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Words’ morphemic structure and their orthographic representations vary across languages. How do bilingual experiences with structurally distinct languages influence children's morphological processes for word reading? Focusing on English literacy in monolinguals and bilinguals (N = 350, ages 5–9), we first revealed unique contributions of derivational (friend-li-est) and compound (girl-friend) morphology to early word reading. We then examined mechanisms of bilingual transfer in matched samples of Spanish–English and Chinese–English dual first language learners. Results revealed a principled cross-linguistic interaction between language group (Spanish vs. Chinese bilinguals) and type of morphological awareness. Specifically, bilinguals’ proficiency with the type of morphology that was less characteristic of their home language explained greater variance in their English literacy. These findings showcase the powerful effects of bilingualism on word reading processes in children who have similar reading proficiency but different language experiences, thereby advancing theoretical perspectives on literacy across diverse learners.
To evaluate the association of systolic blood pressure percentile, race, and body mass index with left ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiogram and echocardiogram to define populations at risk.
This is a retrospective cross-sectional study design utilising a data analytics tool (Tableau) combining electrocardiogram and echocardiogram databases from 2003 to 2020. Customized queries identified patients aged 2–18 years who had an outpatient electrocardiogram and echocardiogram on the same date with available systolic blood pressure and body measurements. Cases with CHD, cardiomyopathy, or arrhythmia diagnoses were excluded. Echocardiograms with left ventricle mass (indexed to height2.7) were included. The main outcome was left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiogram defined as Left ventricle mass index greater than the 95th percentile for age.
In a cohort of 13,539 patients, 6.7% of studies had left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiogram. Systolic blood pressure percentile >90% has a sensitivity of 35% and specificity of 82% for left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiogram. Left ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiogram was a poor predictor of left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiogram (9% sensitivity and 92% specificity). African American race (OR 1.31, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.56, p = 0.002), systolic blood pressure percentile >95% (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.34, 1.93, p < 0.001), and higher body mass index (OR = 7.22, 95% CI = 6.23, 8.36, p < 0.001) were independently associated with left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiogram.
African American race, obesity, and hypertension on outpatient blood pressure measurements are independent risk factors for left ventricular hypertrophy in children. Electrocardiogram has little utility in the screening for left ventricular hypertrophy.
We report the experimental results of the commissioning phase in the 10 PW laser beamline of the Shanghai Superintense Ultrafast Laser Facility (SULF). The peak power reaches 2.4 PW on target without the last amplifying during the experiment. The laser energy of 72 ± 9 J is directed to a focal spot of approximately 6 μm diameter (full width at half maximum) in 30 fs pulse duration, yielding a focused peak intensity around 2.0 × 1021 W/cm2. The first laser-proton acceleration experiment is performed using plain copper and plastic targets. High-energy proton beams with maximum cut-off energy up to 62.5 MeV are achieved using copper foils at the optimum target thickness of 4 μm via target normal sheath acceleration. For plastic targets of tens of nanometers thick, the proton cut-off energy is approximately 20 MeV, showing ring-like or filamented density distributions. These experimental results reflect the capabilities of the SULF-10 PW beamline, for example, both ultrahigh intensity and relatively good beam contrast. Further optimization for these key parameters is underway, where peak laser intensities of 1022–1023 W/cm2 are anticipated to support various experiments on extreme field physics.
Recent developments in the application life history theory to human development indicate two fundamental dimension of the early environment – harshness and unpredictability – are key regulators life history strategies. Few studies have examined the manner with which these dimensions influence development, though age at menarche (AAM) and age at first sexual intercourse have been proposed as possible mechanisms among women. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (N = 3,645) were used to examine direct and indirect effects of harshness (financial difficulties) and unpredictability (paternal transitions) on lifetime and past year sexual partners during adolescence and young adulthood. Genetic confounding was addressed using an AAM polygenic score (PGS) and potential gene-by-environment interactions were also evaluated using the PGS. Path model results showed only harshness was directly related to AAM. Harshness, unpredictability, and AAM were indirectly related to lifetime and past year sexual partner number via age at first sexual intercourse. The PGS did not account for any of the associations and no significant interactions were detected. Implications of these results for developmental models derived from life history theory are discussed as well as the role of PGSs in gene–environment interplay research.
