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The effects of macronutrient intake on obesity are controversial. This research aims to investigate the associations between macronutrient intake and new-onset overweight/obesity. The relationship between the consumption of carbohydrate and total fat and obesity was assessed by the multivariable Cox model in this 11-year cohort, which included 6612 adults (3291 men and 3321 women) who were free of overweight and obesity at baseline. The dietary intake was recorded using a 24-h recall method for three consecutive days. Moreover, substitution models were developed to distinguish the effects of macronutrient composition alteration from energy intake modification. During 7·5 person years (interquartile range 4·3, 10·8) of follow-up, 1807 participants became overweight or obese. After adjusting for risk factors, the hazard ratio (HR) of overweight/obesity in extreme quintiles of fat was 1·48 (quintile 5 v. quintile 1, 95 % CI 1·16, 1·89; Ptrend = 0·02) in women. Additionally, replacing 5 % of energy from carbohydrate with equivalent energy from fat was associated with an estimated 4·3 % (HR 1·043, 95 % CI 1·007, 1·081) increase in overweight/obesity in women. Moreover, dietary carbohydrate was inversely associated with overweight/obesity (quintile 5 v. quintile 1, HR 0·70, 95 % CI 0·55, 0·89; Ptrend = 0·02) in women. Total fat was related to a higher risk of overweight/obesity, whereas high carbohydrate intake was related to a lower risk of overweight/obesity in women, which was not observed in men.
Chinese jiaotou is an economically important crop that is widely cultivated in East Asia. The lack of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers has been a major obstacle for genetic studies of this crop. In the present study, SSR markers were developed for Chinese jiaotou on a large scale, based on the crop's transcriptome assembled de novo by a previous study. A search for SSR loci in the transcriptome's expressed sequence tags (ESTs) revealed 2157 SSRs, of which primer pairs could be developed for 1494. Among these resulting SSRs, trinucleotide repeat motifs were the most abundant type, with GAA/TTC motifs occurring most frequently. Analysing the annotated function of SSR-containing ESTs revealed that they enriched into the GO categories involved in transcription regulation, oxidation–reduction, transport, etc. The quality and transferability of these markers were also assessed using 100 randomly selected EST–SSRs, and the result showed that these markers were of good quality and possessed high cross-species transferability. In addition, the developed SSR markers were used to analyse the genetic diversity of 19 cultivated and four wild accessions, resulting in three distinct groups, cluster I, II and III. Interestingly, all four wild accessions were assigned to cluster III, and two local varieties from northern Hunan, China, were closely related to the wild genotypes. These results provide new insights into the origin of Chinese jiaotou. The EST–SSRs developed herein represent the first large-scale development of SSR markers in Chinese jiaotou, and they can be widely used for genetic studies of the crop.
High dynamic range (HDR) technology is rapidly changing today's video landscape by offering spectacular visual experiences. The development in display technology to support higher luminance levels for commercial and consumer electronic devices such as TVs, smartphones, projectors etc., has created an exponential demand for delivering HDR content to viewers. The essential component of the HDR technology is “expanded contrast,” which allows richer black levels and enhanced brightness, providing dramatic contrast that reveals finer details. The use of “wide color gamut” allows wider color spectrum and richer colors providing aesthetically pleasing true-to-life feel. Such visual enhancements clearly establish HDR as one of the most significant upcoming video technologies.
In this paper, we review major technical advances in this exciting field of study. Quantization of HDR signals is reviewed in the context of transfer functions that convert optical signals to electrical signals and vice versa. They mainly consist of Perceptual Quantization and Hybrid-Log-Gamma approaches. Compression of HDR content is another broad area of study involving several coding approaches, often categorized in terms of backward-compatibility and single/dual layer methods. Some key industry applications of HDR processing systems are also discussed, followed by some future directions of HDR technology.
Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated that retinal detachment (RD) subjects were associated with abnormal spontaneous brain activities; however, whether the altered interhemispheric functional connectivity (FC) occurred in RD patients remains unknown. The current study tried to explore the alternations of interhemispheric FC of the whole brain in unilateral RD patients using the voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) method and their connections to clinical features. Methods: We recruited 30 patients with RD (16 males and 14 females) and 30 healthy controls (HCs) (16 males and 14 females) whose age and sex were closely matched. All subjects underwent the rs-fMRI scans. The VMHC method was applied to directly assess the hemispheres’ functional interaction. The VMHC in these brain areas, which could be used as biomarkers to differentiate RD from HC, was identified by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. The relations between these patients’ clinical features and their mean VMHC signal values in multiple brain regions were calculated by Pearson correlation analysis. Results: RD patients had significantly lower VMHC values than HCs in the bilateral occipital lobe (Brodmann areas, BA 18), bilateral superior temporal gyrus (BA 39), and bilateral cuneus (BA 19). Moreover, the mean VMHC signal values of the bilateral cuneus were in positive correlation with the duration of the RD (r = 0.446, P = 0.013). Conclusion: Our results provided an evidence of disturbed interhemispheric FC in the visual area occurred in RD patients, which might provide some useful information to understand the neural mechanism of RD patients with acute vision loss. Furthermore, the VMHC values might indicate the progress of the RD.
Previous studies have supported the theory that there is a positive association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in Western people. Diet plays an important role in determining serum ferritin concentration. Asian dietary patterns are different from Western dietary patterns, implying that there may be a difference in the association of ferritin with carotid atherosclerosis between Asian and Western people. However, few studies focus on the association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis among Asians. The aim of this study was to investigate how serum ferritin levels are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in an Asian adult population. A cross-sectional assessment was performed in 8302 adults in Tianjin, China. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaques were assessed using ultrasonography, and serum ferritin was measured using the protein chip-chemiluminescence method. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between quartiles of serum ferritin concentration and carotid atherosclerosis. In the present study, the overall prevalence of IMT and carotid plaques in participants is 29·2 and 22·7 %, respectively. In women, after adjustments for potentially confounding factors, the OR of IMT and carotid plaques by increasing serum ferritin quartiles were 1·00, 1·39 (95 % CI 0·98–1·99), 1·39 (95 % CI 0·99–1·97), 1·81 (95 % CI 1·30–2·55) (Pfor trend<0·001) and 1·00, 1·24 (95 % CI 0·89–1·73), 1·18 (95 % CI 0·85–1·65), 1·59 (95 % CI 1·15–2·20) (Pfor trend<0·01), respectively. However, no association was found between serum ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in men. The study demonstrated that increased serum ferritin levels are independently associated with IMT and carotid plaques in Asian women but not in Asian men.
Increasing dietary Ca intake may prevent the excessive mobilisation of bone mineral in nursing mothers. We aimed to investigate whether higher Ca intake could positively modulate the bone mineral changes in Chinese postpartum lactating women. The study was a 12-month randomised, double-blinded, parallel group trial conducted over 12 months. A total of 150 postpartum women were randomly selected to receive either 40 g of milk powder containing 300 mg of Ca and 5 μg of vitamin D (Low-Ca group) or same milk powder additionally fortified with 300 mg of Ca (Mid-Ca group) or 600 mg of Ca (High-Ca group). Bone mineral density (BMD) for the whole body, the lumbar spine, the total left hip and its sub-regions was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A total of 102 subjects completed the whole trial. The duration of total lactating time was 7·9 (sd 2·8) months on average. The intention-to-treat analysis yielded the following mean percentage changes in BMD for the whole body, the lumbar spine and the total left hip, respectively: −0·93 (sd 1·97), 2·11 (sd 4·90) and −1·60 (sd 2·65) % for the Low-Ca group; −0·56 (sd 1·89), 2·21 (sd 3·77) and −1·43 (sd 2·30) % for the Mid-Ca group; and −0·44 (sd 1·67), 2·32 (sd 4·66) and −0·95 (sd 4·08) % for the High-Ca group. The differences between the groups were not statistically significant (P: 0·5–0·9). The results of the complete case analysis were similar. In sum, we found no significant differences in the bone mineral changes from baseline to 12 months in postpartum lactating women consuming milk powder fortified with different levels of Ca.
