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An experimental study to investigate the effect of an external magnetic field on the propagation of ion-acoustic waves (IAWs) has been carried out in hydrogen plasma containing two-temperature electrons and dust grains. It is a first step in understanding the propagation properties of IAWs in such an environment. A low-pressure hot cathode discharge method is chosen for plasma production. The desired two-electron groups with distinct temperatures are achieved by inserting two magnetic cages with a cusp-shaped magnetic field of different surface field strengths in the same chamber. The dust grains are dropped into the plasma with the help of a dust dropper, which gain negative charges by interacting with the plasma. The IAWs are excited with the help of a mesh grid inserted into the plasma. A planar Langmuir probe is used as a detector to detect the IAWs. The time-of-flight technique has been applied to measure the phase velocity of the IAWs. The results suggest that in the presence of a magnetic field, the phase velocity of IAWs increases, whereas introducing the dust particles leads to the lower phase velocity. The magnetic field is believed to have a significant effect on the wave damping. This study will aid in utilising IAWs as a diagnostic tool to estimate plasma parameters in the presence of an external magnetic field.
Rice cultivation in hills is challenged by sub-optimum weather conditions, low soil fertility, low temperature and moisture stress which impedes in attaining high productivity. To address this, four studies were carried out at ICAR Sikkim Centre, Gangtok, India to evaluate relative performance of local organic cultivars and conventionally bred varieties under an organic farming system. Conventionally bred varieties yielded significantly higher (45%) than local cultivars under recommended timely sown conditions whereas local cultivars showed superiority in grain yield under late sown conditions coinciding with low temperature during flowering to grain filling. Genotypes did not show significant interaction when organic or conventional production conditions were compared. For grain yield, there was a significant variation for variety × year interaction under organic system. Local organic cultivars had reduced grain yield and associated traits under rainfed upland conditions. Panicles per unit area had a significant positive association with grain yield in all production environments (organic lowland, organic upland, conventional lowland and conventional upland). Overall, the study indicates using local cultivars as donors for specific stress tolerance traits in background of high yielding genotypes to enhance rice yields sustainably under organic system in hills.
Home confinement was implemented worldwide as a response to the covid-19 pandemic. Therefore, almost all school-age children started to receive home-schooling from the beginning of 2020, it was necessary due to the length of the lockdowns. Being quarantined at home imposed an increase in psychological burden and the situation was aggravated because of school closure, lack of outdoor activity, aberrant dietary and sleeping habits, disrupting children’s usual lifestyle and promoting monotony, distress, impatience, annoyance, and varied neuropsychiatric manifestations.
This study aims to understand the correlation between quarantine and psychosocial effects on school-age children.
An integrative literature review was developed in 3 steps: Development of the research question, search for scientific articles in the Pubmed database, and critical analysis of included articles. The search was conducted in September 2022, and articles between 2019 and 2022 were selected, for a total of 510 articles, of which 28 were used.
The confinement caused by the coronavirus imposed an immediate and lingering psychosocial impact on children due to drastic changes in their physical activity, lifestyle, and mental excursions. Even a short-term shutdown of educational institutions and home confinement is indeed troublesome and anticipated to have detrimental effects on children’s physical and mental health and shatter the sense of normalcy that schools used to provide. Another important factor to note is that some children`s had to be detached from their parents due to several factors, this juncture caused ever-lasting psychiatric consequences including post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, psychosis, depression, delinquency, and even suicidal tendency.
Thus, frontline physicians must be aware of the psychosocial needs of the quarantined children. Hospital authorities need to make arrangements for children to communicate with parents via audiovisual devices. Government should invest in operational strategies to provide mental healthcare for the quarantined children.
Delusion of pregnancy (DP) is a heterogeneous symptom that can emerge from different neuropsychiatric syndromes, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, but also major neurocognitive disorder (MND). According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manuel of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5), DP is an unspecified type of delusional disorder present in the spectrum of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders This type of delusion, which can affect both sexes, may have numerous determinants to its genesis and may last decades to resolve.
We aim to present a case and review of DP and its association with dementia/MND, hyperprolactinemia and galactorrhea.
