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The silkworm Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is a lepidopteran model insect of great economic importance. The parasitoid Exorista sorbillans (Diptera, Tachinidae) is the major pest of B. mori and also a promising candidate for biological control. However, the molecular interactions between hosts and dipteran parasitoids have only partially been studied. Gene expression analysis by reverse-transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is indispensable to characterise their interactions. Accurate normalisation of RT-qPCR-based gene expression requires the use of reference genes that are constantly expressed irrespective of experimental conditions. In this study, the expression stability of 13 traditionally used reference genes was estimated by five statistical algorithms (ΔCt, geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder) to determine the best reference genes for gene expression studies in different tissues of B. mori under E. sorbillans parasitism. Specifically, TATA-box-binding protein was the best reference gene in epidermis and testis, while elongation factor 1α was the most stable gene in prothoracic gland and midgut. Elongation factor 1γ, ribosomal protein L3, actin A1, ribosomal protein L40, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A were the most suitable genes in head, silk gland, fat body, haemolymph, Malpighian tubule and ovary, respectively. Our study offers a set of suitable reference genes for gene expression normalisation in B. mori under the parasitic stress of E. sorbillans, which will benefit the in-depth exploration of host-dipteran parasitoid interactions, and also provide insights for further improvements of B. mori resistance against parasitoids and biocontrol efficacy of dipteran parasitoids.
There is growing evidence that gray matter atrophy is constrained by normal brain network (or connectome) architecture in neuropsychiatric disorders. However, whether this finding holds true in individuals with depression remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between gray matter atrophy and normal connectome architecture at individual level in depression.
In this study, 297 patients with depression and 256 healthy controls (HCs) from two independent Chinese dataset were included: a discovery dataset (105 never-treated first-episode patients and matched 130 HCs) and a replication dataset (106 patients and matched 126 HCs). For each patient, individualized regional atrophy was assessed using normative model and brain regions whose structural connectome profiles in HCs most resembled the atrophy patterns were identified as putative epicenters using a backfoward stepwise regression analysis.
In general, the structural connectome architecture of the identified disease epicenters significantly explained 44% (±16%) variance of gray matter atrophy. While patients with depression demonstrated tremendous interindividual variations in the number and distribution of disease epicenters, several disease epicenters with higher participation coefficient than randomly selected regions, including the hippocampus, thalamus, and medial frontal gyrus were significantly shared by depression. Other brain regions with strong structural connections to the disease epicenters exhibited greater vulnerability. In addition, the association between connectome and gray matter atrophy uncovered two distinct subgroups with different ages of onset.
These results suggest that gray matter atrophy is constrained by structural brain connectome and elucidate the possible pathological progression in depression.
The aims of this study were to examine the spillover effects of violent attacks, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) exposure, and their interactions on health professionals’ mental health, and the role of organizational support in their relationships in China. A two-phase survey data (n = 10,901) before and after the first outbreak of COVID-19 was integrated with regional macro data on the number of lawsuit cases of violent attacks and COVID-19 cases. Three studies were designed to isolate the general spillover impact of violent attacks on the mental health of health professionals, how COVID-19 affects the mental health of health professionals, and whether organizational support moderates the relationship between violent attacks and mental health through econometric regressions. Violent attacks and COVID-19 are negatively associated with the mental health of health professionals, and the outbreak of COVID-19 adversely deteriorates the spillover effects of violent attacks. Physicians, not nurses, are the most affected group. Better perceived support from hospitals can significantly mitigate the adverse effects of COVID-19, violent attacks, and their interactions on the mental health of health professionals. COVID-19 deteriorates the adverse effects of violent attacks on the mental health of health professionals, while better organizational support is helpful to mitigate these effects.