The transverse navigation system has been designed and developed to solve the challenges of navigation in polar regions. However, considerable theoretical errors are introduced into the system when the spherical Earth model is adopted. To tackle this problem, a transverse navigation mechanism under the ellipsoidal Earth model has been proposed in this research and the application regions of the proposed algorithm are specified and evaluated through error analysis. The analysis shows the presented transverse navigation system works in both polar and part of the non-polar regions. Field tests were conducted to evaluate the navigation performance in Nanjing, a non-polar region. A novel experimental method, where the field test data in mid-latitude areas was used to simulate the real Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) data and the reference information in polar regions, was adopted to investigate the performance of the proposed algorithm in polar areas. The results show: that in the mid-latitude areas, the presented transverse navigation system achieves the same accuracy as the traditional inertial navigation system and that in polar regions, the proposed transverse mechanism outperforms the traditional method with a much lower error in longitude and yaw.
Gradual fault detection is always an important issue in integrated navigation systems, and the gradual fault is the most difficult fault to detect. To detect gradual faults in a timely and precise manner in integrated navigation systems, the statistical concepts of the normalised residual mean and the sum of absolute residuals are introduced according to the characteristics of gradual system failure in this paper. The applicability of the improved residual χ2 detection method is discussed. Then, the gradual fault detection program based on the improved residual χ2 detection method is designed with the criterion of normalised residual mean and the sum of absolute residual. The simulation results and vehicle tests show that: 1) The residual of the failed sub-system can be calculated accurately with the improved residual χ2 detection method, which has strong applicability in gradual fault detection; 2) The gradual fault can be detected in a short time by using the normalised residual mean and the sum of absolute residual.
Schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) are common psychotic disorders, which show some overlaps in genetic aetiology. Researchers have conducted a number of studies to investigate the relationship between SCZ and the 1354C/T genetic polymorphism of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A (HTR2A–1354C/T), as well as the associations between BD and the HTR2A–1354C/T polymorphism. However, the results were conflicting. To provide a more robust estimate about the effects of the HTR2A–1354C/T polymorphism on the risk of these two psychotic disorders, we performed this meta-analysis.
We used the pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) to investigate the relationships between SCZ and the 1354C/T polymorphism of HTR2A, as well as the associations between BD and HTR2A–1354C/T. Publication bias was tested by Begg's test and inverted funnel plot, and heterogeneity was checked by Cochran's Q statistic and the inconsistency index (I2).
Eight studies were concerned with SCZ, analysing a cumulative total of 2953 cases and 3153 controls; six papers studied BD, using a total of 923 cases and 928 controls. There was no significant association found between HTR2A–1354C/T and SCZ in the overall population (T allele vs. C allele, OR = 1.035, 95% CI 0.912–1.175, p = 0.596) or in the subgroups Caucasian population and Asian population. Moreover, there was no significant association between the HTR2A–1354C/T polymorphism and BD in the overall population (T allele vs. C allele, OR = 1.038, 95% CI = 0.607–1.772, p = 0.892).
On the basis of these results, the HTR2A–1354C/T polymorphism is unlikely to be a risk factor for SCZ and BD.
The effects of boundaries such as grain boundaries and phase boundaries on low-field magnetoresistance (LFMR) have been investigated in single-phase lanthanum strontium manganates, in this case La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) and LSMO: zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocomposite thin films. In the pure LSMO films with similar grain size, it is found that the LFMR increases as the grain misorientation factor (β) increases. The LFMR in the nanocomposite films is greatly enhanced, as compared with single-phase films, due to the reduced grain size, and increased phase boundary (PB) and β effects. The composition study shows that the LFMR can be dramatically enhanced when the secondary phase content approaches the percolation threshold. The increased β and secondary phase concentration reduce the cross-section of electron conduction paths and favor the formation of the quasi-one-dimensional transport channels. Our results demonstrate that the reduction of cross-section of the electron conduction paths by tuning the grain orientation and secondary phase composition is necessary for enhancing LFMR effect.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin with fraxinellone, C42H70O35·C14H16O3·3H2O, are reported [a = 19.294(2) Å, b = 26.639(1) Å, c = 16.467(3) Å, β = 110.451(9)°, cell volume V = 7930.34 Å3, Z = 4 and space group C2]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the C2 space group. No detectable impurities were observed.