This study aimed to investigate the association of nasal nitric oxide and olfactory function.
A cross-sectional study was performed in 117 adults, including 91 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and 26 healthy controls. Scores on the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcomes Test, Lund-Mackay scale and Lund-Kennedy scale were recorded to assess severity of disease. All participants were screened for common inhaled and food allergens. Nasal nitric oxide and fractional exhaled nitric oxide testing, acoustic rhinometry and anterior rhinomanometry testing were performed to measure nasal function. The validated Sniffin’ Sticks test battery was used to assess olfactory function.
Higher nasal nitric oxide was an independent protective factor for odour discrimination and odour threshold in participants with chronic rhinosinusitis after adjusting for age, gender, drinking, smoking, 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcomes Test, Lund-Mackay score, Lund-Kennedy score, immunoglobulin E and the second minimal cross-sectional area by acoustic rhinometry. Nasal nitric oxide also showed high discrimination in predicting impaired odour discrimination. In addition, nasal nitric oxide was lower in older participants, those with higher Lund-Mackay or Lund-Kennedy scores and higher with elevated total serum immunoglobulin E concentrations above a threshold of 0.35 kU/l.
Higher nasal nitric oxide is associated with better odour discrimination in chronic rhinosinusitis and is modulated by age, degree of allergy and severity of chronic rhinosinusitis.
In China, the indications of paliperidone extended in schizophrenia adolescents (12-17 years) was approved by National Medical Products Administration (NMPA) in 2017. But, the utilization of paliperidone in this group needs to be further investigated.
To assess paliperidone utilization in schizophrenia adolescents.
The study employed the electronic medical records (EMRs) database from a psychiatry specialized hospital (PH) and a general hospital (GH), respectively. General information, including birth date, gender, visit date, diagnosis (inpatient and outpatient) with ICD-10 coding, drug characterize, prescription date and dosage, was de-identified and standardized for analysis. Schizophrenia adolescents (ICD-10: F20.x) received at least one prescription of paliperidone between 2018 and 2019 were included in this study. Index date was defined as the date of first identified paliperidone prescription. The patients were followed up until the end of 2019 with the last record, or upon reaching 18 years. The database was analyzed based on days of supply, administration frequency, and daily dose.
Overall, 112 and 117 eligible patients were included in the present study from PH and GH, respectively. The median drug supply was 179.0 days and 44.0 days, respectively, during which median number of prescriptions patients received was 6.0 and 3.0. Paliperidone was mostly initiated alone (57.1% and 88.9%) with frequency of once daily (97.3% and 88.9%), and the median of average daily dose during follow-up was 5.7 mg/day and 6.0 mg/day, respectively.
The duration of paliperidone usage was very different in two hospitals, but the dosages in both hospitals were generally agreed with prescribing information.
Efficient photosynthesis requires a balance of ATP and NADPH production/consumption in chloroplasts, and the exportation of reducing equivalents from chloroplasts is important for balancing stromal ATP/NADPH ratio. Here, we showed that the overexpression of purple acid phosphatase 2 on the outer membranes of chloroplasts and mitochondria can streamline the production and consumption of reducing equivalents in these two organelles, respectively. A higher capacity of consumption of reducing equivalents in mitochondria can indirectly help chloroplasts to balance the ATP/NADPH ratio in stroma and recycle NADP+, the electron acceptors of the linear electron flow (LEF). A higher rate of ATP and NADPH production from the LEF, a higher capacity of carbon fixation by the Calvin–Benson–Bassham (CBB) cycle and a greater consumption of NADH in mitochondria enhance photosynthesis in the chloroplasts, ATP production in the mitochondria and sucrose synthesis in the cytosol and eventually boost plant growth and seed yields in the overexpression lines.
