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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has serious physiological and psychological consequences. The long-term (>12 weeks post-infection) impact of COVID-19 on mental health, specifically in older adults, is unclear. We longitudinally assessed the association of COVID-19 with depression symptomatology in community-dwelling older adults with metabolic syndrome within the framework of the PREDIMED-Plus cohort.
Participants (n = 5486) aged 55–75 years were included in this longitudinal cohort. COVID-19 status (positive/negative) determined by tests (e.g. polymerase chain reaction severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, IgG) was confirmed via event adjudication (410 cases). Pre- and post-COVID-19 depressive symptomatology was ascertained from annual assessments conducted using a validated 21-item Spanish Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Multivariable linear and logistic regression models assessed the association between COVID-19 and depression symptomatology.
COVID-19 in older adults was associated with higher post-COVID-19 BDI-II scores measured at a median (interquartile range) of 29 (15–40) weeks post-infection [fully adjusted β = 0.65 points, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15–1.15; p = 0.011]. This association was particularly prominent in women (β = 1.38 points, 95% CI 0.44–2.33, p = 0.004). COVID-19 was associated with 62% increased odds of elevated depression risk (BDI-II ≥ 14) post-COVID-19 when adjusted for confounders (odds ratio; 95% CI 1.13–2.30, p = 0.008).
COVID-19 was associated with long-term depression risk in older adults with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome, particularly in women. Thus, long-term evaluations of the impact of COVID-19 on mental health and preventive public health initiatives are warranted in older adults.
Many organisms live in fragmented populations, which has profound consequences on the dynamics of associated parasites. Metapopulation theory offers a canonical framework for predicting the effects of fragmentation on spatiotemporal host–parasite dynamics. However, empirical studies of parasites in classical metapopulations remain rare, particularly for vector-borne parasites. Here, we quantify spatiotemporal patterns and possible drivers of infection probability for several ectoparasites (fleas, Ixodes trianguliceps and Ixodes ricinus) and vector-borne microparasites (Babesia microti, Bartonella spp., Hepatozoon spp.) in a classically functioning metapopulation of water vole hosts. Results suggest that the relative importance of vector or host dynamics on microparasite infection probabilities is related to parasite life-histories. Bartonella, a microparasite with a fast life-history, was positively associated with both host and vector abundances at several spatial and temporal scales. In contrast, B. microti, a tick-borne parasite with a slow life-history, was only associated with vector dynamics. Further, we provide evidence that life-history shaped parasite dynamics, including occupancy and colonization rates, in the metapopulation. Lastly, our findings were consistent with the hypothesis that landscape connectivity was determined by distance-based dispersal of the focal hosts. We provide essential empirical evidence that contributes to the development of a comprehensive theory of metapopulation processes of vector-borne parasites.
The presence of thermocapillary (Marangoni) convection in microgravity may help to enhance the heat transfer rate of phase change materials (PCMs) in space applications. We present a three-dimensional numerical investigation of the nonlinear dynamics of a melting PCM placed in a cylindrical container filled with n-octadecane and surrounded by passive air. The heat exchange between the PCM and ambient air is characterized in terms of the Biot number, when the air temperature has a linear profile. The effect of thermocapillary convection on heat transfer and the topology of the melting front is studied by varying the applied temperature difference between the circular supports and the heat transfer through the interface. The evolution of Marangoni convection during the PCM melting leads to the appearance of hydrothermal instabilities. A new mathematical approach for the nonlinear analysis of emerging hydrothermal waves (HTWs) is suggested. Being applied for the first time to the examination of PCMs, this procedure allows us to explore the nature of the coupling between HTWs and heat gain/loss through the interface, and how it changes over time. We observe a variety of dynamics, including standing and travelling waves, and determine their dominant and secondary azimuthal wavenumbers. Coexistence of multiple travelling waves with different wavenumbers, rotating in the same or opposite directions, is among the most fascinating observations.
