as mate selection, parental care, coalition signaling, and group cohesion. Synthesizing and extending previous proposals, we argue that social bonding is an overarching function that unifies all of these theories, and that musicality enabled social bonding at larger scales than grooming and other bonding mechanisms available in ancestral primate societies. We combine cross-disciplinary evidence from archaeology, anthropology, biology, musicology, psychology, and neuroscience into a unified framework that accounts for the biological and cultural evolution of music. We argue that the evolution of musicality involves gene-culture coevolution, through which proto-musical behaviors that initially arose and spread as cultural inventions had feedback effects on biological evolution due to their impact on social bonding. We emphasize the deep links between production, perception, prediction, and social reward arising from repetition, synchronization, and harmonization of rhythms and pitches, and summarize empirical evidence for these links at the levels of brain networks, physiological mechanisms, and behaviors across cultures and across species. Finally, we address potential criticisms and make testable predictions for future research, including neurobiological bases of musicality and relationships between human music, language, animal song, and other domains. The music and social bonding (MSB) hypothesis provides the most comprehensive theory to date of the biological and cultural evolution of music.
Atom probe tomography (APT) is used to quantify atomic-scale elemental and isotopic compositional variations within a very small volume of material (typically <0.01 µm3). The small analytical volume ideally contains specific compositional or microstructural targets that can be placed within the context of the previously characterized surface in order to facilitate a correct interpretation of APT data. In this regard, careful targeting and preparation are paramount to ensure that the desired target, which is often smaller than 100 nm, is optimally located within the APT specimen. Needle-shaped specimens required for atom probe analysis are commonly prepared using a focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM). Here, we utilize FIB-SEM-based time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to illustrate a novel approach to targeting <100 nm compositional and isotopic variations that can be used for targeting regions of interest for subsequent lift-out and APT analysis. We present a new method for high-spatial resolution targeting of small features that involves using FIB-SEM-based electron deposition of platinum “buttons” prior to standard lift-out and sharpening procedures for atom probe specimen manufacture. In combination, FIB-ToF-SIMS analysis and application of the “button” method ensure that even the smallest APT targets can be successfully captured in extracted needles.
The Vulnerable fosa Cryptoprocta ferox is the largest native carnivore in Madagascar, fulfilling a unique ecological niche in the island's remaining forests. Negative interactions with humans threaten the long-term viability of most remaining fosa populations across Madagascar. Threats to the fosa include habitat loss and persecution by humans resulting from perceived predation on domestic animals. We used GPS collars to record space use and activity patterns of five fosas in Ankarafantsika National Park, Madagascar, during the dry seasons of 2016 and 2017. The results, with up to 2,110 recorded locations per individual, indicated fosas’ home ranges and movements were not limited to the forest, and all collared individuals used networks of habitat patches and corridors to navigate deforested areas. The fosas studied in Ankarafantsika National Park had significantly larger home ranges than those reported in previous studies in other protected areas. They were rarely found within village boundaries and appeared to avoid areas of human habitation, suggesting that during the study period livestock was not a significant component of the fosas’ diet in this Park. Our results suggest that fosas have some flexibility that enables them to adapt to living near deforested and human-dominated areas by altering their space-use patterns, but they are compensating by increasing their home range size.
The combination of sensitivity and large sky coverage of the ALFALFA HI survey has enabled the detection of difficult to observe low mass galaxies in large numbers, including dwarf galaxies overlooked in optical surveys. Three different, but connected, studies of dwarf galaxies from the ALFALFA survey are of particular interest: SHIELD (Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs), candidate gas-rich ultra-faint dwarf galaxies, and the (Almost) Dark population. SHIELD is a systematic multiwavelength study of all dwarf galaxies from ALFALFA with MHI < 107.2M⊙ and clear optical counterparts. Candidate gas-rich ultra-faint dwarf galaxies extend the dwarf galaxy population to even lower masses. These galaxies are identified as isolated HI clouds with no discernible optical counterpart but subsequent observations reveal that some are extremely faint, gas-dominated galaxies. Leo P, discovered first as an HI detection, and then found to be an actively star-forming galaxy, bridges the gap between these candidate galaxies and the SHIELD sample. The (Almost) Dark sample consists of galaxies whose optical counterparts are overlooked in current optical surveys but which are clear detections in ALFALFA. This sample includes field gas-rich ultra-diffuse galaxies. Coma P, with a peak surface brightness of only ∼26.4 mag arcsec−2 in g’, demonstrates the sort of extreme low surface brightness galaxy that can be discovered in an HI survey.
To assess ethnicity- and age-modified associations between mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and mortality in Nepalese children and whether sociodemographic factors explain these associations.