Case identification is an ongoing issue for the COVID-19 epidemic, in particular for outpatient care where physicians must decide which patients to prioritise for further testing. This paper reports tools to classify patients based on symptom profiles based on 236 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 positive cases and 564 controls, accounting for the time course of illness using generalised multivariate logistic regression. Significant symptoms included abdominal pain, cough, diarrhoea, fever, headache, muscle ache, runny nose, sore throat, temperature between 37.5 and 37.9 °C and temperature above 38 °C, but their importance varied by day of illness at assessment. With a high percentile threshold for specificity at 0.95, the baseline model had reasonable sensitivity at 0.67. To further evaluate accuracy of model predictions, leave-one-out cross-validation confirmed high classification accuracy with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.92. For the baseline model, sensitivity decreased to 0.56. External validation datasets reported similar result. Our study provides a tool to discern COVID-19 patients from controls using symptoms and day from illness onset with good predictive performance. It could be considered as a framework to complement laboratory testing in order to differentiate COVID-19 from other patients presenting with acute symptoms in outpatient care.
Olanzapine effectively treats schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder (BD-I); however, its use is hindered by significant weight gain. A combination of olanzapine and samidorphan (OLZ/SAM) is in development to provide the efficacy of olanzapine while mitigating olanzapine-associated weight gain through opioid-receptor blockade. Here, we summarize OLZ/SAM clinical data.
The OLZ/SAM development program consists of 18 phase 1–3 clinical studies evaluating antipsychotic and weight mitigation efficacy of OLZ/SAM, along with pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability. Safety evaluation also included metabolic laboratory assessments.
OLZ/SAM significantly improved psychotic symptoms (measured by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale); improvements were similar to that observed with olanzapine vs placebo. OLZ/SAM resulted in significantly less weight gain than olanzapine. Additionally, 2 long-term phase 3 extension studies confirmed the durability of antipsychotic effect, as well as stabilization of weight and metabolic parameters in those continuing treatment. Supporting the potential use of OLZ/SAM in BD-I, OLZ/SAM or olanzapine resulted in bioequivalent olanzapine plasma concentrations, and OLZ/SAM did not affect lithium or valproate pharmacokinetics. OLZ/SAM treatment had no clinically relevant effects on ECG parameters (including QTc interval). OLZ/SAM and olanzapine safety were similar, except for reduced weight gain with OLZ/SAM; no additional safety risks were identified.
Data across 18 OLZ/SAM studies in >1600 subjects support an antipsychotic efficacy and safety profile for OLZ/SAM that is similar to olanzapine, with significantly less weight gain than olanzapine. OLZ/SAM is a potential new treatment for schizophrenia and BD-I patients needing efficacious long-term treatment with reduced risk of weight gain.
Manure is a primary source of methane (CH4) emissions into the atmosphere. A large proportion of CH4 from manure is emitted during storage, but this varies with storage methods. In this research, we tested whether covering a manure heap with plastic reduces CH4 emission during a short-term composting process. A static chamber method was used to detect the CH4 emission rate and the change of the physicochemical properties of cattle manure which was stored either uncovered (treatment UNCOVERED) or covered with plastic (treatment COVERED) for 30-day periods during the four seasons? The dry matter content of the COVERED treatment was significantly less than the UNCOVERED treatment (P < 0.01), and the C/N ratio of the COVERED treatment significantly greater than the UNCOVERED treatment (P > 0.05) under high temperature. In the UNCOVERED treatment, average daily methane (CH4) emissions were in the order summer > spring > autumn > winter. CH4 emissions were positively correlated with the temperature (R2 = 0.52, P < 0.01). Compared to the UNCOVERED treatment, the daily average CH4 emission rates from COVERED treatment manure were less in the first 19 days of spring, 13 days of summer, 10 days of autumn and 30 days of winter. In summary, covering the manure pile with plastic reduces the evaporation of water during storage; and in winter, long-term covering with plastic film reduces the CH4 emissions during the storage of manure.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