This study aimed to summarise the findings of the studies assessing the effectiveness of ultraviolet C (UV-C) room disinfection in reducing the incidence rate of healthcare-associated multi-drug-resistant organism (MDRO) infections. A systematic screening was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus for randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-experimental studies, and before–after studies, which assessed the efficacy of the UV-C disinfectant system in reducing the incidence of MDRO infections. A random-effects model was used for the analysis. Effect sizes were described as incidence rate ratio (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Nine studies were included, all of which were conducted in the USA. No statistically significant reduction in Clostridioides difficile (CD) (IRR: 0.90, 95% CI; 0.62–1.32) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) infection rates (IRR 0.72, 95% CI; 0.38–1.37) was observed with the use of UV-C, but the risk of Gram-negative rod infection was reduced (IRR 0.82, 95% CI; 0.68–0.99).
The flow-induced snap-through dynamics of a buckled flexible filament was explored using the penalty immersed boundary method. The effects of the filament length, bending rigidity and Reynolds number on the mode transition were systematically examined. Three different modes were observed when the aforementioned parameters were varied: an equilibrium mode, a streamwise oscillation mode and a snap-through oscillation mode. Two mode transitions occurred when the bending rigidity was lowered and the length and Reynolds number were increased: a direct transition from the equilibrium mode to the snap-through oscillation mode and the successive appearance of the three modes. An increase in transverse fluid force induced the snap-through oscillation mode. A vortex-induced vibration and a self-excited vibration occurred in the streamwise oscillation mode and the snap-through oscillation mode, respectively. A wake pattern of 2S appeared in the streamwise oscillation mode, and a pattern of 2S + 2P appeared in the snap-through oscillation mode. A hysteresis was observed near the critical Reynolds number. The hysteresis loop increased in magnitude with increasing bending rigidity. The greater energy harvesting was achieved by the larger deflection and the higher strain energy. We found that most of the strain energy was concentrated in the last half of the filament.
Continuous risky decisions refer to decisions that involve trade-offs among options with persistent risks. People can use the probability of occurrence per unit time (e.g., ‘the probability of occurrence is 1% per month’) or the average time of risk occurrence (e.g., ‘the average occurrence time is 100 months’) to represent continuous risky options. In this study, we examined the effect of the presentation format (i.e., the probability of occurrence per unit time vs. the average time of risk occurrence) on continuous risky decisions in the gain domain and further explored the underlying mechanism. In Study 1 (N = 122), we demonstrated the effect of presentation format on continuous risky decisions and the moderating effect of the magnitude of probabilities. Specifically, when the probabilities were relatively low, compared with the probability of occurrence per unit time, using the average time of risk occurrence to present the continuous risky options led to more risk-averse decisions. However, when the probabilities were relatively high, compared with the probability of occurrence per unit time, the presentation format of the average time occurrence led to more risk-seeking decisions. In Study 2 (N = 136), we found that the moderating effect of the option probabilities on continuous risky decisions was mediated by the subjective attribute-wise difference judgment. In Study 3 (N = 221), we replicated the effect of presentation format on continuous risky decisions in more natural scenarios. The study offered a deep understanding of the mechanism of continuous risky decision-making, and the results were conducive to further developing theories in relevant fields.
An 8-week experiment was performed to investigate the influence on growth performance, plasma biochemistry, glucose metabolism and the insulin pathway of supplementation of dietary taurine to a high-carbohydrate diet for grass carp. In this study, fish were fed diets at one of two carbohydrate levels, 31·49 % (positive control) or 38·61 % (T00). The high-carbohydrate basal diet (T00), without taurine, was supplemented with 0·05 % (T05), 0·10 % (T10), 0·15 % (T15) or 0·20 % (T20) taurine, resulting in six isonitrogenous (30·37 %) and isolipidic (2·37 %) experimental diets. The experimental results showed that optimal taurine level improved significantly weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), feed utilisation, reduced plasma total cholesterol levels, TAG and promoted insulin-like growth factor level. Glucokinase, pyruvate kinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activities showed a quadratic function model with increasing dietary taurine level, while hexokinase, fatty acid synthetase activities exhibited a positive linear trend. Optimal taurine supplementation in high-carbohydrate diet upregulated insulin receptor (Ir), insulin receptor substrate (Irs1), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (pi3k), protein kinase B (akt1), glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (gs3kβ) mRNA level and downregulated insulin-like growth factor (igf-1), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (igf-1R) and Fork head transcription factor 1 (foxo1) mRNA level. The above results suggested that optimal taurine level could improve growth performance, hepatic capacity for glycolipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity, thus enhancing the utilisation of carbohydrates in grass carp. Based on SGR, dietary optimal tributyrin taurine supplementation in grass carp was estimated to be 0·08 %.