As a heavy load is applied to the parallel manipulators, it causes inaccuracies while positioning the end-effector or unbalanced dynamic forces in the legs. Various load-balancing techniques overcome this. However, the disadvantage of most load-balancing mechanisms is that they add inertia to the assembly and decrease the speed of motion. This article studies a new load-balancing method (a passive damper mechanism). The passive balancing mechanism is proposed to negate the inertia effects while countering the static inaccuracies in the parallel mechanism. This is verified by the structural analysis of the mechanism. The impact of the damper element on the dynamics of the mechanism is unknown. Hence, a complete mathematical model for the balancing mechanism has been developed to study its impact on the dynamics of the entire structure. Laplace transformations characterize the system response. The inclusion of a passive damper in a 3-prismatic-prismatic-revolute-spherical system was examined and found to be stable and critically damped. Such a passive damper was envisaged to facilitate additional force transmission for the actuators, and the DC gain from the system response validates the torque support for the actuators.
Tobacco smoking is highly prevalent among patients with serious mental illness (SMI), with known deleterious consequences. Smoking cessation is therefore a prioritary public health challenge in SMI. In recent years, several smoking cessation digital interventions have been developed for non-clinical populations. However, their impact in patients with SMI remains uncertain. We conducted a systematic review to describe and evaluate effectiveness, acceptability, adherence, usability and safety of digital interventions for smoking cessation in patients with SMI. PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsychINFO and the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register were searched. Studies matching inclusion criteria were included and their information systematically extracted by independent investigators. Thirteen articles were included, which reported data on nine different digital interventions. Intervention theoretical approaches ranged from mobile contingency management to mindfulness. Outcome measures varied widely between studies. The highest abstinence rates were found for mSMART MIND (7-day point-prevalent abstinence: 16–40%). Let's Talk About Quitting Smoking reported greater acceptability ratings, although this was not evaluated with standardized measures. Regarding usability, Learn to Quit showed the highest System Usability Scale scores [mean (s.d.) 85.2 (15.5)]. Adverse events were rare and not systematically reported. Overall, the quality of the studies was fair to good. Digitally delivered health interventions for smoking cessation show promise for improving outcomes for patients with SMI, but lack of availability remains a concern. Larger trials with harmonized assessment measures are needed to generate more definitive evidence and specific recommendations.
This study uses luminescence and 14C accelerator mass spectrometry procedures to date relevant glaciofluvial and glacial deposits from the south-central and southeastern Pyrenees (Andorra–France–Spain). We distinguish two types of end-moraine complexes: (1) those in which at least a far-flung moraine exists beyond a frequently nested end-moraine complex (the most common) and (2) those in which a close-nested end moraine encompasses at least two glacial cycles. Both types formed within six distinctive glacial intervals: (1) A penultimate glacial cycle during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 and older glaciofluvial terraces occurred beyond the range of the luminescence dating method. (2) An early glacial advance in MIS 5d (~97 −15/+19 ka) was followed by glacial retreat during MIS 5c (< 91 ± 9 ka). (3) The last maximum ice extent (LMIE) was in early MIS 4 (~74 ± 4.5 ka). (4) Unexpectedly, glaciers thinned during the second half of MIS 3 (~39 −6/+11 ka). (5) During the MIS 3–2 transition, glaciers subsequently fluctuated behind the LMIE limits. (6) The global last glacial maximum (LGM) started as early as ~26.6 ± 0.365 ka b2k, and the corresponding end moraines were built behind the LMIE limits or merged with it, forming close-nested moraines.
We sought to determine whether an electronic hand hygiene (HH) system could monitor HH compliance at similar rates to direct human observation.
This 4-year proof-of-concept study was conducted in an intensive care unit (ICU) of a private tertiary-care hospital in São Paulo, Brazil, where electronic HH systems were installed in 2 rooms. HH compliance was reported respectively using direct observation and electronic counter devices with an infrared system for detecting HH opportunities.