Bordetella bronchiseptica is a potential zoonotic pathogen, which mainly causes respiratory diseases in humans and a variety of animal species. B. bronchiseptica is one of the important pathogens isolated from rabbits in Fujian Province. However, the knowledge of the epidemiology and characteristics of the B. bronchiseptica in rabbits in Fujian Province is largely unknown. In this study, 219 B. bronchiseptica isolates recovered from lung samples of dead rabbits with respiratory diseases in Fujian Province were characterised by multi-locus sequencing typing, screening virulence genes and testing antimicrobial susceptibility. The results showed that the 219 isolates were typed into 11 sequence types (STs) including five known STs (ST6, ST10, ST12, ST14 and ST33) and six new STs (ST88, ST89, ST90, ST91, ST92 and ST93) and the ST33 (30.14%, 66/219), ST14 (26.94%, 59/219) and ST12 (16.44%, 36/219) were the three most prevalent STs. Surprisingly, all the 219 isolates carried the five virulence genes (fhaB, prn, cyaA, dnt and bteA) in the polymerase chain reaction screening. Moreover, the isolates were resistant to cefixime, ceftizoxime, cefatriaxone and ampicillin at rates of 33.33%, 31.05%, 11.87% and 3.20%, respectively. This study showed the genetic diversity of B. bronchiseptica in rabbits in Fujian Province, and the colonisation of the human-associated ST12 strain in rabbits in Fujian Province. The results might be useful for monitoring the epidemic strains, developing preventive methods and preventing the transmission of epidemic strains from rabbits to humans.
Longan is an economically important sub-tropical fruit tree native to southern China and southeast Asia. Its production has been affected significantly by climate change, but the underlying reasons remain unclear. Herein, the potential growing areas of longan were simulated by the Maxent model under current and future conditions. The results showed excellent prediction performance, with an area under curve of >0.9 for model training and validation. The key environmental variables identified were mean temperature of the coldest quarter, minimum temperature of the coldest month, annual mean temperature and mean temperature of the driest quarter. The optimum suitable areas of longan were found to be concentrated mainly in south-western, southern and eastern China, with a slight increase in optimum suitable areas under two different emission scenarios of three global climatic models. However, its future potential growing areas were predicted to differ among provinces or cities. Suitable growing areas in Sichuan, Jiangxi, Guangxi and Chongqing will first increase and then remain approximately unchanged between the 2050s and 2070s; those in Yunnan, Guangdong and Hainan will remain approximately unchanged from the present to the 2070s; those in Fujian and Guizhou will fluctuate slightly from the present to the 2050s and then increase to the 2070s; those in Taiwan will first decrease and then increase. In summary, the major future production areas of longan will be Guangdong, Hainan and Guangxi provinces, followed by Chongqing, Yunnan, Fujian and Taiwan. Thus, this study serves as a useful guide for the management of longan.
Our research group demonstrated that vitamin A restriction affected meat quality of Angus cross and Simmental steers. Therefore, the aim of this study is to highlight the genotype variations in response to dietary vitamin A levels. Commercial Angus and Simmental steers (n = 32 per breed; initial BW = 337.2 ± 5.9 kg; ~8 months of age) were fed a low-vitamin A (LVA) (1017 IU/kg DM) backgrounding diet for 95 days to reduce hepatic vitamin A stores. During finishing, steers were randomly assigned to treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of genotype × dietary vitamin A concentration. The LVA treatment was a finishing diet with no supplemental vitamin A (723 IU vitamin A/kg DM); the control (CON) was the LVA diet plus supplementation with 2200 IU vitamin A/kg DM. Blood samples were collected at three time points throughout the study to analyze serum retinol concentration. At the completion of finishing, steers were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir. Meat characteristics assessed were intramuscular fat concentration, color, Warner-Bratzler shear force, cook loss and pH. Camera image analysis was used for determination of marbling, 12th rib back fat and longissimus muscle area (LMA). The LVA steers had lower (P < 0.001) serum retinol concentration than CON steers. The LVA treatment resulted in greater (P = 0.03) average daily gain than the CON treatment, 1.52 and 1.44 ± 0.03 kg/day, respectively; however, there was no effect of treatment on final BW, DM intake or feed efficiency. Cooking loss and yield grade were greater and LMA was smaller in LVA steers (P < 0.05). There was an interaction between breed and treatment for marbling score (P = 0.01) and percentage of carcasses grading United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Prime (P = 0.02). For Angus steers, LVA treatment resulted in a 16% greater marbling score than CON (683 and 570 ± 40, respectively) and 27% of LVA Angus steers graded USDA Prime compared with 0% for CON. Conversely, there was no difference in marbling score or USDA Quality Grades between LVA and CON for Simmental steers. In conclusion, feeding a LVA diet during finishing increased marbling in Angus but not in Simmental steers. Reducing the vitamin A level of finishing diets fed to cattle with a high propensity to marble, such as Angus, has the potential to increase economically important traits such as marbling and quality grade without negatively impacting gain : feed or yield grade.