Previous studies showed an inconsistent association of fruit and vegetable consumption with bone health. We assessed the associations in Chinese adolescents, young and postmenopausal women.
A cross-sectional study conducted in China during July 2009 to May 2010.
Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) at the whole body, lumbar spine and left hip were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intakes were assessed using an FFQ. All these values were separately standardized into Z-scores in each population subgroup.
One hundred and ten boys and 112 girls (11–14 years), 371 young women (20–34 years, postpartum within 2 weeks) and 333 postmenopausal women (50–70 years).
After adjustment for potential covariates, analysis of covariance showed a significantly positive association between fruit intake and BMD and BMC in all participants combined (P-trend: < 0·001 to 0·002). BMD Z-score increased by 0·25 (or 2·1 % of the mean), 0·22 (3·5 %), 0·23 (3·0 %) and 0·25 (3·5 %), and BMC Z-score increased by 0·33 (5·7 %), 0·25 (5·8 %), 0·34 (5·9 %) and 0·29 (4·7 %), at the total body, lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck in participants belonging to the top tertile compared with the bottom tertile of fruit intake (all P < 0·05), respectively. There was no significant association between vegetable intake and bone mass at all bone sites studied except for total body BMD (P = 0·030). Relatively more pronounced effects were observed in boys and postmenopausal women.
Our findings add to the existing evidence that fruits and vegetables may have a bone sparing effect.
Self-separated Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) films were processed by a hydrothermal deposition and a rapid thermal separation method, followed by a sol–gel filling and sintering process. The films possess excellent piezoelectric and electromechanical properties close to those of bulk material. The maximum remnant polarization is over 30 μC/cm2 and the electromechanical coupling factor (kt) reaches as high as 0.52. The unique microstructure characteristics of the PZT films, such as their highly dense structure, columnar grains, well-connected grain boundaries, and well-dispersed nanopores, could all contribute to the enhanced piezoelectric and electromechanical properties.
The volatile compounds of crofton weed infested by cotton aphids and sprayed
with MeJA were collected and analyzed by the TCT-GC/MS technique. The
healthy weeds were controls. Seventeen volatiles identified from crofton
weed included green leaf odors, monoterpenes and sequiterpenes, and
oxo-compounds. Camphene, 2-carene, α-phellandrene, ρ-cymene, and
caryophyllene were the major volatiles and constituted about 77% of the
total volatile emissions from the control. In the aphid-infested weeds, no
new induced component was found. Among the terpenes, ρ-cymene increased
markedly in the infested weeds compared with the control, whereas all
sesquiterpenes decreased markedly. Levels of endogenous JA in leaves and
young stems of the aphid-infested weeds were markedly higher than in the
control, whereas both endogenous SA level and ABA level were not
significantly different. MeJA sprayed on crofton weed with the aphid
infestation had a similar effect on volatile emissions. It is suggested that
JA was one of the most important signals in crofton weed and could regulate
the emission of volatile compounds.
A ternary system composed of Tb(DBM)3Phen (TbDP), Eu(DBM)3Phen (EuDP), and poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) was prepared with good thermal stability and the photoluminescence (PL) was studied. By comparing their emissions, it was found that energy transfer exists from PVK to lanthanide complexes in the ternary system. It also was found that the lifetime of 5D0 of Eu3+ in the ternary system is longer than that of the binary system of EuDP and PVK, but the lifetime of 5D4 of Tb3+ in the ternary system is shorter than that of the binary system of TbDP and PVK, showing evidence of energy transfer from TbDP to EuDP. Temperature-dependent PL spectra of the ternary system from 9 to 300 K further showed there is a change in energy transfer efficiencies from Tb3+ ions to Eu3+ ions at different temperature ranges, which not only is more evidence of energy transfer but also can be used as a temperature detector or a thermal-sensitive probe of a optical fiber sensor.