Previous observational studies have reported potential associations among attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obesity, and diabetes (including type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus [T1DM/T2DM]). However, whether the association between ADHD and diabetes is mediated by obesity is unknown.
With two-sample Mendelian randomization, we analysed the causal effect of ADHD on T1DM and T2DM and six obesity-related traits [including body mass index, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body fat percentage and basal metabolic rate] and the causal effect of these obesity-related traits on T1DM/T2DM. Finally, with multivariable Mendelian randomization, we explored and quantified the possible mediation effects of obesity-related traits on the causal effect of ADHD on T1DM/T2DM.
Our results showed that ADHD increased the risk of T2DM by 14% [odds ratio (OR) = 1.140, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.005–1.293] but with no evidence of an effect on T1DM (OR = 0.916, 95% CI = 0.735–1.141, P = 0.433.). In addition, ADHD had a 6.1% increased causal effect on high WC (OR = 1.061, 95% CI = 1.024–1.099, P = 0.001) and an 8.2% increased causal effect on high WHR (OR = 1.082, 95% CI = 1.035–1.131, P = 0.001). In addition, a causal effect of genetically predicted high WC (OR = 1.870, 95% CI = 1.594–2.192, P < 0.001) on a higher risk of T2DM was found. In further analysis, WC mediated approximately 26.75% (95% CI = 24.20%–29.30%) of the causal association between ADHD and T2DM.
WC mediates a substantial proportion of the causal effect of ADHD on the risk of T2DM, which indicated that the risk of T2DM induced by ADHD could be indirectly reduced by controlling WC as a main risk factor.
Oesophageal cancer is the most common gastrointestinal malignancy in China and one of the major causes of death due to cancer worldwide. The occurrence of oesophageal cancer is a multifactor, multistage, and multistep process influenced by heredity, the environment, and microorganisms. Specifically, bacterial infection may be involved in the process of tissue carcinogenesis by directly or indirectly influencing tumour occurrence and development. Porphyromonas gingivalis is an important pathogen causing periodontitis, and periodontitis can promote the occurrence of various tumours. An increasing number of studies to date have shown that P. gingivalis plays an important role in the occurrence and development of oesophageal cancer. Overall, exploring how P. gingivalis promotes oesophageal cancer occurrence and development and how it affects the prognosis of these patients is of great importance for the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of this type of cancer. Herein, the latest progress is reviewed.
Osteoarthritis in the lateral compartment of the knee joint is more common in middle-aged and elderly patients. Symptoms include pain, swelling, snapping, stiffness, and joint effusion. At present, there are many ways to treat osteoarthritis in the lateral compartment of the knee joint, and most people adopt conservative treatment. However, for patients with more serious conditions, conservative treatment cannot achieve obvious results, but surgical treatment is required. However, surgical treatment often causes psychological stress on patients, especially elderly patients. Therefore, the study focused on the occurrence and prevention of psychological diseases in patients with lateral knee osteoarthritis after postoperative care programs including psychological treatment.
