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We describe here the early Spathian (Early Triassic) Paris Biota decapod fauna from the western USA basin. This fauna contains two taxa of Aegeridae (Dendobranchiata), namely Anisaeger longirostrus n. sp. and Aeger sp. that are the oldest known representatives of their family, thus extending its temporal range by 5 Myr back into the Early Triassic. This fauna also includes two representatives of Glypheida (Pleocyemata) with Litogaster turnbullensis and Pemphix krumenackeri n. sp., confirming for the former and extending for the latter the temporal ranges of their respective superfamilies back to the Early Triassic. Overall, the Paris Biota decapods are some of the oldest known representatives of Decapoda, filling in an important gap in the evolutionary history of this group, especially during the Triassic that marks the early diversification of this clade. Additionally, we compile and provide overviews for all known Triassic decapods, which leads to the revision of four species of Middle and Late Triassic Aegeridae, and to a revised family assignment of a Middle Triassic Glypheida. Based on this refined dataset, we also investigate decapod diversity throughout the Triassic. We show that the apparent increase in decapod taxonomic richness is probably driven by the heterogeneity of the fossil record and/or sampling effort, and that the decapod alpha diversity is actually relatively high as soon as the Early Triassic and remains rather stable throughout the Triassic.
We report on the generation and delivery of 10.2 PW peak power laser pulses, using the High Power Laser System at the Extreme Laser Infrastructure – Nuclear Physics facility. In this work we demonstrate for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the compression and propagation of full energy, full aperture, laser pulses that reach a power level of more than 10 PW.
Regular variation provides a convenient theoretical framework for studying large events. In the multivariate setting, the spectral measure characterizes the dependence structure of the extremes. This measure gathers information on the localization of extreme events and often has sparse support since severe events do not simultaneously occur in all directions. However, it is defined through weak convergence, which does not provide a natural way to capture this sparsity structure. In this paper, we introduce the notion of sparse regular variation, which makes it possible to better learn the dependence structure of extreme events. This concept is based on the Euclidean projection onto the simplex, for which efficient algorithms are known. We prove that under mild assumptions sparse regular variation and regular variation are equivalent notions, and we establish several results for sparsely regularly varying random vectors.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE), underscoring the urgent need for simple, efficient, and inexpensive methods to decontaminate masks and respirators exposed to severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We hypothesized that methylene blue (MB) photochemical treatment, which has various clinical applications, could decontaminate PPE contaminated with coronavirus.
The 2 arms of the study included (1) PPE inoculation with coronaviruses followed by MB with light (MBL) decontamination treatment and (2) PPE treatment with MBL for 5 cycles of decontamination to determine maintenance of PPE performance.
MBL treatment was used to inactivate coronaviruses on 3 N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) and 2 medical mask models. We inoculated FFR and medical mask materials with 3 coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, and we treated them with 10 µM MB and exposed them to 50,000 lux of white light or 12,500 lux of red light for 30 minutes. In parallel, integrity was assessed after 5 cycles of decontamination using multiple US and international test methods, and the process was compared with the FDA-authorized vaporized hydrogen peroxide plus ozone (VHP+O3) decontamination method.
Overall, MBL robustly and consistently inactivated all 3 coronaviruses with 99.8% to >99.9% virus inactivation across all FFRs and medical masks tested. FFR and medical mask integrity was maintained after 5 cycles of MBL treatment, whereas 1 FFR model failed after 5 cycles of VHP+O3.
MBL treatment decontaminated respirators and masks by inactivating 3 tested coronaviruses without compromising integrity through 5 cycles of decontamination. MBL decontamination is effective, is low cost, and does not require specialized equipment, making it applicable in low- to high-resource settings.
In this work, microwave planar resonators are printed with silver nanoparticle inks using two printing technologies, inkjet printing and aerosol jet printing, on polyimide substrates. The microwave resonators used in this paper operate in the frequency band 5–21 GHz. The printing parameters, such as the number of printed layers of silver nanoparticle inks, drop spacing, and sintering time, were optimized to ensure repeatable and conductive test patterns. To improve the electrical conductivity of silver deposits, which are first dried using a hot plate or an oven, two complementary sintering methods are used: intense pulsed light (IPL) and laser sintering. This paper presents the results of different strategies for increasing the final quality factor of printed planar resonators and the trade-offs (sintering time versus final conductivity/unloaded Q) that can be reached. Improvement of the resonator unloaded quality factor (up to +55%) and of the equivalent electrical conductivity (up to 14.94 S/μm) at 14 GHz have been obtained thanks to these nonconventional sintering techniques. The total sintering durations of different combinations of sintering techniques (hot plate, oven, IPL, and laser) range from 960 to 90 min with a final conductivity from 14.94 to 7.1 S/μm at 14 GHz, respectively.