To evaluate FFQ estimates of dietary intake of individual antioxidants, fruit and vegetables in comparison to plasma concentrations of each antioxidant, and to determine which individual foods are associated with plasma antioxidant concentrations.
Dietary (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene, retinol, and vitamin E) intakes over 12 months were estimated from a 121-item FFQ. Correlation coefficients, corrected for within-person variability in diet and plasma antioxidants, were used to examine associations between antioxidant concentrations in diet and plasma.
Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS).
Men and women (n 3110) who were randomly selected from the MCCS. Participants were aged 36–72 years and were born in Australia, Greece, Italy or the UK.
Correlation coefficients for the carotenoids ranged from 0·28 for lycopene to 0·46 for β-cryptoxanthin. There was no association between dietary and plasma retinol or dietary vitamin E with plasma α- and γ-tocopherol. Individual plasma carotenoid concentrations were associated with intakes of fruit and vegetables.
Our data suggest that the FFQ provides useful information on intakes of each of the carotenoids: α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin. There was no association between diet and plasma markers of retinol or vitamin E; this may reflect the importance of factors other than intake in modifying circulating levels of these nutrients.
A real-time fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was established to detect Streptococcus suis serotype 2. Primers and Taqman probe were designed according to cps2I (capsular polysaccharide 2I) gene using bio-software Primer Express2.0 and Oligo6.0. An 81 bp DNA fragment was amplified from S. suis serotype 2 genomic DNA, and the PCR product was cloned into pMD18-T vector and confirmed by DNA sequencing. The real-time fluorescent PCR amplification curve on a Lightcycler® showed that the method is accurate and specific for S. suis serotype 2 amplification, whereas reference bacteria S. suis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sp., Listeria monocytogenes strains and a blank control were all negative. Tenfold serial dilutions of S. suis serotype 2 were used to measure the sensitivity of real-time fluorescent PCR: ten copies of bacteria could be detected in one PCR reaction and only 30 min were required for a single test. To examine the stability of the real-time fluorescent PCR, the positive control was detected at two different times. The threshold cycle (Ct) values showed no statistical differences (P>0.05). Thus, this method was stable and repeatable. These results indicate that this real-time fluorescent PCR technique could be applied for epidemic supervision in entry–exit inspection and quarantine.
The bone morphogenetic protein receptor IB (BMPR-IB) gene, which controls the fecundity of Booroola Merino ewes, was studied as a candidate gene for the prolificacy of Small Tail Han and Hu ewes. A single nucleotide polymorphism of the BMPR-IB gene was detected in both high (Small Tail Han and Hu) and low (Suffolk and Dorset) fecundity sheep breeds by polymerase chain reaction–single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis. The results indicated the presence of the same mutation (A746G) of the BMPR-IB gene in both Small Tail Han and Hu ewes and in Booroola Merino ewes, but not in both Suffolk and Dorset ewes. In Small Tail Han ewes, frequencies of BB, B+ and ++ genotypes were 0.524, 0.383 and 0.093, respectively. In Hu ewes, these frequencies were 0.882, 0.118 and 0.000. The BMPR-IB genotype distributions were significantly different (P<0.001) among high- and low-fecundity sheep breeds. Small Tail Han ewes with genotype BB had 0.92 (P<0.01) and 1.02 (P<0.01) lambs more than those with genotype ++ in the first and second parity, respectively. These results demonstrated that the BMPR-IB gene is a major gene affecting the prolificacy in both Small Tail Han and Hu ewes, and could be used as a molecular genetic marker to select the litter size in sheep.