Subjects and Methods
A total of 110 patients with osteoarthritis in the lateral compartment of the knee admitted to a hospital from July 2020 to January 2022 were selected as the research objects. The enrolled patients were randomly divided into two groups, the control group and the observation group, with 55 cases in each group. In the control group, there were 29 males and 26 females, aged 37-79 years, with an average of (60.22 ± 14.15) years old. In the observation group, there were 32 males and 23 females, aged from 35 to 80 years old, with an average of (60.83 ± 14.34) years old. There was no significant difference in general data between the two groups (P > 0.05), which were comparable. The control group was given routine postoperative care, and the observation group was given experimental nursing program including psychotherapy.
From the perspective of coping style, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the scores of positive and negative coping styles between the two groups before nursing. After nursing, the positive coping style of the observation group was higher than that of the control group (P < 0.05), and the score of negative coping style was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.05). In terms of anxiety and depression scores, there was no significant difference in SAS (Self-Rating Anxiety Scale) and SDS (Self-Rating Depression Scale) scores between the two groups (P > 0.05). After nursing, the SAS and SDS scores of the observation group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P < 0.05), as shown in Table 1.Table 1.
Comparison of SAS and SDS scores before and after group care
Observation group (n = 55)
Control group (n = 55)
The coping style and psychological state of patients with osteoarthritis in the lateral compartment of the knee have a greater impact on postoperative recovery, and individualized nursing including psychotherapy can help improve their coping style and psychological state.
The research is supported by: The Eighth Batch of Gansu Science and Technology Program Funding Projects (Key R&D Program) in 2020+Clinical research and application of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in the treatment of middle-aged and elderly patients with unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis in Hexi Corridor+20YF8FG066; The Fifth Batch of Gansu Science and Technology Program Funding Projects (Basic Research Program-Natural Science Foundation) in 2022+ To investigate the molecular mechanism of LncRNA PVT1 regulating osteosarcoma ferroptosis through miRNA-106a-5p/MDM4 pathway +22JR5RG570; 2022 Innovation Fund Project of Gansu Provincial Department of Education+ To study the clinical efficacy of platelet-rich plasma combined with arthroscopic surgery in the treatment of early and middle stage knee osteoarthritis+2022B-189.
We demonstrate an ultra-broadband high temporal contrast infrared laser source based on cascaded optical parametric amplification, hollow-core fiber (HCF) and second harmonic generation processes. In this setup, the spectrum of an approximately 1.8 μm laser pulse has near 1 μm full bandwidth by employing an argon gas-filled HCF. Subsequently, after frequency doubling with cascaded crystals and dispersion compensation by a fused silica wedge pair, 9.6 fs (~3 cycles) and 150 μJ pulses centered at 910 nm with full bandwidth of over 300 nm can be generated. The energy stability of the output laser pulse is excellent with 0.8% (root mean square) over 20 min, and the temporal contrast is >1012 at –10 ps before the main pulse. The excellent temporal and spatial characteristics and stability make this laser able to be used as a good seed source for ultra-intense and ultrafast laser systems.
Industrial robots are widely used in the painting industry, such as automobile manufacturing and solid wood furniture industry. An important problem is how to improve the efficiency of robot programming, especially in the current furniture industry with multiple products, small batches and increasingly high demand for customization. In this work, we propose an outer loop adaptive control scheme, which allow users to realize the practical application of the zero-moment lead-through teaching method based on dynamic model without opening the inner torque control interface of robots. In order to accurately estimate the influence of joint friction, a friction model is established based on static, Coulomb and viscous friction characteristics, and the Sigmoid function is used to represent the transition between motion states. An identification method is used to quickly identify the dynamic parameters of the robot. The joint position/speed command of the robot’s inner joint servo loop is dynamically generated based on the user-designed adaptive control law. In addition, the zero-moment lead-through teaching scheme based on the dynamic model is applied to a spray-painting robot with closed control system. In order to verify our method, CMA GR630ST is used to conduct experiments. We identified the parameters of the dynamic model and carried out the zero-moment lead-through teaching experiment to track the target trajectory. The results show that the proposed method can realize the application of modern control methods in industrial robot with closed control systems, and achieve a preliminary exploration to improve the application scenarios of spray-painting robots.