Fertility preservation, especially in women of reproductive age undergoing gonadotoxic treatment, has become an important part of our practice. This is reflected in the increasing number of publications on the subject. A recent PubMed search yields 518 articles on fertility preservation published in the time period of 1980–2000 and 4,288 others between 2000 and 2017. Today, failure to discuss fertility preservation with young women scheduled to undergo radiotherapy or chemotherapy could be considered as malpractice.
Over the past decade, research on human–robot collaboration has grown exponentially, motivated by appealing applications to improve the daily life of patients/operators. A primary requirement in many applications is to implement highly “transparent” control laws to reduce the robot impact on human movement. This impact may be quantified through relevant motor control indices. In this paper, we show that control laws based on careful identification procedures improve transparency compared to classical closed-loop position control laws. A new performance index based on the ratio between electromyographic activity and limb acceleration is also introduced to assess the quality of human exoskeleton interaction.
To estimate the minimum prevalence of adult hereditary ataxias (HA) and spastic paraplegias (HSP) in Eastern Quebec and to evaluate the proportion of associated mutations in identified genes.
We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study of patients who met clinical criteria for the diagnosis of HA (n = 241) and HSP (n = 115) in the East of the Quebec province between January 2007 and July 2019. The primary outcome was the prevalence per 100,000 persons with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The secondary outcome was the frequency of mutations identified by targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach. Minimum carrier frequency for identified variants was calculated based on allele frequency values and the Hardy–Weinberg (HW) equation.
The minimum prevalence of HA in Eastern Quebec was estimated at 6.47/100 000 [95% CI; 6.44–6.51]; divided into 3.73/100 000 for autosomal recessive (AR) ataxias and 2.67/100 000 for autosomal dominant (AD) ataxias. The minimum prevalence of HSP was 4.17/100 000 [95% CI; 4.14–4.2]; with 2.05/100 000 for AD-HSP and 2.12/100 000 for AR-HSP. In total, 52.4% of patients had a confirmed genetic diagnosis. AR cerebellar ataxia type 1 (2.67/100 000) and AD spastic paraplegia SPG4 (1.18/100 000) were the most prevalent disorders identified. Mutations were identified in 23 genes and molecular alterations in 7 trinucleotides repeats expansion; the most common mutations were c.15705–12 A > G in SYNE1 and c.1529C > T (p.A510V) in SPG7.
We described the minimum prevalence of genetically defined adult HA and HSP in Eastern Quebec. This study provides a framework for international comparisons and service planning.
Four unconformity-bound sequences can be identified in the Purana successions in southern India, of which the third sequence (Sequence III) has the widest distribution. Sequence III contains deep-water carbonate units with consistent sedimentological characteristics across the subcontinent. The current extent of field relationships and existing ages has not allowed the correlation and chronology of these carbonates to be established conclusively. Palaeomagnetism may help resolve this essential question for the Purana sedimentation. Here, we report new palaeomagnetic results (HIG+/– pole: 21.7° N, 81.1° E, radius of cone of 95% confidence A95 = 15.9°) from Sequence III carbonates in the Kaladgi (Badami Group) and Bhima (Bhima Group) basins. The HIG+/– magnetization, revealed after the removal of secondary magnetizations that include a present-day field and an Ediacaran–Cambrian overprint, is interpreted to be primary based on its dissimilarity to known younger magnetizations, the presence of distinctly different magnetic components in sites and a positive reversal test. Our HIG+/– pole differs from the c. 1.4 Ga pole and various c. 1.1 Ga and younger poles. Instead, it overlaps with the Harohalli dyke pole that was long considered to be c. 823 Ma in age, but has recently been suggested to be much older with an age of c. 1192 Ma. We therefore consider the uppermost carbonate beds of Badami and Bhima groups to have been deposited during late Mesoproterozoic times. A critical evaluation of parameters from which an earlier Neoproterozoic age for these carbonates was established indicates that the available 40Ar/39Ar, Rb–Sr and U–Pb ages in the Kaladgi and Bhima basins could reflect the timing of post-depositional alteration events.
The poultry red mite (PRM) is an obligatory haematophagous pest that causes substantial economic losses in poultry worldwide. The PRM does not live on the host but in the bird's environment and must find its host remotely. Hence, manipulating chicken odours is of interest. Several crude plant-originating volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have already been shown as repellent to Dermanyssus gallinae. We aimed to test whether these VOCs can interfere with PRM host-seeking behaviour by their oral administration to the poultry. The objectives were to determine (1) if hen odours are modified by supplemented feed ingestion and (2) if such treatment makes hens less attractive to the PRM. Chemical characterization by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry of the hen odour was conducted before and after the hens ingested the supplemented feed. The chromatograms obtained show that hen odour was substantially modified after the hens consumed it. Among the molecules recurrently detected from the supplemented hens, 26% were nearly absent in the unsupplemented hens. Behavioural choice tests to compare the effect of the modified and unmodified-host odours on the PRM show that some of the plant-originating emitted VOCs and the modified whole-hen odours were repellent to the PRM.