In phase 1, HH compliance by human observers was 56.3% (564 of 1,001 opportunities), while HH compliance detected by the electronic observer was 51.0% (515 of 1,010 opportunities). In phase 2, human observers registered 484 HH opportunities with a HH compliance rate of 64.7% (313 of 484) versus 70.6% (346 of 490) simultaneously detected by the electronic system. In addition, an enhanced HH electronic system monitored activity 24 hours per day and HH compliance without the presence of a human observer was 40.3% (10,642 of 26,421 opportunities), providing evidence for the Hawthorne effect.
The electronic HH monitoring system had good correlation with human HH observation, but compliance was remarkably lower when human observers were not present due to the Hawthorne effect (25%–30% absolute difference). Electronic monitoring systems can replace direct observation and can markedly reduce the Hawthorne effect.
Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that requires long-term treatment with antipsychotics and the intramuscular (IM) long-acting injectable (LAI) formulations may enhance treatment adherence. Some antipsychotics have been associated with enuresis, including atypical antipsychotics such as risperidone(6.2%), quetiapine(6.7%), olanzapine (9.6% ) and clozapine (20.7%) . Although oral paliperidone has been related to urinary incontinence, there is only 1 report of urinary incontinence linked to monthly paliperidone palmitate .  Harrison-Woolrych, M., Skegg, K., Ashton, J., Herbison, P., Skegg, D.C., 2011. Nocturnal enuresis in patients taking clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine and quetiapine: comparative cohort study. British Journal of Psychiatry 199, 140–144. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.110.087478  Karslıoǧlu, E.H., Özalp, E., Çayköylü, A., 2016. Paliperidone Palmitate-induced Urinary Incontinence: A Case Report. Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience 14, 96–100. doi:10.9758/cpn.2016.14.1.96
To establish an association between paliperidone palmitate and enuresis.
Case report and a narrative review of the literature.
The patient was a 25-year-old healthy man when he was diagnosed with schizophrenia. Doctors prescribed paliperidone palmitate (LAI) 200mg monthly and he started to complain of enuresis. He was clearly suffering with this unpleasant and embarrassing adverse effect so the LAI was reduced to 150mg. Enuresis remained, so it was prescribed oxybutynin 20 mg/day and the patient improved.
We reported a case in which enuresis is likely to be associated with high-dose paliperidone LAI (with no clinical evidence of an organic cause). To treat it, the most effective strategy was oxybutynin 20 mg/day. This case is also important to show the impact of this symptom, which is not actively investigated.
Most hand hygiene (HH) intervention studies use a quasi-experimental design, are primarily uncontrolled before-and-after studies, or are controlled before-and-after studies with a nonequivalent control group. Well-funded studies with improved designs and HH interventions are needed.
To evaluate healthcare worker (HCW) HH compliance with alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) through direct observation (human observer), 2 electronic technologies, a radio frequency identification (RFID) badge system, and an invasive device sensor.
In our controlled experimental study, 2,269 observations were made over a 6-month period from July 1 to December 30, 2020, in a 4-bed intensive care unit. We compared HH compliance between a basic feedback loop system with RFID badges and an enhanced feedback loop system that utilized sensors on invasive devices.
Real-time feedback by wireless technology connected to a patient’s invasive device (enhanced feedback loop) resulted in a significant increase in HH compliance (69.5% in the enhanced group vs 59.1% in the basic group; P = .0001).
An enhanced feedback loop system connected to invasive devices, providing real-time alerts to HCWs, is effective in improving HH compliance.
To examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal (2-year follow-up) associations between dietary diversity (DD) and depressive symptoms.
An energy-adjusted dietary diversity score (DDS) was assessed using a validated FFQ and was categorised into quartiles (Q). The variety in each food group was classified into four categories of diversity (C). Depressive symptoms were assessed with Beck Depression Inventory-II (Beck II) questionnaire and depression cases defined as physician-diagnosed or Beck II >= 18. Linear and logistic regression models were used.