Reducing dietary CP content is an effective approach to reduce animal nitrogen excretion and save protein feed resources. However, it is not clear how reducing dietary CP content affects the nutrient digestion and absorption in the gut of ruminants, therefore it is difficult to accurately determine how much reduction in dietary CP content is appropriate. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of reduced dietary CP content on N balance, intestinal nutrient digestion and absorption, and rumen microbiota in growing goats. To determine N balance, 18 growing wether goats (25.0 ± 0.5 kg) were randomly assigned to one of three diets: 13.0% (control), 11.5% and 10.0% CP. Another 18 growing wether goats (25.0 ± 0.5 kg) were surgically fitted with ruminal, proximate duodenal, and terminal ileal fistulae and were randomly assigned to one of the three diets to investigate intestinal amino acid (AA) absorption and rumen microbiota. The results showed that fecal and urinary N excretion of goats fed diets containing 11.5% and 10.0% CP were lower than those of goats fed the control diet (P < 0.05). When compared with goats fed the control diet, N retention was decreased and apparent N digestibility in the entire gastrointestinal tract was increased in goats fed the 10% CP diet (P < 0.05). When compared with goats fed the control diet, the duodenal flow of lysine, tryptophan and phenylalanine was decreased in goats fed the 11.5% CP diet (P < 0.05) and that of lysine, methionine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, leucine, glutamic acid, tyrosine, essential AAs (EAAs) and total AAs (TAAs) was decreased in goats fed the 10.0% CP diet (P < 0.05). When compared with goats fed the control diet, the apparent absorption of TAAs in the small intestine was increased in goats fed the 11.5% CP diet (P < 0.05) and that of isoleucine, serine, cysteine, EAAs, non-essential AAs, and TAAs in the small intestine was increased in goats fed the 10.0% CP diet (P < 0.05). When compared with goats fed the control diet, the relative richness of Bacteroidetes and Fibrobacteres was increased and that of Proteobacteria and Synergistetes was decreased in the rumen of goats fed a diet with 10.0% CP. In conclusion, reducing dietary CP content reduced N excretion and increased nutrient utilization by improving rumen fermentation, enhancing nutrient digestion and absorption, and altering rumen microbiota in growing goats.
Several studies have independently suggested that schizophrenia patients are more likely to have an enlarged cavum septum pellucidum (CSP). However, neither finding has been consistently replicated.
We recruited the relatively homogeneity population: treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS) and treatment resistant depression (TRD).To investigate whether CSP was present more frequently in TRS or TRD patients than controls and the difference of CSP morphological characteristic between groups.
1.5-Tesla MRI was used to evaluate the prevalence of CSP and morphology changes in 42 TRS, 45 TRD patients and 30 healthy controls. The CSP length, width and volume were measured using MRIcro and Analyze™ 8.1 software. A CSP equal to or greater than 6 mm in length was defined as big CSP.
TRS Patients had a significantly higher prevalence (6%) of the big CSP than TRD patients (0%) or controls (3.3%) while no significant difference on the prevalence of all CSP (TRS: 64.3%, TRD: 48.9%, controls: 50.0%) or small CSP between groups. Compared with controls or TRD patients, the values of CSP maximum width in patients with TRS were significant lower and CSP length were higher. There was no significant difference in the CSP volume between groups.