Non-systematic literature review and case report, based on the search for titles and/or abstracts of articles that address both DP and dementia, and DP and hyperprolactinemia/galactorrhea, including articles published between 2010 and 2022 in English.
A 71-year-old female patient was admitted to the Psychiatric unit due to a change in usual behavior in the past 6 months: insomnia, anterograde amnesia, delusions of ruin and persecutory and, for the past month, the belief of being pregnant with twins, supported by the galactorrhea she presented after starting Risperidone prescribed by her Family Doctor weeks prior. Shortly after admission, the patient also revealed hearing her fetuses’ voices. DP vanished briefly after admission due to the combination between the change of Risperidone to Aripiprazole (a prolactin-sparing antipsychotic) and psychotherapy to help deconstruct the patient’s cognitive misinterpretations. She was furthermore diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease and Memantine was started.
This patient, according to Bera et al. (Bera et.al. Indian J Psychol Med 2015;37:131-7) is part of the 28.6% of patients more than 50 years of age who present DP, 6.0% that report having twins and 8.3% that report hearing voices of their fetuses. No data was found correlating DP and MND directly. Hyperprolactinemia and its consequent galactorrhea represent one of the many explanations behind DP, especially in suggestible demented patients that easily misinterpret somatic sensations, in which delusional thoughts are frequent and contribute to the morbidity.
Despite several treatment strategies for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) exist, including the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), new therapeutic options are being introduced. Text4Support is a form of cognitive behavior therapy that allows patients with depression to receive daily supportive text messages that seek to correct or alter negative thought patterns through positive reinforcement. Text4Support is deemed a useful augmentation treatment strategy for patients with TRD. It is however currently unknown if adding the Text4Support intervention will enhance patients with TRD’s response to rTMS treatments
This study aims to assess the initial comparative clinical effectiveness of rTMS when used with and without the Text4Support program as an innovative patient-centered intervention for the management of participants diagnosed with TRD.
This study is a multicentered prospective, parallel-design, two-arm, rater-blinded randomized controlled pilot trial. In total, 200 participants diagnosed with TRD will be randomized to one of two treatment arms (rTMS alone and rTMS with Text4Support). Participants in each arm will be made to complete evaluation measures at baseline, 1,3, and 6 months. The primary outcome measure will be the mean change to scores on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Patient service utilization data and clinician-rated measures will also be used to gauge patient progress. Patient data will be analyzed with descriptive statistics, repeated measures, and correlational analyses.
The result of the study is expected to be available 18 months after the start of recruitment. We hypothesize that participants enrolled in the rTMS plus Text4Support intervention will achieve superior outcomes compared with participants enrolled in the rTMS treatment alone.
The concomitant application of the combination of these two treatment techniques has not been investigated previously. Therefore, we hope that this project will provide a concrete base of data to evaluate the practical application and efficacy of using a novel combination of these two treatment modalities.
Preeclampsia (PE) affects up to five times more women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus (PDM) than women without it. The present study aimed to identify the effect of the DASH diet on PE incidence (primary outcome) and blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin (GH), serum lipids, glutathione peroxidase (GP), C-reactive protein (CRP – secondary outcomes) in pregnant with PDM. This randomised, controlled, single-blind trial studied sixty-eight pregnant women with PDM throughout prenatal care until delivery (18 weeks) at a public maternity hospital, Brazil. The standard diet group (SDG) received a diet containing 45–65 % carbohydrates, 15–20 % protein and 25–30 % lipids. The DASH diet group (DDG) received the adapted DASH diet with a similar macronutrient distribution, but with a higher concentration of fibres, unsaturated fats, calcium, magnesium and potassium as well as lower saturated fat. Student's t, Mann–Whitney U and the Chi-square tests were used to compare outcomes. PE incidence was 22⋅9 % in the SDG and 12⋅1 % in the DDG (P = 0⋅25). GP levels significantly increased in the DDG (intra-group analysis; mean difference = 1588 [CI 181, 2994], P = 0⋅03) and tended to be different from the variation in the SDG (mean difference = −29⋅5 [CI −1305; 1⋅365]; v. DDG: 1588 [CI 181; 2994], P = 0⋅09). GH levels decreased significantly and similarly between groups (SDG: −0⋅61 [CI −0⋅26, −0⋅96], P = 0⋅00) v. DDG: −1⋅1 [CI −0⋅57, −1⋅62], P = 0⋅00). There was no evidence of a difference in PE incidence at the end of the intervention between the two diets. The DASH diet seems to favour PE-related biochemical markers.