Spanish older adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS).
A total of 6625 adults aged 55–75 years from the PREDIMED-Plus study with overweight or obesity and MetS.
Total DDS was inversely and statistically significantly associated with depression in the cross-sectional analysis conducted; OR Q4 v. Q1 = 0·76 (95 % CI (0·64, 0·90)). This was driven by high diversity compared to low diversity (C3 v. C1) of vegetables (OR = 0·75, 95 % CI (0·57, 0·93)), cereals (OR = 0·72 (95 % CI (0·56, 0·94)) and proteins (OR = 0·27, 95 % CI (0·11, 0·62)). In the longitudinal analysis, there was no significant association between the baseline DDS and changes in depressive symptoms after 2 years of follow-up, except for DD in vegetables C4 v. C1 = (β = 0·70, 95 % CI (0·05, 1·35)).
According to our results, DD is inversely associated with depressive symptoms, but eating more diverse does not seem to reduce the risk of future depression. Additional longitudinal studies (with longer follow-up) are needed to confirm these findings.
Large, conglomerate caves in north-eastern Iberia have been significant places since the Neolithic through to historical times; however, their significance during the Palaeolithic has barely been explored. This project is the first systematic study of the use of these iconic geological landmarks among Pleistocene hunter-gatherers.
Upwards of half of transgender individuals in the United States will experience abuse by a romantic or sexual partner in their lifetimes ( James et al., 2016). This intimate partner violence (IPV) can include psychological (that is, verbal or controlling), physical, or sexual abuse, as well as antitransgender identity abuse (hereafter termed ‘identity abuse’) whereby the abuser leverages the survivor's transgender status as a means of control. Research on smaller transgender samples indicates that IPV victimization is associated with an increased risk of several adverse health conditions (AHCs), including but not limited to negative mental health effects, substance use, and poor physical health (for example, Messinger & Guadalupe-Diaz, 2020; Peitzmeier et al., 2020). However, research with more representative transgender samples is needed to verify these associations. Additionally, the transgender IPV literature has not examined the possible associations between the full range of IPV forms and AHC types, nor between IPV forms and the number of different AHC types experienced. Clarifying the connections between distinct IPV forms and AHC types will have important implications for transgender-specific screening protocols and service provision.
Through a secondary analysis of the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey (USTS) – the largest national sample of transgender individuals to date (N = 27,715; James et al., 2016) – the current paper elucidates the connection between IPV form and AHC type. Controlling for demographics, regressions assessed whether type of IPV (identity, controlling, physical, and sexual) each predict several AHCs – psychological distress, suicidal ideation, illicit drug use, prescription drug misuse, binge alcohol use, poor general health, and HIV positive status – as well as the number of different AHC types experienced.
Adverse health conditions (AHCs) and IPV victimization
Research on predominantly cisgender survivors has found IPV victimization to be associated with poor mental and physical health as well as alcohol and substance use, with scholars positing that these associations are a direct outcome of or coping mechanisms for IPV victimization (Carbone-Lopez et al., 2006; Devries et al., 2014; Cafferky et al., 2016). Although one may speculate that similar patterns exist for transgender survivors, IPV–AHC links may actually be weaker among transgender populations, where baseline rates of depression, suicidal ideation, and substance use are reported to be higher than for cisgender populations (Benotsch et al., 2013; Tebbe & Moradi, 2016).