Built upon the mixed gamble perspective, we used a recent survey on Chinese family firms (FFs) and found that increased family influence lowers Chinese FF environmental proactiveness, as they show a peculiar tendency to take a financial view rather than a socioemotional wealth view. Moreover, we found that increased resource endowment attenuates this tendency, whereas provincial marketization strengthens it. However, entrepreneur reputation does not have a significant moderating effect. Overall, the study enriches an understanding of environmental proactiveness for FFs, organizational heterogeneity, and institutional differences. It also introduces new elements into the mixed gamble framework.
Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is one of the rate-determining enzymes in the hydrolysis of TAG, playing a crucial role in lipid metabolism. However, the role of HSL-mediated lipolysis in systemic nutrient homoeostasis has not been intensively understood. Therefore, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technique and Hsl inhibitor (HSL-IN-1) to establish hsla-deficient (hsla-/-) and Hsl-inhibited zebrafish models, respectively. As a result, the hsla-/- zebrafish showed retarded growth and reduced oxygen consumption rate, accompanied with higher mRNA expression of the genes related to inflammation and apoptosis in liver and muscle. Furthermore, hsla-/- and HSL-IN-1-treated zebrafish both exhibited severe fat deposition, whereas their expressions of the genes related to lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation were markedly reduced. The TLC results also showed that the dysfunction of Hsl changed the whole-body lipid profile, including increasing the content of TG and decreasing the proportion of phospholipids. In addition, the systemic metabolic pattern was remodelled in hsla-/- and HSL-IN-1-treated zebrafish. The dysfunction of Hsl lowered the glycogen content in liver and muscle and enhanced the utilisation of glucose plus the expressions of glucose transporter and glycolysis genes. Besides, the whole-body protein content had significantly decreased in the hsla-/- and HSL-IN-1-treated zebrafish, accompanied with the lower activation of the mTOR pathway and enhanced protein and amino acid catabolism. Taken together, Hsl plays an essential role in energy homoeostasis, and its dysfunction would cause the disturbance of lipid catabolism but enhanced breakdown of glycogen and protein for energy compensation.
Caregiver-mediated intervention (CMI), based on parent skills training, is a family-mediated intervention model for children with neurodevelopmental disorders, in particular autism spectrum disorder. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CMI.
Thirty-three children (aged 22–69 months from our department) and their caregivers participated in a two-week training course of ten 90-minute lessons. Caregivers were encouraged to try their best to apply intervention skills in both home routines and play routines to encourage the development of cognition, motion, social adaptability, and behavior of children. Demographic information, video-recorded data, and diagnostic scales were collected at two key time points: baseline and post-training (PT – within six months).
Three aspects were assessed – primary variables, secondary variables, and correlation analyses. Results showed an improvement in PT in (1) Adult/Child Interaction Fidelity Rating (P < 0.01) and (2) adaptability of Gesell Developmental Scale and stereotyped behaviors and limited interests of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Moreover, a negative correlation occurred between caregiver skill improvement and parent education (P < 0.05), but without correlations with other demographics.
As an efficacious family intervention for both children and their caregivers, CMI is worth being generalized widely.
COVID-19 has long-term impacts on public mental health, while few research studies incorporate multidimensional methods to thoroughly characterise the psychological profile of general population and little detailed guidance exists for mental health management during the pandemic. This research aims to capture long-term psychological profile of general population following COVID-19 by integrating trajectory modelling approaches, latent trajectory pattern identification and network analyses.
Longitudinal data were collected from a nationwide sample of 18 804 adults in 12 months after COVID-19 outbreak in China. Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 and Insomnia Severity Index were used to measure depression, anxiety and insomnia, respectively. The unconditional and conditional latent growth curve models were fitted to investigate trajectories and long-term predictors for psychological symptoms. We employed latent growth mixture model to identify the major psychological symptom trajectory patterns, and ran sparse Gaussian graphical models with graphical lasso to explore the evolution of psychopathological network.