Background: Saccade and pupil responses are potential neurodegenerative disease biomarkers due to overlap between oculomotor circuitry and disease-affected areas. Instruction-based tasks have previously been examined as biomarker sources, but are arduous for patients with limited cognitive abilities; additionally, few studies have evaluated multiple neurodegenerative pathologies concurrently. Methods: The Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative recruited individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal dementia, progressive supranuclear palsy, or Parkinson’s disease (PD). Patients (n=274, age 40-86) and healthy controls (n=101, age 55-86) viewed 10 minutes of frequently changing video clips without instruction while their eyes were tracked. We evaluated differences in saccade and pupil parameters (e.g. saccade frequency and amplitude, pupil size, responses to clip changes) between groups. Results: Preliminary data indicates low-level behavioural alterations in multiple disease cohorts: increased centre bias, lower overall saccade rate and reduced saccade amplitude. After clip changes, patient groups generally demonstrated lower saccade rate but higher microsaccade rate following clip change to varying degrees. Additionally, pupil responses were blunted (AD, MCI, ALS) or exaggerated (PD). Conclusions: This task may generate behavioural biomarkers even in cognitively impaired populations. Future work should explore the possible effects of factors such as medication and disease stage.
In this work, we explore the dynamical implications of a spectral sequence analysis of a filtered chain complex associated to a non-singular Morse–Smale (NMS) flow
on a closed orientable
with no heteroclinic trajectories connecting saddle periodic orbits. We introduce the novel concepts of cancellations and reductions of pairs of periodic orbits based on Franks’ morsification and Smale’s cancellation theorems. The main goal is to establish an algebraic-dynamical correspondence between the unfolding of this spectral sequence associated to
and a family of flows obtained by cancelling and reducing pairs of periodic orbits of
. This correspondence is achieved through a spectral sequence sweeping algorithm (SSSA), which determines the order in which these cancellations and reductions of periodic orbits occur, producing a family of NMS flows that reaches a core flow when the spectral sequence converges.
It is unknown how much variation in adult mental health problems is associated with differences between societal/cultural groups, over and above differences between individuals.
To test these relative contributions, a consortium of indigenous researchers collected Adult Self-Report (ASR) ratings from 16 906 18- to 59-year-olds in 28 societies that represented seven culture clusters identified in the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavioral Effectiveness study (e.g. Confucian, Anglo). The ASR is scored on 17 problem scales, plus a personal strengths scale. Hierarchical linear modeling estimated variance accounted for by individual differences (including measurement error), society, and culture cluster. Multi-level analyses of covariance tested age and gender effects.
Across the 17 problem scales, the variance accounted for by individual differences ranged from 80.3% for DSM-oriented anxiety problems to 95.2% for DSM-oriented avoidant personality (mean = 90.7%); by society: 3.2% for DSM-oriented somatic problems to 8.0% for DSM-oriented anxiety problems (mean = 6.3%); and by culture cluster: 0.0% for DSM-oriented avoidant personality to 11.6% for DSM-oriented anxiety problems (mean = 3.0%). For strengths, individual differences accounted for 80.8% of variance, societal differences 10.5%, and cultural differences 8.7%. Age and gender had very small effects.
Overall, adults' self-ratings of mental health problems and strengths were associated much more with individual differences than societal/cultural differences, although this varied across scales. These findings support cross-cultural use of standardized measures to assess mental health problems, but urge caution in assessment of personal strengths.