The incidence in Big CSP in TRS patients was higher than that of TRS patients or controls. The small CSP may be a kind of normal variant. There were different CSP developmental characteristics between TRS and TRD patients based on the MRI study.
The present study was designed to detect three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located on 22q11 that was thought as being of particularly importance for genetic research into schizophrenia. We recruited a total of 176 Chinese family trios of Han descent, consisting of mothers, fathers and affected offspring with schizophrenia for the genetic analysis. The transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) showed that of three SNPs, rs10314 in the 3′-untranslated region of the CLDN5 locus was associated with schizophrenia (χ2 = 4.75, P = 0.029). The other two SNPs, rs1548359 present in the CDC45L locus centromeric of rs10314 and rs739371 in the 5′-flanking region of the CLDN5 locus, did not show such an association. The global chi-square (χ2) test showed that the 3-SNP haplotype system was not associated with schizophrenia although the 1-df test for individual haplotypes showed that the rs1548359(C)-rs10314(G)-rs739371(C) haplotype was excessively non-transmitted (χ2 = 5.32, P = 0.02). Because the claudin proteins are a major component for barrier-forming tight junctions that could play a crucial role in response to changing natural, physiological and pathological conditions, the CLDN5 association with schizophrenia may be an important clue leading to look into a meeting point of genetic and environmental factors.
The relative effect of the atypical antipsychotic drugs and conventional agents on neurocognition in patients with early-stage schizophrenia has not been comprehensively determined.
The present study aimed to assess the cognitive effects of atypical and conventional antipsychotic drugs on neurocognition under naturalistic treatment conditions.
In a 12 months open-label, multicenter study, 698 patients with early-stage schizophrenia (< 5 years) were monotherapy with chlorpromazine, sulpiride, clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine or aripiprazole. Wechsler Memory Scale--Revised Visual Reproduction Test, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised Digit Symbol Test and Digit-span Task Test, Trail Making Tests Part A and Part B, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test were administered at baseline and 12 months follow-up evaluation. The primary outcome was change in a cognitive composite score after 12 months of treatment.
Compared with scores at baseline, the composite cognitive test scores and individual test scores had significant improvement for all seven treatment groups at 12-month follow-up evaluation (all p-values ≤ 0.013). However, olanzapine and quetiapine provided greater improvement than that provided by chlorpromazine and sulpiride in the composite score, processing speed and executive function (all p-values ≤ 0.045).
Both conventional and atypical antipsychotic medication long-term maintenance treatment can benefit congitive function in patients with early-stage schizophrenia, but olanzapine and quetiapine may be superior to chlorpromazine and sulpiride in improving some areas of neurocognitive function.
Despite strong evidence that the pathophysiology of tic disorders (TD) involves structural and functional disturbances of the basal ganglia, inconsistent findings from several TD imaging studies have supported contradictory conclusions.
To find brain structural differences between children with of TD and the health children and verify the pathogenesis hypothesis of that basal ganglia play an important role in this disorder.
The right handedness, first-episode TD children were chosen. Yale global tic severity scale (YGTSS) was used to assess the tic severity. MRI scan was performed on TD children and the controls. The volumes of caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus and total intracranial volume were measured on high resolution MR images. We compared the volumes, relative volumes and asymmetry index, AI between groups.
Totally 11 patients finished this study with two excluded for the unclear image caused by tic and 18 subjects (9 TD patients and 9 controls) were finally analyzed. The right globus pallidus is significantly larger in TD patients. The volumes of left caudate increased significantly in both TD patients and controls. There was no significant difference in asymmetry index between two groups, relative volumes did not correlate significantly with the severity of tic and the course of disease.
The right globus pallidus may be the primary pathological change of TD. Asymmetry indexes between the two groups are not significantly different. The relative volume of any structure of basal ganglia has no significant correlation with the severity of tic and the course of disease.