This work aimed to investigate the effects of early progeny exposure to methylglyoxal (MG), programming for metabolic dysfunction and diabetes-like complications later in life. At delivery (PN1), the animals were separated into two groups: control group (CO), treated with saline, and MG group, treated with MG (20 mg/kg of BW; i.p.) during the first 2 weeks of the lactation period. In vivo experiments and tissue collection were done at PN90. Early MG exposure decreased body weight, adipose tissue, liver and kidney weight at adulthood. On the other hand, MG group showed increased relative food intake, blood fructosamine, blood insulin and HOMA-IR, which is correlated with insulin resistance. Besides, MG-treated animals presented dyslipidaemia, increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Likewise, MG group showed steatosis and perivascular fibrosis in the liver, pancreatic islet hypertrophy, increased glomerular area and pericapsular fibrosis, but reduced capsular space. This study shows that early postnatal exposure to MG induces oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis markers in pancreas, liver and kidney, which are related to metabolic dysfunction features. Thus, nutritional disruptors during lactation period may be an important risk factor for metabolic alterations at adulthood.
The burden of depression is increasing worldwide, specifically in older adults. Unhealthy dietary patterns may partly explain this phenomenon. In the Spanish PREDIMED-Plus study, we explored (1) the cross-sectional association between the adherence to the Prime Diet Quality Score (PDQS), an a priori-defined high-quality food pattern, and the prevalence of depressive symptoms at baseline (cross-sectional analysis) and (2) the prospective association of baseline PDQS with changes in depressive symptomatology after 2 years of follow-up. After exclusions, we assessed 6612 participants in the cross-sectional analysis and 5523 participants in the prospective analysis. An energy-adjusted high-quality dietary score (PDQS) was assessed using a validated FFQ. The cross-sectional association between PDQS and the prevalence of depression or presence of depressive symptoms and the prospective changes in depressive symptoms were evaluated through multivariable regression models (logistic and linear models and mixed linear-effects models). PDQS was inversely associated with depressive status in the cross-sectional analysis. Participants in the highest quintile of PDQS (Q5) showed a significantly reduced odds of depression prevalence as compared to participants in the lowest quartile of PDQS (Q1) (OR (95 %) CI = 0·82 (0·68, 0·98))). The baseline prevalence of depression decreased across PDQS quintiles (Pfor trend = 0·015). A statistically significant association between PDQS and changes in depressive symptoms after 2-years follow-up was found (β (95 %) CI = −0·67 z-score (–1·17, −0·18). A higher PDQS was cross-sectionally related to a lower depressive status. Nevertheless, the null finding in our prospective analysis raises the possibility of reverse causality. Further prospective investigation is required to ascertain the association between PDQS and changes in depressive symptoms along time.
To identify drugs that were administered off label to hospitalized patients with suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to identify adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and drug–drug interactions associated with these therapies.
This case–control study was conducted in a Brazilian hospital from March to April 2020 among patients with suspected COVID-19, comparing those with positive severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results and those with negative results.
The most commonly used medications in both groups were azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine. There was a significantly higher prevalence of reactions among patients with positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 (48.5% vs 28.8%; P = .008) in the propensity score–matched cohort, and the most commonly reported ADRs among these patients were diarrhea (43.8%), elevated liver enzymes (31.3%), and nausea and vomiting (29.7%).
Our data demonstrate that ADRs and drug–drug interactions are common with off-label treatments for COVID-19.
Accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment of tardive dyskinesia (TD) are imperative, as its symptoms can be highly disruptive to both patients and their caregivers. Misdiagnosis can lead to incorrect interventions with suboptimal or even deleterious results. To aid in the identification and differentiation of TD in the psychiatric practice setting, we review its clinical features and movement phenomenology, as well as those of other antipsychotic-induced movement disorders, with accompanying links to illustrative videos. Exposure to dopamine receptor blocking agents (DRBAs) such as antipsychotics or antiemetics is associated with a spectrum of movement disorders including TD. The differential diagnosis of TD is based on history of DRBA exposure, recent discontinuation or dose reduction of a DRBA, and movement phenomenology. Common diagnostic challenges are the abnormal behaviors and dyskinesias associated with advanced age or chronic mental illness, and other movement disorders associated with DRBA therapy, such as akathisia, parkinsonian tremor, and tremor related to use of mood stabilizing agents (eg, lithium, divalproex). Duration of exposure may help rule out acute drug-induced syndromes such as acute dystonia or acute/subacute akathisia. Another important consideration is the potential for TD to present together with other drug-induced movement disorders (eg, parkinsonism, parkinsonian tremor, and postural tremor from mood stabilizers) in the same patient, which can complicate both diagnosis and management. After documentation of the phenomenology, severity, and distribution of TD movements, treatment options should be reviewed with the patient and caregivers.