The experiments reported in this research paper address the effects of replacing ground corn (GC) with full-fat corn germ (FFCG) on nutrient intake and digestibility, nitrogen utilization efficiency, performance, and predicted methane production in dairy cows fed cactus cladodes and sugarcane. We hypothesized that the inclusion of FFCG in the diet would not alter the performance of lactating cows but would reduce the predicted methane production in vivo. Ten multiparous Holstein cows at 90 ± 10 d of lactation and yielding 24.2 ± 3.5 kg milk/d were assigned to dietary treatments consisting of different levels of replacement of GC by FFCG (0; 25; 50; 75 and 100% of diet dry matter) in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Methane production was predicted using an automated gas in vitro production system. Except for ether extract intake, which increased, the intake of all nutrients decreased linearly with the replacement of GC by FFCG. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and neutral detergent fiber reduced, whereas the digestibility of ether extract increased linearly with FFCG. There were no changes in the digestibility of crude protein. The nitrogen intake and daily excretion in urine and feces decreased, while nitrogen use efficiency increased linearly. There was no significant effect of diets on nitrogen balance or microbial protein synthesis and efficiency. The yield of protein, lactose and total solids in milk showed a quadratic behavior. On the other hand, milk fat yield and energy-corrected milk yield decreased linearly with the replacement of GC by FFCG. No effect on pH or ammonia nitrogen was observed. The production of methane (CH4, g/kg DM) and total CH4 (g/d), and CH4 intensity decreased linearly with the replacement of GC by FFCG. In conclusion, FFCG has been shown to be an effective source of fat to reduce methane production in dairy cows, partially supporting our initial hypothesis. However, as it decreases milk fat production, it is not recommended to replace more than 50% of GC by FFCG for lactating cows fed cactus cladodes and sugarcane.
Although morphological plasticity has been widely known in various cactus genera, few studies have investigated the origin and molecular relationship between morphological variants from cacti. Morphological variants are relevant specimens because atypical, exotic and generally unique forms are preferred by cactus traders and collectors. The current study investigates the molecular relationship between the tortuosus and monstruosus ornamental variants of Cereus peruvianus used in landscapes. Polymorphisms in loci of simple-sequence repeats in DNA were used as molecular markers. The variants tortuosus and monstruosus, and plants with typically columnar and erect shoots cultivated in southern Brazil were retrieved from public parks and home gardens. High polymorphism, an indicative of vegetative propagation, and a moderate genetic divergence were detected at the molecular level in monstruosus and tortuosus plants. Artificial selection and vegetative propagation of the ornamental variants of Cereus may be inducing a moderate genetic divergence and formation of two heterologous groups with conservative genetic diversity. Polymorphism in Cereus variants revealed groups with contrasting genes among the variants tortuosus and monstruosus which may be useful for breeding to generate new and different new variants.
Chagas disease (CD) is a neglected tropical disease caused by the intracellular protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi that remains a serious public health issue affecting more than 6 million people worldwide. The available treatment includes 2 nitro derivatives, benznidazole (BZ) and nifurtimox, that lack in efficacy in the later chronic phase and when administered against the several naturally resistant parasite strains and present several side-effects, demanding new therapeutic options. One strategy is based on repurposing by testing drugs already used for other illness that may share similar targets. In this context, our previous data on imatinib (IMB) and derivatives motivated the screening of 8 new IMB analogues. Our findings showed that all except 1 were active against bloodstream trypomastigotes reaching drug concentration capable of inducing a 50% of parasite lysis (EC50) values < 12 μm after 2 h while BZ was inactive. After 24 h, all derivatives were more potent than BZ, exhibiting EC50 values 1.5–5.5 times lower. Against intracellular forms, 7 out of 8 derivatives presented high activity, with EC50 values ≤ BZ. LS2/89 stood out as one of the most promising, reaching EC90 values of 1.68 and 4.9 μm on intracellular and trypomastigote forms, respectively, with the best selectivity index (>60) towards the proliferative forms. Physicochemical parameters as well as the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity properties were predicted to be acceptable and with good chance of a favourable oral bioavailability. The promising results motivate further studies such as in vivo and combinatory assays aiming to contribute for a novel safer and effective therapy for CD.
