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Fibricola and Neodiplostomum are diplostomid genera with very similar morphology that are currently separated based on their definitive hosts. Fibricola spp. are normally found in mammals, while Neodiplostomum spp. typically parasitize birds. Previously, no DNA sequence data was available for any member of Fibricola. We generated nuclear ribosomal and mtDNA sequences of Fibricola cratera (type-species), Fibricola lucidum and 6 species of Neodiplostomum. DNA sequences were used to examine phylogenetic interrelationships among Fibricola and Neodiplostomum and re-evaluate their systematics. Molecular phylogenies and morphological study suggest that Fibricola should be considered a junior synonym of Neodiplostomum. Therefore, we synonymize the two genera and transfer all members of Fibricola into Neodiplostomum. Specimens morphologically identified as Neodiplostomum cratera belonged to 3 distinct phylogenetic clades based on mitochondrial data. One of those clades also included sequences of specimens identified morphologically as Neodiplostomum lucidum. Further study is necessary to resolve the situation regarding the morphology of N. cratera. Our results demonstrated that some DNA sequences of N. americanum available in GenBank originate from misidentified Neodiplostomum banghami. Molecular phylogentic data revealed at least 2 independent host-switching events between avian and mammalian hosts in the evolutionary history of Neodiplostomum; however, the directionality of these host-switching events remains unclear.
This prospective study involved a longitudinal analysis of the progression of hearing thresholds in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta.
Audiometric results from 36 osteogenesis imperfecta patients (age range, 6–79 years) were compared between two test times with an average interval of 4 years. Audiometric evaluation included acoustic admittance measurements, acoustic stapedial reflex measurements, pure tone audiometry and otoacoustic emissions testing.
Air conduction pure tone average, corrected for sex and age, and bone conduction pure tone average increased significantly in the study population (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). In 14.3 per cent of the evaluated ears, an alteration in type and/or severity of hearing loss was observed.
After an average time interval of four years, significant changes in hearing status occurred in a population of osteogenesis imperfecta patients. These findings highlight the importance of regular audiological follow up in osteogenesis imperfecta patients, including audiometry, and measurements of acoustic admittance, acoustic stapedial reflexes and otoacoustic emissions.
Background: When measuring young Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL), parent-proxy reports are heavily relied on. Therefore, it is imperative that the relationship between parent-proxy and child self-report HRQoL is understood. This study examined the level of agreement between children and their parent-proxy rating of the child’s HRQoL. Methods: We used FOR-DMD clinical trial baseline data. HRQoL, measured using the PedsQL inventory, was reported by 178 parent and child (ages 4 to 7 years) dyads. Intracorrelation coefficients (ICC) measured absolute agreement while paired t-tests determined differences in the average HRQoL ratings between groups. Results: The level of agreement between child and parent-proxy ratings of HRQoL was poor for the generic PedsQL scale (ICC: 0.29) and its subscales; and, similarly low for the neuromuscular disease module (ICC:0.16). On average, parents rated their child’s HRQoL as poorer than the children rated themselves in all scales except for psychosocial and school functioning. Conclusions: Child and parent-proxy HRQoL ratings are discordant in this study sample, as occurs in other chronic pediatric diseases. This should be taken into account when interpreting clinical and research HRQoL findings in this population. Future studies should examine reasons for parents’ perception of poorer HRQoL than that reported by their children.
There is a need to design intensive cropping systems that can reap multiple benefits from annual forages including animal feed, soil fertility and weed control. Considering pea/oat (Pisum sativum cv. 40–10/Avena sativa cv. Legget) as a standard green manure, this study investigated the productivity, weed competitiveness, utilization and nitrogen (N) benefit from grazed and ungrazed green manures to spring wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Waskada) and fall rye (Secale cereale cv. Hazlet). A set of 3-year experiments was carried out in Carman, Manitoba, Canada in 2009, and was repeated in 2010 and 2011. Green manures were grazed by 2–3 ewes and 2–5 lambs for 24 h (1111–1667 sheep days per ha). Averaged over experiments pea/oat mix, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa L.) and sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis cv. Norgold) above-ground dry matter (DM) production were 5036, 5032 and 4064 kg ha−1, respectively. Lentil (Lens culinaris cv. Indianhead), a mixture of seven species and soybean (Glycine max cv. Prudence) produced the least amount of DM over 3 years; 3589, 3551, 3174 kg ha−1, respectively. Pea/oat and hairy vetch were the most weed-competitive species and, averaged over 3 years, contained less than 15% weed DM. Utilization of green manures by grazing animals varied little among species across years and ranged from 28 to 86% for individual species and years. When combined across experiments grazing increased N availability to the wheat crop. The grazing effect was significant for wheat DM production, N uptake and grain N, but not significant for yield across experiments. Averaged over 3 years, wheat took up 107 kg N ha−1 from grazed plots versus 98 kg N ha−1 from ungrazed plots. A significant species×management interaction for total (wheat+fall rye) N uptake in 2009 indicated that increasing the proportion of legumes in the green manure increased N benefit from grazing. Fall rye productivity was not affected by grazing. We recommend pea/oat and hairy vetch as two green manure species to enhance the overall system performance to achieve high level of DM production, good weed competition, utilization by sheep and provision of N benefit to the following wheat and fall rye crops.