Equity and efficiency are crucial issues behind any tax reform, but they are particularly relevant in countries with high inequality and large shares of poverty. This paper provides a comprehensive socio-economic empirical assessment of Mexico's proposed (and partially implemented) tax reforms in the energy domain, and of a hypothetical partial removal of existing electricity subsidies. Using a rich household income and expenditure survey within the context of a demand system adjustment of non-durable goods, the article provides the public-revenue, environmental and distributional impacts from the simulation of different combinations of energy taxation, subsidy-removal and distributive offsets. The paper also provides detailed ex-ante evidence on the effects of compensatory devices that may contribute to the successful implementation of energy reform packages and significant poverty alleviation in Mexico.
Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder with undetermined neurobiological causes. Understanding the impact on brain anatomy of carrying genetic risk for the disorder will contribute to uncovering its neurobiological underpinnings.
To examine the effect of rare copy number variants (CNVs) associated with schizophrenia on brain cortical anatomy in a sample of unaffected participants from the UK Biobank.
We used regression analyses to compare cortical thickness and surface area (total and across gyri) between 120 unaffected carriers of rare CNVs associated with schizophrenia and 16 670 participants without any pathogenic CNV. A measure of cortical thickness and surface area covariance across gyri was also compared between groups.
Carrier status was associated with reduced surface area (β = −0.020 mm2, P < 0.001) and less robustly with increased cortical thickness (β = 0.015 mm, P = 0.035), and with increased covariance in thickness (carriers z = 0.31 v. non-carriers z = 0.22, P < 0.0005). Associations were mainly present in frontal and parietal areas and driven by a limited number of rare risk alleles included in our analyses (mainly 15q11.2 deletion for surface area and 16p13.11 duplication for thickness covariance).
Results for surface area conformed with previous clinical findings, supporting surface area reductions as an indicator of genetic liability for schizophrenia. Results for cortical thickness, though, argued against its validity as a potential risk marker. Increased structural thickness covariance across gyri also appears related to risk for schizophrenia. The heterogeneity found across the effects of rare risk alleles suggests potential different neurobiological gateways into schizophrenia's phenotype.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a devastating rare disease that affects individuals regardless of ethnicity, gender, and age. The first-approved disease-modifying therapy for SMA, nusinursen, was approved by Health Canada, as well as by American and European regulatory agencies following positive clinical trial outcomes. The trials were conducted in a narrow pediatric population defined by age, severity, and genotype. Broad approval of therapy necessitates close follow-up of potential rare adverse events and effectiveness in the larger real-world population.
The Canadian Neuromuscular Disease Registry (CNDR) undertook an iterative multi-stakeholder process to expand the existing SMA dataset to capture items relevant to patient outcomes in a post-marketing environment. The CNDR SMA expanded registry is a longitudinal, prospective, observational study of patients with SMA in Canada designed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of novel therapies and provide practical information unattainable in trials.
The consensus expanded dataset includes items that address therapy effectiveness and safety and is collected in a multicenter, prospective, observational study, including SMA patients regardless of therapeutic status. The expanded dataset is aligned with global datasets to facilitate collaboration. Additionally, consensus dataset development aimed to standardize appropriate outcome measures across the network and broader Canadian community. Prospective outcome studies, data use, and analyses are independent of the funding partner.
Prospective outcome data collected will provide results on safety and effectiveness in a post-therapy approval era. These data are essential to inform improvements in care and access to therapy for all SMA patients.