Secondary data analysis of children followed until 3 years of age. Estimated mortality hazard ratios (HR) for MUAC<11·5cm (recommended cut-off for identifying severe acute malnutrition among children ≥6 months old) compared with ≥11·5cm in younger (<6 months) and older children (≥6 months) of Pahadi and Madhesi ethnicity, adjusting for sex, socio-economic status (SES) and mother’s education using Cox proportional hazard models.
Sarlahi, Nepal (21 October 2001–2 February 2006).
Children (n 48 492) enrolled in the Nepal Nutrition Intervention Project, Sarlahi-4.
Among children aged ≥6 months, MUAC<11·5 cm was associated with increased risk of mortality in both Pahadis (HR=4·01; 95 % CI 1·42, 11·76) and Madhesis (HR=5·60; 95 % CI 3·87, 8·11) compared with those with MUAC≥11·5 cm, after adjusting for sex, SES and maternal literacy. Among children <6 months old, MUAC<11·5 cm was not associated with mortality in Pahadis with (HR=1·12; 95 % CI 0·72, 1·73) or without adjusting (HR=1·17; 95 % CI 0·75, 1·18) as compared with Madeshis (adjusted HR=1·76; 95 % CI 1·35, 2·28).
Among older children, MUAC<11·5 cm is associated with subsequent mortality in both ethnicities regardless of other characteristics. However, among children aged <6 months, it predicted mortality only among Madhesis, while sociodemographic factors were more strongly associated with mortality than MUAC<11·5cm among Pahadis.
We describe the design and performance of the Engineering Development Array, which is a low-frequency radio telescope comprising 256 dual-polarisation dipole antennas working as a phased array. The Engineering Development Array was conceived of, developed, and deployed in just 18 months via re-use of Square Kilometre Array precursor technology and expertise, specifically from the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. Using drift scans and a model for the sky brightness temperature at low frequencies, we have derived the Engineering Development Array’s receiver temperature as a function of frequency. The Engineering Development Array is shown to be sky-noise limited over most of the frequency range measured between 60 and 240 MHz. By using the Engineering Development Array in interferometric mode with the Murchison Widefield Array, we used calibrated visibilities to measure the absolute sensitivity of the array. The measured array sensitivity matches very well with a model based on the array layout and measured receiver temperature. The results demonstrate the practicality and feasibility of using Murchison Widefield Array-style precursor technology for Square Kilometre Array-scale stations. The modular architecture of the Engineering Development Array allows upgrades to the array to be rolled out in a staged approach. Future improvements to the Engineering Development Array include replacing the second stage beamformer with a fully digital system, and to transition to using RF-over-fibre for the signal output from first stage beamformers.
Reservoir age offsets are widely used to correct marine and speleothem radiocarbon age measurements for various calibration purposes. They also serve as a powerful tracer for carbon cycle dynamics. However, a clear terminology regarding reservoir age offsets is lacking, sometimes leading to miscalculations. This note seeks to provide consistent conventions for reporting reservoir 14C disequilibria useful to a broad range of environmental sciences. This contribution introduces the F14R and δ14R metrics to express the relative 14C disequilibrium between two contemporaneous reservoirs and the R metric as the associated reservoir age offset.
We present the results of an approximately 6 100 deg2 104–196 MHz radio sky survey performed with the Murchison Widefield Array during instrument commissioning between 2012 September and 2012 December: the MWACS. The data were taken as meridian drift scans with two different 32-antenna sub-arrays that were available during the commissioning period. The survey covers approximately 20.5 h < RA < 8.5 h, − 58° < Dec < −14°over three frequency bands centred on 119, 150 and 180 MHz, with image resolutions of 6–3 arcmin. The catalogue has 3 arcmin angular resolution and a typical noise level of 40 mJy beam− 1, with reduced sensitivity near the field boundaries and bright sources. We describe the data reduction strategy, based upon mosaicked snapshots, flux density calibration, and source-finding method. We present a catalogue of flux density and spectral index measurements for 14 110 sources, extracted from the mosaic, 1 247 of which are sub-components of complexes of sources.
High performance and cost effective multi-junction III-V solar cells are attractive for satellite applications. High performance multi-junction solar cells are based on a triple-junction design that employs an InGaP top-junction, a GaAs middle-junction, and a bottom-junction consisting of a 1.0 – 1.25 eV-material. The most attractive 1.0 – 1.25 eV-material is the lattice-matched dilute nitride such as InGaAsN(Sb). A record efficiency of 43.5% was achieved from multi-junction solar cells including dilute nitride materials . In addition, cost effective manufacturing of III-V triple-junction solar cells can be achieved by employing full-wafer epitaxial lift-off (ELO) technology, which enables multiple substrate re-usages. We employed time-resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) techniques to study carrier dynamics in both pre- and post-ELO processed GaAs double heterostructures (DHs) as well as in MOVPE-grown bulk dilute nitride layers lattice matched to GaAs substrates.