The motivation for our research was to study the correlation between the chirality of filaments and the handedness (S- or Z-shape) of sigmoids. It was assumed that sigmoids would mostly coincide with filaments and that the S-shaped sigmoids would correlate well with filaments of sinistral chirality, which we found that to be at best a very weak relation. Since we had a full solar cycle of filament metadata at hand it was easy to verify the supposedly known hemispheric preference of filament chirality. We discovered that the hemispheric chirality rule was confirmed for the epoch where a thorough manual study had been performed, but that at other phases of the solar cycle the rule seems to disappear and sometimes even reverse.
Nanoporous organosilicate films have been recently prepared using tetraalkylammonium cations in acid and basic media, outperforming other materials. Resulting films using basic medium were called zeolite-inspired low-k dielectrics. Here we study the dependence of the properties of these films on the used silica sources: methyltrimethoxy silane (MTMS) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). A set of experiments varying the MTMS:TEOS ratio were prepared in acid medium and characterized. A textural, physico-chemical, mechanical, and electrical characterization of this series of experiments is presented.
Although many studies have focused on post-myocardial infarction (MI) depression, there is limited information about the evolution and determinants of depressive symptoms in the first year post-MI. Therefore we examined (1) the course of depressive symptoms during the first year post-MI and (2) the predictors of these symptom trajectories.
To assess depressive symptoms, 287 patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory during hospitalization for MI, and 2, and 12 months post-MI. Personality was assessed with the Type-D scale during hospitalization. We used latent class analysis to examine the evolution of depressive symptoms over a 1-year period and multinomial logit regression analyses to examine predictors of these symptom trajectories.
The course of depressive symptoms was stable during the first year post-MI. Four groups were identified and classified as non-depressed [40%, intercept (IC) 2.52], mildly depressed (42%, IC 6.91), moderately depressed (14%, IC 13.73) or severely depressed (4%, IC 24.54). In multivariate analysis, cardiac history (log ORsevere 2.93, p=0.02; log ORmoderate 1.81, p=0.02; log ORmild 1.46, p=0.01), history of depression (log ORsevere 4.40, p<0.001; log ORmoderate 1.97, p=0.03) and Type-D personality (log ORsevere 4.22, p<0.001; log ORmoderate=4.17, p<0.001; log ORmild 1.66, p=0.02) were the most prominent risk factors for persistence of depressive symptoms during the first year post-MI.
Symptoms of depression tend to persist during the first year post-MI. Cardiac history, prior depression and Type-D personality were identified as independent risk factors for persistence of depressive symptoms. The results of this study strongly argue for routine psychological screening during hospitalization for acute MI in order to identify patients who are at risk for chronicity of depressive symptoms and its deleterious effects on prognosis.
The mineral conichalcite from the western part of Bagdad mine, Bagdad, Eureka District, Yavapai County, Arizona, USA has been characterized by electronic, near-infrared (NIR), Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show that the mineral consists of bundles of fibres. Calculations based on the results of the energy dispersive X-ray analyses on a stoichiometric basis show the substitution of arsenate by 12 wt.% of phosphate in the mineral. Raman and IR bands are assigned in terms of the fundamental modes of AsO43− and PO43− molecules and are related to the mineral structure. Near-IR reflectance spectroscopy shows the presence of adsorbed water and hydroxyl units in the mineral. The Cu(II) coordination polyhedron in conichalcite can have at best pseudo-tetragonal geometry. The crystal field and tetragonal field parameters of the Cu(II) complex were calculated and found to agree well with the values reported for known tetragonal distortion octahedral complexes.