Captive breeding of peccaries is on the increase in neotropical countries. Few studies, however, have reported behavioural responses of wild animals under farmed conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of space allowance on the occurrence of social behaviour patterns on farmed collared peccary (Pecari tajacu). We observed three herds of collared peccaries each containing eight acquainted individuals. Using a 3 * 3 Latin square design, herds were allocated, in a random order, to one of the three experimental enclosures, each with a different size: 375, 750 and 1,500 m2 of total available area, each with three wooden shelters. We recorded all the occurrences of selected positive and agonistic behavioural patterns that occurred 90 min before and during feeding. Enclosure size had a significant effect on agonistic patterns of peccaries during feeding, in that more agonistic behaviour was observed in smaller spaces. We also found that shelter usage increased as space decreased. Differing space allowances, however, did not have an effect on the occurrence of positive interactions that were more frequent before compared to during feeding. We concluded that enclosure size had an effect on the expression of agonistic behaviours and the use of shelters by collared peccaries. Thus, animal welfare can be improved by adopting at least 187.5 m2 per peccary. In addition, our study also confirmed the importance of shelter areas in collared peccary husbandry.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of growth-regulating insecticides of synthetic (e.g., Certero 480 SC, Intrepid 240 SC, Match EC and Mimic 240 SC) and botanical origins (e.g., Azamax 1.2 EC, Agroneem 850 EC, Azact 2.4 EC and Fitoneem 850 EC) on the biological parameters and fertility life table of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) under laboratory conditions. Larvae were fed insecticides that were incorporated into artificial diets. To develop the fertility life table, the following biological parameters were evaluated: survival at 7 days after infestation (d.a.i) and survivorship at adult eclosion, duration of the neonate-to-adult eclosion period, larval and pupal weights and total fecundity (number of total eggs per female). The results indicated that S. frugiperda neonates surviving LC25 or LC50 concentrations of the evaluated insecticides showed longer larval and egg-to-adult periods, lower larval and pupal weights and reduced fecundity, when compared to the control treatment. Larvae exposed to Azamax at LC25 or LC50 concentrations showed the greatest increase in generation duration (75 d). In addition, S. frugiperda adults emerged from pupae when larvae reared on an artificial diet containing growth regulating insecticides of synthetic and botanical origins produced fewer females per female per generation (Ro). As well as, lower rates of natural population increase per day (rm) compared to insects fed the control diet. Our findings indicated that, neem-derived products and growth-regulating insecticides of synthetic origin may be employed within integrated management strategies that aim to keep populations of S. frugiperda below levels that cause economic damage. Similarly, they offer alternatives for insecticide resistance management programs.
We consider steady, fully-developed flows of deformable, inelastic grains driven by gravity between identical bumpy walls. Using constitutive relations from extended kinetic theory (EKT) for the erodible bed near the centreline and the collisional flow between the surfaces of the bed and the walls, we calculate the fields of mean velocity, fluctuation velocity and solid volume fraction across the chute. We consider both situations in which the solid volume fraction at and near the centreline is high enough to form a bed and when it is not. We compare results predicted by EKT with recent discrete element simulations results, and obtain very good agreement.
This study aimed to audit middle-ear surgical procedures, provide a record of Australian experiences and allow comparisons with other published audits.
A retrospective continuous series audit was conducted on 274 patients who underwent tympanoplasty, mastoidectomy and stapedotomy surgery at Westmead Hospital, Sydney. All consecutive surgical procedures, performed by multiple operators at various stages of training but under the care of a single surgeon, were included.
Graft uptake was 86.9 per cent in tympanoplasty. Well healed cavities were seen in 72 per cent of mastoidectomies. Although 42 per cent of the patients had one or more co-morbidities, this did not influence the outcome. Hearing improvement was dramatic in stapedotomy and minimally changed in mastoidectomy. Post-operative complications were minimal.
All forms of middle-ear surgery were effective in achieving their surgical goals. Aural discharge and inflammatory diseases were well controlled with tympanoplasty and mastoid surgery.