At 12 months after COVID-19 outbreak, psychological symptoms generally alleviated, and five psychological symptom trajectories with different demographics were identified: normal stable (63.4%), mild stable (15.3%), mild-increase to decrease (11.7%), mild-decrease to increase (4.0%) and moderate/severe stable (5.5%). The finding indicated that there were still about 5% individuals showing consistently severe distress and approximately 16% following fluctuating psychological trajectories, who should be continuously monitored. For individuals with persistently severe trajectories and those with fluctuating trajectories, central or bridge symptoms in the network were mainly ‘motor abnormality’ and ‘sad mood’, respectively. Compared with initial peak and late COVID-19 phase, aftermath of initial peak might be a psychologically vulnerable period with highest network connectivity. The central and bridge symptoms for aftermath of initial peak (‘appetite change’ and ‘trouble of relaxing’) were totally different from those at other pandemic phases (‘sad mood’).
This research identified the overall growing trend, long-term predictors, trajectory classes and evolutionary pattern of psychopathological network of psychological symptoms in 12 months after COVID-19 outbreak. It provides a multidimensional long-term psychological profile of the general population after COVID-19 outbreak, and accentuates the essentiality of continuous psychological monitoring, as well as population- and time-specific psychological management after COVID-19. We believe our findings can offer reference for long-term psychological management after pandemics.
The impact of the dietary potential inflammatory effect on diabetic kidney disease (DKD) has not been adequately investigated. The present study aimed to explore the association between dietary inflammatory index (DII) and DKD in US adults.
This is a cross-sectional study.
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2016) were used. DII was calculated from 24-h dietary recall interviews. DKD was defined as diabetes with albuminuria, impaired glomerular filtration rate or both. Logistic regression and restricted cubic spline models were adopted to evaluate the associations.
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2016) were used, which can provide the information of participants.
Four thousand two-hundred and sixty-four participants were included in this study. The adjusted OR of DKD was 1·04 (95 % CI 0·81, 1·36) for quartile 2, 1·24 (95 % CI 0·97, 1·59) for quartile 3 and 1·64 (95 % CI 1·24, 2·17) for quartile 4, respectively, compared with the quartile 1 of DII. A linear dose–response pattern was observed between DII and DKD (Pnonlinearity = 0·73). In the stratified analyses, the OR for quartile 4 of DII were significant among adults with higher educational level (OR 1·83, 95 % CI 1·26, 2·66) and overweight or obese participants (OR 1·67, 95 % CI 1·23, 2·28), but not among the corresponding another subgroup. The interaction effects between DII and stratified factors on DKD were not statistically significant (all P values for interactions were >0·05).
Our findings suggest that a pro-inflammatory diet, shown by a higher DII score, is associated with increased odd of DKD.
The hydrodynamic mechanism of drag reduction by a flexible hairy coating was explored using the penalty immersed boundary method. A two-dimensional flexible hairy coating is constituted by multiple flexible filaments. A simulation of a cylinder without a hairy coating at a Reynolds number of 100 was also performed for comparison. The results of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental data by Niu & Hu (Phys. Fluids, vol. 23, 2011, 101701), where maximum drag reduction of 22% was attained at a particular length, bending rigidity, coating density and coating angle of the hairy coating. The hydrodynamic mechanism of drag reduction was characterized in terms of the wake pattern, shape deformation and kinetic energy of the hairy coating. The effect of a non-uniform bending rigidity of the hairy coating on drag reduction was explored. A stable streamline shape of the hairy coating was found to delay the vortex formation and stabilize the recirculation zone, resulting in decreased form drag. Active flapping of the hairy coating with enhanced vortex shedding is adverse to drag reduction. A hairy coating with a stiff base and flexible trailing edge is beneficial to maintaining a stable shape.