Pain associated with pediatric trauma is often under-assessed and under-treated in the out-of-hospital setting. Administering an opioid such as fentanyl via the intranasal route is a safe and efficacious alternative to traditional routes of analgesic delivery and could potentially improve pain management in pediatric trauma patients.
The study sought to examine the effect of introducing the mucosal atomization device (MAD) on analgesia administration as an alternative to intravenous fentanyl delivery in pediatric trauma patients. The hypothesis for the study is that the introduction of the MAD would increase the administration of fentanyl in pediatric trauma patients.
The research utilized a 2-group design (pre-MAD and post-MAD) to study 946 pediatric trauma patients (age <16) transported by a large, urban EMS agency to one of eight hospitals in Marion County, which is located in Indianapolis Indiana. Two emergency medicine physicians independently determined whether the patient met criteria for pain medication receipt and a third reviewer resolved any disagreements. A comparison of the rates of fentanyl administration in both groups was then conducted.
There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of fentanyl administration between the pre-MAD (30.4%) and post-MAD groups (37.8%) (P = .238). A subgroup analysis showed that age and mechanism of injury were stronger predictors of fentanyl administration.
Contrary to the hypothesis, the addition of the MAD device did not increase fentanyl administration rates in pediatric trauma patients. Future research is needed to address the barriers to analgesia administration in pediatric trauma patients.
O'DonnellDP, SchaferLC, StevensAC, WeinsteinE, MiramontiCM, KozakMA. Effect of Introducing the Mucosal Atomization Device for Fentanyl Use in Out-of-Hospital Pediatric Trauma Patients. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013;28(4):1-3.
Multi-junction III-V solar cells are based on a triple-junction design that employs a 1eV bottom junction grown on the GaAs substrate with a GaAs middle junction and a lattice-matched InGaP top junction. There are two possible approaches implementing the triple-junction design. The first approach is to utilize lattice-matched dilute nitride materials such as InGaAsN(Sb) and the second approach is to utilize lattice-mismatched InGaAs employing a metamorphic buffer layer (MBL). Both approaches have a potential to achieve high performance triple-junction solar cells. A record efficiency of 43.5% was achieved from multi-junction solar cells using the first approach  and the solar cells using the second approach yielded an efficiency of 41.1% . We studied carrier dynamics and defects in bulk 1eV InGaAsNSb materials and InGaAs layers with MBL grown by MOVPE for multi-junction solar cells.
Freedom for an individual is to have the will to act in accordance with what his intelligence leads him to recognise as being most useful to him. On seeing, or remembering, an object man feels a desire, that is to say, a sentiment associated with the memory of a pleasure given to him by that object, and he wants to savour that pleasure again and act in ways that can recapture that pleasure for him. These acts of will, when you analyse them, are nothing more than the feelings associated with remembering that those actions have [always] recaptured the remembered pleasure, and that any other feelings we remember, if we remember them clearly enough, had a similarly successful outcome. So far I see a being whom we can call active, but for whom freedom does not yet exist. But if, on seeing that same object, if by remembering less intensely the feelings from which an action is willed, he can stop wanting to take the action needed to attain the desired objective, if therefore he can stop wishing to attain that objective, then he is free. But he only has this ability because he is somehow motivated not to exert his will; either because of another desire or a sentiment of fear. Every being is free who is able to have two contradictory sentiments relating to the same action, and who can decide either to wish, or not wish, to take that action in complete awareness that his will is conforming to one of the two sentiments. He is free when experiencing the two sentiments and is conscious of doing so. The more the two sentiments are in play when he acts, and the more sharply aware of them he is, the more his freedom is complete. Freedom ceases when there is just one desire to which the will succumbs automatically. Freedom is more keenly felt than that, and has more intensity than a single desire. However, the will can be suspended precisely through fear of succumbing to that single impulse, of not being able to reflect on contradictory impulses.
From the word revolution we have formed the word revolutionary; and this word denotes, in general terms, everything to do with a revolution.
But the word has been made specifically for our revolution; for a revolution which, having occurred in one of those countries which has suffered longer than others under despotic rule, has created within a few years the only republic where freedom has ever been based on the complete equality of rights. Thus, the word revolutionary applies only to those revolutions whose purpose is freedom.
You can say that a man is a revolutionary, that is to say, that he is committed to the principles of the revolution, that he acts for it, that he is prepared to sacrii ce his life to support it.
A revolutionary spirit is a spirit capable of initiating and directing a revolution declared in the name of freedom.
A revolutionary law is a law intended to sustain the revolution and accelerate or manage its progress.
A revolutionary measure is a measure which can ensure the success of the revolution.
So what this all means is that these laws, these measures, are not among those suited to a peaceful society; their characteristic feature is that they are only appropriate in times of revolution, but useless and unjust in other times.