Poor academic performance has been linked to factors such as sleep, health, illicit drug use, physical fighting, social media use, cyber bullying, physical activity, homelessness, times spent in video games and television. It is difficult to get a sense of the interplay between and relative importance of different behaviours/factors on academic performance as only limited research has been aimed at quantifying these factors.
To evaluate association of school performance and variables in five categories of the YRBSS: physical fighting, diet/lifestyle, electronic device usage, concurrent substance use, and violence/self-harm.
The CDC Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) data from 1991-2019 was used in study. Respondents were grouped by good and poor school performance and variables related to nutrition/lifestyle, electronic device use, concurrent substance use, mood/violence/self-harm were analyzed using chi-square
A total of 41,235 student respondents.Nutrition/Lifestyle, electronic device use, concurrent substance use, mood/violence/self-harm are found to be significantly correlated with school performance.
Poor Performance n(%)
Good Performance n(%)
Concurrent Substance Use
Felt sad or hopeless
In national data, we found school performance is affected by nutrition, lifestyle, substance use, mood and exposure to surrounding violence, and self-harm. Further studies should be planned to evaluate benefits from the risk stratification to reduce this burden amongst US adolescents.
Recently, several antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotics have been suggested to have favorable effects in the treatment of COVID-19.
The aim of this systematic review was to collect evidence from preclinical and clinical studies concerning the scientific evidence for the repurposing of psychotropic drugs in COVID-19 treatment.
Two independent authors searched PubMed-MEDLINE, Scopus, PsycInfo, Clinical Trial Registration Site US (ClinicalTrials.gov) databases, and reviewed the reference lists of articles for eligible articles published up to May 31st, 2021. All preclinical and clinical studies on the effect of any psychotropic drug on Sars-CoV-2 or patients with COVID-19 were included. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used for the quality assessment of clinical studies. This systematic review adheres to the PRISMA guidelines.
22 studies were included in the synthesis: 9 clinical studies, 9 preclinical studies, and 4 computational studies. The use of antidepressants, both SSRI and non-SSRI, was associated with a reduced risk of severe complications of COVID-19. Several antipsychotics showed an increased risk for both Sars-CoV-2 infection and severe complications during COVID-19.
The current evidence supports a potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 role for several antidepressants, while the evidence on mood stabilizers or antipsychotics remains controversial. Drug repurposing proved highly successful in response to the current pandemic and psychotropic medications are widely used in clinical practice with well-known safety and tolerability profiles, showing antiviral, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory properties, being perfect candidates for possible treatment of COVID-19. Further research will deliver optimized and specific therapeutic tools that will increase the preparedness of health systems for possible future epidemics.
Depression is one of the most frequent mental health problems in older populations.1 To the best of our knowledge, the prevalence of depressive symptomatology (DS) among centenarians in Switzerland is unknown. Furthermore, the COVID-19 pandemic may have had a negative impact. As part of the study SWISS1002, we intend to provide key information on centenarians’ levels of DS.
To describe the DS of Switzerland’s centenarians during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Randomly selected centenarians from across Switzerland and their proxy relatives were invited to participate. Data are collected via telephone. The questionnaire includes the assessment of DS via the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)– 5 items.3 Preliminary data were analysed using descriptive statistics.
Telephone interviews were completed with 51 centenarians, and for 19 of them, proxy relatives also answered. The MAge of the centenarians was 101.41 (1.47) years, 34 (66.67%) were female and 27 (52.94%) lived at home. The mean score of the GDS–5 was 1.32 (SD=1.49). Considering a cut-off ≥2, 18 (36%) centenarians were screened positive for possible depression. Descriptive statistics indicated effects of gender (men: M=1.41, SD=1.46; women: M=1.27, SD=1.53) and living situation (private: M=1.07, SD=1.36; institution: M=1.61, SD=1.62). Centenarians’ and proxy reports were significantly related (ρ=0.56; p<.05).
Clinically relevant DS are highly prevalent among centenarians during the COVID-19 pandemic (36%), which is consistent with a recent study4 reporting a prevalence of 32% in a sample of younger older adults (MAge: 77.6, SD=6.9). To conclude, DS in centenarians should be screened systematically, especially in this time of unprecedented health crisis.